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IbaMiv ^(^k. 

Norman Taylor collection 









and F. W. BESLEY 

(Special Publication, Volume 111.) 

Baltimore, 1910 

» r 'J-' 


WM. BULLOCK CLARK, 1:»ikector. 


W. T. L. TALIAFEREO, . . . Seckf.tary and Tkeasukek. 


W]\r. PL ALEXANDER, Meteokologist. 


The Maryland Weather Service is conducted under the joint 
auspices of the institutions above mentioned, the central office being 
located at the Johns Hopkins L^niversity. 


To His Excellency, Austin L. Ckotiieks^ 

Governor of Maryland. 

Sir: I have the honor to present licrewitli the third volvune of 
the new series of rejDorts of the Maryland Weather Service. The 
hrst volume dealt in a general way with the broader physiographical 
and meteorological problems affecting the State at large. The second 
volume contained the results of a special study of the climate and 
weather of Baltimore and vicinity and is one of the most exhaustive 
reports of its kind that has ever been issued. The present volume 
embraces a disciission of the plant life of ilaryland and allied sub- 
jects, the interpretation of which is largely dependent on the physio- 
graphic and climatic conditions which characterize the State. I am, 

Very respectfully, 

Wii.LiAM Bullock Claek, 


Johns Hopkins University. 
Uecemher 1, 1909. 




PARTI. INTRODUCTION. By Forrest Shbeve 21 

Climatology .".O 

Temperature 31 

Humidity 41 

Rainfall 41 

Wind 43 

Topography 43 

Coastal Zone, Eastern Shore District 46 

Coastal Zone, Western Shore District 49 

Midland Zone, Lower Midland District 50 

Midland Zone, Upper Midland District 51 

Mountain Zone 52 

Shore-line Topography 53 

Mineralogy and Soils 51 

Coastal Zone, Eastern Shore District 59 

Coastal Zone, Western Shore District 59 

Midland Zone, Lower Midland District CD 

Midland Zone, Upper Midland District CO 

Mountain Zone (il 

Bibliography C2 


By Forrest Shreve 65 

Introductory C7 

The Coastal Zone 76 

The Strand 82 

The Salt Marshes 82 

The Pine Barrens 85 

The Midland Zone 88 

The Mountain Zone 89 

Cenekal Considerations 90 

Bibliography 94 




By Forrest SnuEVE, M. A. Chuy.sler. and Frederick H. Blodoetp. 99 



Introductory 101 

Upland Vegetation 109 

The Talbot Terrace 109 

Clay Upland 109 

Clay Upland Swamps 11- 

Sandy Loam Upland Forests Ill 

Sandy Loam Upland Swamps lit) 

The Wicomico Terrace US 

Upland Forests US 

Coniferous Upland Forest US 

Deciduous Upland Forest <■ 1 19 

Ravine Slopes :...• 121 

Flood Plains 122 

Upland Swamps 124 

Swamp Vegetation 124 

River Swamps 124 

Stream Swamps , * 127 

Marsh Vegetation 129 

Salt Marshes '■ ISl 

Fresh Marshes • 132 

Aquatic Vegetation 140 

Dune and Strand Vegetation • 142 

Conclusions 145 



Introductory ■ 149 

Topography and Soils 149 

Vegetation -•. 152 

Forests • ■■ • 152 

Upland Forests 152 

Pine Association „< 153 

Pine-Oak Association ? 157 

Oak-Hickory Association 158 

Maple-Gum Association IGO 



Lowland Forests 161 

Gum-Pine Association 161 

Oak-Gum Association 162 

River Swamps 162 

Cypress Swamps 165 

Succession 166 

Reforestation 170 

Marsiies 171 

Fresli Marsiies 171 

Potamogeton Zone 171 

Nymphaea Zone 172 

Pontederia Zone 172 

Zlzania Zone 172 

Typha Zone 173 

Alder Zone 173 

Maple Zone 173 

Salt Marshes 175 

Spartinia stricta Association 177 

Spartinia polystachya Association 178 

Scirpus olneyi Association 178 

Distichlis Association 179 

Iva-Baccharis-Panicum Association 179 

Typha Association 180 

Transition Areas 182 

Reclamation 184 

Peat Bogs 185 

Strand 186 

Plants of Cultivated Ground 189 

Roadside Vegetation 181) 

Ruderal Vegetation 191 

Weeds 192 

Burned Areas 193 

Relation of Vegetation to Soil 193 

Shreve 199 

Iktroductory 19:j 

Vegetation of the Loam 202 

Topland 202 

Soil-covered Slopes 207 

Rocky Slopes 209 

Flood Plains 210 


Vegetatiox of the Cecil Clay 212 

Toplaud 212 

Vegetation of the Serpextine Barrens 213 

Vegetation of the Susquehanna Gravet, 215 

Conclusions 218 

Blodgett 221 

Introductory 221 

Park's Ridge Area 221 

Vegetation of Hills 222 

Vegetation of Roadsides 224 

Vegetation of Valleys 224 

Cultivated Areas 226 

Drainage 226 

Upper Monocacy Valley • 228 

Bottoms 229 

Woodlots 231 

Blue Ruxie Area 231 

The Gentler Slopes 232 

The Steeper Slopes 233 

Thurmont 233 

Catoctin 235 

Point of Rocks 236 

Sugar Loaf Mountain 237 

Bog Pockets 238 

The Middletown Valley 240 

The Blue Ridge Axis 241 

Elk Ridge 242 

The Main Axis 245 

Roadsides 245 

Moist Areas 246 

Boulders 248 

Hagerstown Valley 250 

Cavetown 250 

The Valley Floor 250 

Conococheague Valley 251 

Williamsport 252 


North Mouxtaix 253 

Fairview 254 

Valleys 255 

Roadsides 257 

Shale Ridges 257 

Roundtop 258 

To.voLOWAY Ridge 261 

Sideling Valley 264 

Town Creek 265 

Cumberland Hills 26S 

Cumberland 269 

Wills Mountain 269 

Summary 270 

Parr's Ridge Area 270 

Frederick Valley 271 

Hagerstown Valley 272 

Sandstone Ridges 272 

Shale Ridges 273 

TAIN ZONE. By Forrest Shreve 275 

Introductory 275 

Slopes 27S 

Ridges 2S2 

Valleys 284 

Loams 284 

Sands 286 

Rocky Slopes 2S7 

Glades 2SS 

Swamps 289 

Bogs 290 

Conclusions 291 


POSSIBILITIES. By Forrest Shreve 295 


Frederick H. Blodgett 305 

Introductory 307 



Settlement 309 

Clearing and Cultivating 312 

Expansion 314 

Transportation 316 

Nationalities 321 

Influence of Soils 324 

Coastal Zone 326 

Midland Zone 328 

Mountain Zone 331 

Agricultural Products 333 

Grains 333 

Tobacco 337 

Truck Crops 338 

Canning Crops 340 

Fruits 341 

Forage Crops 344 

Dairying 349 

Farm Animals 350 

Rotation of Crops 351 

Agricultural Statistics 355 


Introductory 363 

Forest Regions of Maryland , 365 

The Coastal Plain 365 

The Eastern Shore 365 

Forest Products 366 

Southern Maryland 368 

Forest Products 369 

The Piedmont Plateau and Blue Ridge 370 

Forest Types 370 

The Allegheny Plateau 372 

The Use of the Forests 373 

The Future of the Forests 375 

Forest Resources of Maryland 37-j 


piLED BY Forrest Shreve 3S1 



Map of Maryland showing the Floristic Zones and Ecological 
Districts 21 

Pig. 1. — View showing depression in Clay Upland swamp, 
Isnardia at the left, Myriophylliim at the right and Dan- 
thonia in the background, near Castle Haven, Dorchester 
County 30 

Fig. 2. — View showing sandhills along Marshyhope Creek, 

near Federalsburg, Caroline County 30 

Fig. 1. — View showing pure stand of young Loblolly Pine 
reforesting sandy loam upland of Talbot Formation, near 
Wagram, Worcester County 46 

Fig. 2. — View showing flood plain along Marshyhope Creek 
with Loblolly Pine, Red Maple, Sour Gum, Sweet Gum, 
Green Ash and Magnolia, near Federalsburg, Caroline 
County 46 

Fig. 1. — View showing flood-plain forest along the upper 
waters of the Wicomico River, 4 miles north of Salisbury, 
Wicomico County 54 

Pig. 2. — View showing river swamp with a nearly pure stand 
of second growth Bald Cypress, Battle Creek, Calvert 
County 04 

Fig. 1. — View showing transition from marsh to river swamp 
on the Potomac River just above Rehobeth, Somerset 
County 70 

Fig. 2. — View showing niarginal zone of marsh vegetation 
along outer edge of river swamp with Rose Mallow, Wax 
myrtle, Magnolia, and Sagittaria, Pocomoke River, 2 miles 
below Pocomoke City, Worcester County 70 

Fig. 1. — ^View showing stream swamp along the Little Black- 
water River, 4 miles south of Cambridge, Dorchester 
County 78 

Fig. 2. — View showing fresh marsh lying behind brackish 
marsh and merging into sandy loam upland forest, near 
Greenbackville, Worcester County 78 

Fig. 1. — View showing flood-plain forest on the Wicomico 
Formation, Herring Run, Caroline County 102 

Fig. 2. — View showing stream swamp with Red Maple, Sweet 
Gum, Viburuntu, Peltandra, and Riccia, Little Blackwater 
River, Dorchester County 102 

Fig. 1. — View showing sand spit with dune and strand vegeta- 
tion mouth of Fairlee Creek, Kent County 110 


FAriNci i'A«ii: 
Fig. 2. — View showing tlie sand dunes along the Atlantic, 

near OCean City, Worcester County lid 

Pig. 1. — View showing a small sand dune fixed by a growth 

of sand reed, near Ocean City, Worcester County US 

Fig. 2. — View showing farming scene, near Leonardtown. 

St. Mary's County 118 

Fig. 1. — View showing erosion on west shore of Chesapeake 

Bay, near Fairhaven, Anne Arundel County 12G 

Pig. 2. — View showing character of Scrub Pine in open 

growth, near Cove Point', Calvert County 126 

Pig. 1. — ^View showing second growth of Loblolly Pine, St. 

Mary's County 134 

Fig. 2. — View showing second growth of Scrub Pine. St. 

Mary's County 134 

Fig. 1. — View showing Scrub Pine seeding an abandoned field, 

Calvert County 142 

Fig. 2. — View showing Loblolly Pine on the beach, near 

Piney Point, St. Mary's County 142 

Fig. 1. — View showing "atoll" appearance of communities of 

Yellow Water Lily, near Upper Marlboro, Prince George's 

County 150 

Fig. 2. — View showing a field of Tobacco in Charles County. . 150 
Fig. 1. — View showing reproduction of Loblolly Pine, St. 

Mary's County. .: 158 

Fig. 2. — View showing Reeds and Ragweed on the beach, 

Curtis Bay, Anne Arundel County 158 

Views showing the leaf anatomy of Spartina stricta var. 

maritima 166 

Fig. 1.— View showing the Peat Bog at Glenburnie, Anne 

Arundel County 174 

Fig. 2. — View showing marsh with salt meadow grass behind 

which is smooth marsh grass Chesapeake Beach, Calvert 

County 174 

Fig. 1. — View showing smooth marah grass forming a delta 

at the mouth of Mouldy Run, near Leonardtown, St. Mary's 

County 182 

Fig. 2. — View showing salt reed grass along Mcintosh Run, 

near Leonardtown, St. Mary's County 182 

Fig. 1. — View showing salt reed grass, Rose Mallow and 

swamp Milkweed on the border of a tidal stream, Chaptico, 

St. Mary's County 190 

Fig. 2. — View showing grape climbing over Locust trees, 

.Japanese Honeysuckle in the foreground, near Upper Marl- 
boro, Prince George's County 190 



XIX. Pig. 1. — View showing Scrub Pine and Blaclc Jack Oak on tbe 

Susquelianna Clay, near Bowie, Prince George's County... 20G 

Fig. 2. — View showing rocky slopes with pure stand of Hem- 
lock along the Patapsco River, near Northbranch, Balti- 
more County 206 

XX. Fig. 1. — View showing Serpentine Barren with Black Jack 

and Post Oak, Soldier's Delight, Baltimore County 214 

Fig. 2. — View showing the thin soil covering on the topland 
of the Serpentine Barrens with flowering clumps of Field 

Chickweed, Soldier's Delight, Baltimore County 214 

XXI. Fig. 1. — View showing edge of forest in the Serpentine 
Barrens with Black Jack Oak, Post Oak, and Scrub Pine, 
near Gaithersburg, Montgomery County 222 

Fig. 2. — View showing low undergrowth with ferns character- 
istic of moist humus soils in the upper Midland District, 

near Hancock, Washington County 222 

XXII. Fig. 1. — View showing forest typical of rich slopes with Oak, 
Tulip Tree, Yellow Locust, White Pine, Black Gum, and 
Hornbeam, near Clear Spring, Washington County 230 

Fig. 2. — View showing moist forest with undergrowth of 
Smilax, Osmunda, Habenaria, and Pogouia, near Wolfsville, 

Frederick County. 230 

XXIII. Fig. 1. — View showing upper Midland topography in the 

vicinity of Parr's Ridge, near Westminster, Carroll County. 238 

Pig. 2. — View showing vegetation cm the cut-over summit of 
Catoctin Mountain with Scrub Oak, Scrub Pine, Laurel, 

Baptisia, and Sweet fern 238 

XXIV. Fig. 1. — View showing roadside on upper slopes of Catoctin 
Mountain with Scrub Pine, Chestnut Oak, Laurel, and 
Sweet fern 24G 

Fig. 2. — View showing the Potomac River near Harper's 

Ferry with Dianthera along the bank 24G 

XXV. Fig. 1. — View showing the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal near 
Hancock and the character of the vegetation along the 
banks 254 

Fig. 2. — View showing forest characteristic of thin soils in 
the lower Blue Ridge with Black Jack Oak, Red Cedar, 

and Pitch Pine, near Dargan, Washington County 254 

XXVI. Fig. 1. — ^View showing a Rock River with Umbilicaria and 

other lichens, near Buena Vista, Frederick County 262 

Fig. 2. — View showing Talus Rocks in forest, near Fen Mar, 

Washington County 262 

XXVIl. Fig. 1. — View showing pure stand of Red Cedar near Conoco- 

cheague Creek, Broad Fording, Washington County 270 

Fig. 2. — View showing the western margin of the Hagers- 
town Valley, near Clear Spring, Washington County 270 



XXVIII. Fig. 1. — View sliowing vegetation on cut-over slopes witli 
tliin shale soil with Laurel and Seeding Pines near Han- 
cock, Washington County 278 

Fig. 2. — View showing roadside vegetation on shale soil with 
Sumac, Grape, Rubus, Lactuca, and Dicksonia, near Han- 
cock, Washington County 278 

XXIX. Fig. 1. — View showing stream with marginal growth of 
Yellow Locust, Walnut, Buttonwood, and Chestnut, Little 
Tonoloway Creek, Washington County 286 

Fig. 2. — View showing shale cliff with Wild Onion, Columbine, 
Woodsla, and Virginia Creeper, Williamsport, Washington 

County 28G 

XXX. Fig. 1. — -View showing shale outcrop with Asplenium and 

Aster, Sideling Hill, Washington County 290 

Fig. 2. — View showing the vegetation of the sandstone slopes 
of Tonoloway Ridge with Scrub Pine, Chestnut, Scrub Oak, 

and Sweet fern, near Hancock, Washington County 290 

XXXI. Fig. 1. — View showing forest border with Scrub Oak, Chin- 
quapin Oak, and Sweet feru, near Westminster, Carroll 
County 298 

Fig. 2. — View showing the common Polypody among sand- 
stone boulders, Wills Mountain, Allegany County 298 

XXXII. Fig. 1. — View showing the Upper Blue Ridge with Chestnut, 
Scrub Pine, and Black Jack Oak, Edgemont, Washington 
County 302 

Fig. 2. — View showing Scrub Pine reforesting abandoned 

fields, near Sideling Hill, Washington County 302 

XXXIII. Fig. 1. — View showing border of Slope Forest in Mountain 
Zone with Rhododendron, Witch Hazel, Hydrangea, Maple 
and Mountain Blackberry, near Elkhart, Allegany County.. 310 

Fig. 2. — View showing virgin Hemlock forest with under- 
growth of Mountain Laurel and Hobble Bush, near Boiling 
Spring, Garrett County 310 

XXXIV. Fig. 1. — View showing stream border in virgin Hemlock forest 

with Mountain Laurel, Rhododendron and Honeysuckle, 

near Boiling Spring, Garrett County 318 

Fig. 2. — View showing narrow flood-plain along stream in 
virgin Hemlock forest with American Yew, near Boiling 
Spring, Garrett County 318 

XXXV. Fig. 1. — View showing Glade and Swamp, foreground cleared, 

background with second growth forest of Black Spruce and 

Tamarack, near Thayerville, Garrett County 326 

Fig. 2. — View showing herbaceous vegetation in Slope forest 
with Dryopteris, Trillium, Disporum and Caulophyllum 
Great Backbone Mountain, near Swanton, Garrett County.. 326 


XXXVI. Fig. 1. — View sliowing forest of Hemlock, Pitch Pine, Ctiest- 

nut and Tulip Tree, Sideling Creek, Washington County. . . 342 
Fig. 2. — View showing sandstone boulders, Purple flowering 
Raspberry, and Tiarella near Swanton, Garrett County.... 342 
XXXVII. Fig. 1. — View showing the edge of second growth swamp 
forest with Black Spruce and Tamarack, near Thayerville, 

Garrett County 350 

Fig. 2.- — View showing second growth swamp forest with 
Black Spruce, Red Maple, and Rhododendron, near Finzell, 

Garrett County 350 

XXXVIII. Fig. 1. — ^View showing the Transition zone between swamp 

forest and upland with Bracken and Dwarf Cornel 36G 

Fig. 2. — View showing Largo Round-leaved Orchis and Dali- 
barda in virgin forest, near Boiling Spring, Garrett County. 366 
XXXIX. Fig. 1. — View showing forest fire, near Catonsville, Baltimore 

County 374 

Fig. 2. — View showing condition of a White Pine stand after 
lumbering and forest fires, near Thayerville, Garrett County 374 


1. Map of Maryland showing Stations from which Climatological Data 

are given 34 

2. Map of Maryland showing the Advent of Spring 40 

3. Map of Maryland showing Annual Precipitation in inches 41 

4. Map of Maryland showing the distribution of the Talbot and 

Wicomico formations 103 

0. Map of Maryland showing the distribution of Halophytic Vegetation 

in Chesapeake Bay and its estuaries 129 

6. Diagram of the Plant Growth near Probasco's Landing, Talbot 

County 139 

7. Diagram of the Plant growth on Castle Haven spit, Dorchester 

County 143 

8. Diagram of the Plant growth on Lloyds Creek spit, Kent County. . . . 144 

9. Map of Maryland showing the relative Valuation of Farm Buildings. 308 

10. Map of Maryland showing the relation of Annual Production of Corn. 334 

11. Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Wheat. 336 

12. Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of 

Tobacco 338 

13. Map of Maryland showing the acreage in Canning Crops 340 

14. Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Hay.. 348 

15. Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Milk.. 350 


The present volume is the third o£ a series of reports of tlie State 
Weather Sen-ice. The first volume was general in character and 
presented all that was then known regarding the i^hysiography and 
meteorology of the State. The second volume presented the result 
of many years of exhaustive study of the climate and weather of 
Baltimore and vicinity and is one of tlie most complete reports of its 
kind ever issued anywhere. The present volume treats of the plant 
life of Maryland and associated topics, subjects intimately associated 
with and largely deiiendent upon the physiographic and climatic 
conditions. Not only has the distribution of plant life been found 
to be dependent vij^on the climate and i^hysiography but also upon the 
agricultural soils which in turn find their ultimate interpretation in 
tlie underlying rocks from which they have been derived, thus bring- 
ing the work of the State Geological Survey and the State Weather 
Service into close association. Other lines of work suggested or 
inaugurated include a more detailed study of the swamp lands 
which are so intimately connected with the climatic conditions of 
the State, that their study, in part at least, falls within the province 
of the State Weather Service. The far reaching influenc-e of climate 
on the economic and social development of communities suggests 
investigations upon the relation of agricultural soils to physiogi-aphic 
and climatic features, and the bearing of climates upon health. 

A botanical survey of the State, especially with the view of deter- 
mining the relation of natural vegetation to ci'op possibilities was 
undertaken in 1904 as a part of the climatic studies of the Maryland 
Weather Service. This work has Ijeen in charge of Dr. Forrest 
Shreve, now a member of the staff of the Desert Botanical Laboratory 
of the Carnegie Institution. He has had associated with him in the 
work Dr. M. A. Chrysler, of tlie Maine Agricultural College, and 
Messrs. Frederick H. Blodgctt, W. Kalph Jones and Charles S. 

Acknowledgements for material assistance are due to the Jolms 
Hopkins University and to the Maryland Agricultural College, which 
are directly connected with the management of tJio State Weather 

Service, and to the State Geological Survey whieli is conducteil in 
such active cooperation with the Maryland Weather SeiTice in the 
investigation of the natural resources of the State. Aid has been 
rendered in the preparation of the present report by the officers of 
the U. S. ISTational Herbarium and various other national bureaus 
such as the U. S. Weather Bureau, the U. S. Geological Survey, and 
the Bureau of Soils of the U. S. Department of Agriculture which 
have continued to actively cooperate with the State bureaus. 

The Introduction to the present volume prepared by Forrest 
Shreve and constituting Part I, is devoted to a summaiy of the 
climatic factors of temperature, humidity, rainfall, and winds upon 
which plant growth depends; upon the topograpliy of the State and 
its relation to vegetation and upon mineralogy and soils of Maryland 
and their bearing upon plant gi'owth. 

The chapter on the Floristic Plant Geography of Maryland, which 
forms Part II of the volume has also been prepared by Forrest 
Shreve and embraces a discussion of the distribution of the Maryland 
Flora both inside and outside the State. 

The several chapters on the Ecological Plant Geography of Mary- 
land, forming Part III of the volume, have been prepared by Forrest 
Shreve, M. A. Chrysler, and Frederick H. Blodgett, the former 
discussing the Eastern Shore, the Lower Midland, and the Mountain 
districts while Mr. Chi-ysler describes the Western Shore District and 
Mr. Blodgett the Upper Midland District. 

The Relation of Natural Vegetation to Crop Possihilitics by 
Forrest Shreve forms Part IV of the volume and discusses features 
of much interest to the agTiculturalists of the State. 

Part V by Frederick H. Blodgett treats of the Agricultural 
Features of Maryland, and embraces a full discussion of the agricul- 
tural practise and the chief agricultural products of the State. 

The Forests and Their Products by F. W. Besley, the State 
Forester, forms Part VI of the volume and Part VII consists of an 
annotated List of Plaids Collected or Observed compiled by Forrest 

Mr. E. W. Berry of the State Geological Survey, has rendered 
efficient service in the publication of the present volume by editing 
the manuscripts presented and in supervising their passage through 
the press. 








Maryland, although ranking as the eighth smallest state of the 
Union, is so carved out as to comprise a diversity of natural conditions 
out of all proportion to its area. Its greatest length is some 320 
miles measured in an ESE-WNW direction. This axis is nearly 
at right angles to the general trend of "he Alleghany Mountains, of 
the various geological formations and of the "Fall-line." The state 
is thus, in effect, a narrow cross-section of the Coastal Plain, of the 
Piedmont Plateau and the Alleghany Kidges, extending from the 
ocean over into the drainage basin of the Mississippi Eiver. The 
elevations pass gradually from sea-level to 3,342 ft., near Table Rock 
in Garrett Coimty. While the north and south extent of the state is 
not great (250 miles at its greatest point), yet it lies between the 
North and the South and is a meeting ground for plants of northern 
and southern range. Together with differences of altitude and di'^- 
tance from the sea, go differences in climate in the eastern and 
western parts of the state, as well as striking differences in topog- 
raphy. The geological formations range from the most ancient 
granite and gneiss, through rocks of every age and great mineralog- 
ical diversity, down to the coastal deposits of recent times. Over- 
lying these varied rocks and deposits are a diversity of soils, which 
have been nowhere covered by glacial action, as in the neighboring 
states to the north. Through the middle of the coastal portion of 
Maryland stretches the Chesapeake Bay with its great system of 
estuaries, varying the topography, modifying the climatic conditions 
and bringing about constant changes in the distribution of plant 

All of the above mentioned features are such as tend to gi\'e variety 
to the plant life and to render interesting the study of the botanical 
features of even so small an area. The very fad of the existence of 


a large mass of data on the topography, geology, soils, climatology 
and other natural features of Maryland has rendered it a particularly 
favorable area for the prosecution of such work as is outlined in this 

The study of the plant life of a specified area, as a state or nation, 
falls naturally into two phases, one dominated by the view-point of 
systematic botany, the other by that of ecological or physiological 
botany. The first of these phases, Floristic Plant Geography, has to 
do with the geographical aspects of the completed work of systematic 
botany. That is to say, after the describing and listing of all species 
of plants found growing in the area, Floristic Plant Geography then 
endeavors to show what families and genera of plants are most abun- 
dantly represented in species, what are the relationships of the flora 
to that of neighboring areas, what are the probable sources and paths 
of migration of the species which have entered the area from without 
and what are the bounds of distribution of the species not found 
throughout the area. Such a study is concerned with individual 
plants only as they go to make up the collective representation of the 
species. All the plant species of an area considered collectively, and 
ivom the systematic view-point, constitute its flora. 

The physiological phase of the study of the plant life of particular 
areas, Ecological Plant Geography, is not at all concerned with the 
systematic relationships of plants, but rather with their form, 
structure and functions, and the relation which these bear to the 
phj'sical and organic environment of the individuals. Carrying out 
studies in the Physiological Plant Geography of a region demands a 
knowledge of the climate, geology, topograpliy and soils, and of the 
structural and functional characteristics of the jjlants themselves. It 
endeavors to answer the questions : what physiological types of plants 
are dominant in the region, in what manner are the plants associated 
together and how do these associations vary from place to place ; what 
are the influences of the mineralogical character or the texture of 
soils in determining the nature of the plant life, and what relation to 
topography, soil moisture, wind and other factors have to the dis- 
tribution of the different types of plants and plant associations ? All 
the plant individuals of an area considered collectively and from the 
physiological view-point constitute its vegefalion. To speak of the 


"flora of Maryland" is to speak of its plants considered from the 
systematic view-point as members of families, genera and species ; to 
speak of the "vegetation of Maryland" is to allnde to its plants from 
the physiological view-point as being trees, shrubs or herbs, as bein;;' 
aqnatic, pahistrine or terrestrial, as independent, saprophytic or 
])arasitic, as hygrophilons, xerophiloiis or snccnlent, and the like. 

There has not yet been made a complete enumeration of the plants 
of Maryland, and we cannot therefore enter on a detailed considera- 
tion of the Floristic Plant Geograpliy of the state. As much as may 
be said with the material now on hand forms the subject matter of 
Part II. of this volume. The flora of Maryland is that of tlio iliddle 
Atlantic states, — the greater number of its s}">ecies range beyond its 
borders northward to J^ew England and the ^Maritime Provinces, 
westward to Michigan and Missouri, or southward to the Carolinas 
and Georgia. The mountainous western part of the state has many 
species ranging northward, the coastal counties are rich in sjiecies 
ranging southward. This results in a marked difference in the flora 
of the momitain, midland and coastal parts of the state. Differences 
of flora are known to liave their basis ]iartly in the past history of 
plant distribution and migration, and jiartly in the present climatic 
conditions, of which temperature and rainfall are the chief. In 
Mai-yland the temperature differences between the Mountain and 
ilidland Zones may be held accountable for their floristic differences, 
but between the Midland and Coastal Zones other factors take pre- 
cedence in causing the distinctness, a matter which will be discussed 
in Part II. 

The principal subject matter of this volume is the Ecological Plant 
Geography of Maryland, which is here treated in its general descrip- 
tive i^hases. Maryland lies in the midst of a region in which the 
dominant vegetation is the deciduous forest, a type of plant life found 
to characterise all reginns in which there is an abundant rainfall 
well distribiited through the growing season, together with a cold or 
dry season lasting for a few months. Before settlement by Euro- 
peans the present area of Maryland was undoubtedly covered by con- 
tinuous forest. Only here and there were there restricted areas of 
marsh, bog or bare rock, in which local conditions hostile to tree 


gTOwtli offset the favorable climatic conditions of the region as a 

The forests of Maryland dift'er from jjlace to place in the tree 
species of which they are made up or in the relative proportion of the 
component species. Such differences are of two kinds, — (a) the dif- 
ference between forests in widely separated sections of the state, 
which are due to the occurrence of tree species in the one section 
which do not range into the other, and (b) the difference between 
forest growths which are near together but occupy situations which 
are different in soil, in the amount of soil water, etc. The first of 
these differences in types of forest is floristic and has its basis in 
those historical and climatic causes to which allusion has already 
been made ; the second is an ecological difference, and is due to local 
conditions only. A study of the forest types of an area so small as 
to have a uniform flora and climate, for example one of the counties 
of Maryland, brings out the importance of the aforesaid local condi- 
tions. Of these the most important is the water content of the soil, 
a feature which is of vital importance to the physiological processes 
of the plant. 

The soil-water is not alone the only source of water for terrestrial 
]ilants but is also the source of their mineral and nitrogenous food- 
substances. The aerial parts of plants are constantly losing water 
liy transpiration, a process analogous to evaporation but subject to 
control by the plant within certain limits. SiTch water-loss is met by 
the supplies of water derived by root-absorption from the soil-water. 
In order that a plant may maintain its turgidity and perform all its 
nutritive processes in a normal manner it is necessary that the 
amounts of water absorbed and transpired be nearly equal. The 
amount of transpiration exhibited by a plant is partly due to its 
specific characteristics of leaf size, leaf structTire, etc., partly to 
\'ariovis physiological controls exerted by the plant to a different de- 
gree at different times, and partly to the physical factors of the en- 
vironment, heat, humidity, light (as transformed to heat in the 
leaves) and wind. These atmospheric factors are much more uni- 
form over any county of Maryland than are the amounts of soil- 
water. The fact that all plants actually do maintain a balance 
between absorption and transpiration in the face of the uniformity of 


the atmospheric conditions and the wide differences in soil-water 
supply from habitat to habitat, goes to show that it is in the specific 
peculiarities of leaf size and leaf structure that we must look for the 
chief means for the maintenance of the balance. An abundant sup- 
ply of soil-water renders easy the maintenance of the balance and 
favors the occurrence of plants with broad thin leaves (hygrophytrs) , 
the scarcity of soil-water renders difficult the maintenance of the 
balance and conditions the occurrence of plants with small or leathery 
leaves and various peculiarities of anatomical structure (xerophytes). 
We thus see the fundamental importance of the amoimt of soil-water 
in determining the character of vegetation, and it is in turn depend- 
ent upon the physical texture of the soil and upon the topography. 

Not only is the amount of the soil-water of importance but also 
the character of its dissolved contents. The existence of a consider- 
able percentage of common salt in the water of salt marshes renders 
the existence there of ordinary plants an impossibility. It serves 
also to render absorption slight even in salt plants, because the salt 
is useless to the plant and cannot be got rid of, therefore accumula- 
ting in the tissues to an amount that is ultimately sufficient to be 
toxic. Although water is so abundant in salt marshes it is unavail- 
able to plants and they are thus subjected to difficulty in maintaining 
the balance between absorption and transpiration in much the same 
manner as are plants of dry habitats. In the upland too, there are 
lesser differences in the chemical character of the soil-water due to 
the nature of the rock from which the soil particles have been de- 
rived, and these differences are of some importance in determining 
the local distribution of plants. The gi-eat generality of rocks con- 
tain a variety of chemical elements, such that the soils derived from 
their disintegration yield all the inorganic substances necessary to 
the growth of plants. The soil-water, which is in s^ich intimate con- 
tact with the mineral particles of the soil, exerts a continuous solvent 
action upon these particles and thus brings into solution a variety of 
inorganic salts in amounts varying with their solubility. The com- 
poimds of silicon and aluminum, which make up such a large per- 
centage of the composition of granites, shales, schists, gneiss and other 
rocks, are highly insoluble and accordingly remain as the chief solid 
constituents of the soils derived from these rocks. Small percentages 


or even mere traces of salts of caleiiini, iiiagne.-;iuni, potassinui, 
sodium, sulphur and iron are also present in the above-named rocks. 
These elements are all of vital importance in plant nutrition and 
they commonly occur in the form of salts which are readily soluble. 
The supplies of dissolved salts in the soil-water are being continu- 
ously carried away through the washing, or leaching, of the soil by 
rainfall, so that it is possible for a soil to beconie ]ioor in a readily 
soluble salt wliieh is abundant in the rock from which tlie soil was 
originally derived. 

The soils derived from the rocks mentioned in the last ])aragraph 
are designated siliciotis, and they contain all the inorganic salts neces- 
sary to plant growi;h, without containing any of these in such large 
amounts as to be harmful or toxic, save in the case of soils derived 
from serpentine rock, of which more will be said later. The soils 
derived from limestone are so rich in calciinn as to be distinctive in 
their relation to plant nutrition, and are designated calcareous. The 
infliiences of silicious, serpentine and calcareoiis soils on the metab- 
olism as well as the distribution of plants will be noted at greater 
length on a subsequent page. 

It must be evident that those relations which the vegetation beai's 
to local factors of soil, topography and the like, are most clear only 
in areas which have not suffered modiiication by man. In vii-gin 
forests and undisturbed marshes the vegetation is of such a character 
that it will remain the same in its appearance and make-up from de- 
cade to decade, — that is to say it has reached a condition of stability 
which represents a nearly perfect balance between the life processes 
and the physical conditions under which it exists. Where extensive 
clearings exist and scarcely any areas of virgin forest remain, as is 
the case in Maryland, it is extremely diiEcult to reconstruct a jjicture 
(if the virgin vegetation, and equally difficult \i> draw wiiolly saiis- 
faetory conclusions as to the relation between natural vegetation 
and the physical conditions. Particularly is the character of the 
forests changed by clearing. This results in part from the selection 
by the lumberman of certain tree species and the leaving of others, in 
part fi'oni the altered conditions of soil due to clearing or to subse- 
(jTient fires, and yet again to the chance conditions which may de- 
torniiiic the re-seeding of an area. 


The only methods by which it is possible to obtain any notion of 
the relation of natural vegetation to soils and other conditions are to 
select for study areas which have long been undisturbed, and to dis- 
regard tlie occurrence of such plants as are tolerant of a wide diver- 
sity of conditions. To the last-named class belong the majority of 
our weeds, which indeed owe the fact of their being weeds to this 
very characteristic, together with their powers of seed production and 
dissemination. The pursuit of these methods over as large an area 
as an entire state renders it possible to draw at least some broader 
conclusions, which will be found throughout the following pages. 

Together witli the scientific aim of presenting a picture of the 
vegetation of Maryland and its distribution, the present work has 
been carried on with a view to discovering relations between the 
natural vegetation and the crop possibilities of definite areas. That 
such a relation might be expected to exist follows naturally from the 
fact that spontaneous vegetation and cultivated crops on the same 
soil in the same place are subject to identical climatic conditions and 
closely similar conditions of soil. That such a relation actually 
exists has been shown in a few well-marked cases. The tracing of 
relations between natural vegetation and cultivated crops is rendered 
extremely difficult by two sets of considerations. The first of these 
is the disturbance of the natural vegetation which has taken place, to 
which allusion has already been made. The second is the fact that 
the tillage, drainage, fertilization and other processes of treatment of 
cultivated land, may often go so far toward making a radical change 
of soil texture or of the water and food content of the soil as to insure 
the success of a crop to which the area was at first not adapted. The 
more marked the physical conditions of a habitat are, the more dog- 
matic may one be in interpreting its crop possibilities. The less 
marked are the conditions, that is the nearer they come to the opti- 
mum for the great generality of plants, the more difficult it is to draw 
conclusions of other than very general bearing. These matters are 
taken up more in detail in Part IV. 

The succeeding pages of the Introduction are devoted to a brief 
])resentation of those features of the Climatology, Topography, 
Mineralogy and Soils of Maryland which are of importance in de- 
termining the distribution of plant species and plant communities. 


All of these physical features of Maryland have lieen treated in de- 
tail in previous publications of the Maryland Weather Pervice, and 
in those of the Maryland Geological Survey and the United States 
Soil and Forestry Bureaus, to the most important of which publica- 
tions reference is made in the Bibliography at the close of the chapter. 
Part II. deals with the Floristic Plant Geography of the state, in 
which the three floristic zones, the Coastal, Midland and Mountain, 
are characterised, and their principal features discussed. (See 
Frontispiece. ) The succeeding chapters take up the Ecological Plant 
Geography of the five Ecological Districts of the state, into which the 
Floristic Zones have been subdivided. The Coastal Zone is sub- 
divided into the Eastern Shore District and the Western Shore Dis- 
trict, the portions of the Coastal Plain lying east and west of the 
Chesapeake Bay, respectively. The Midland Zone is subdivided into 
the Lower Midland District and the Upper Midland District, the 
boundary between them being Parr's llidge. In tlie Mountain Zone 
no subdivision has been made. 


Those various elements of temperature, rainfall, humidity, etc., 
which we designate collectively as the climate are of fundamental in- 
tluence on the vital processes of plants. In the study of the influence 
of each of these climatic elements, or environmental factors, on the 
physiological processes of plants they are found to possess minimum, 
optimum and maximum intensities. There is, for example, an 
optimum temperature for growth in each species which may not be 
the same as the optimum temperature for transpiration or photo- 
synthesis in the same species. Since, however, the separate pro- 
cesses of an individu.ll plant operate in harmony, there is a given 
temperature which is the physiological mean of the optimum 
temperatures of the separate processes, which is designated the 
ecological optimum. In the general consideration of the influence of 
climate on the vegetation of larger areas it is necessary to confine the 
attention to the ecological optimum. 

The climatic factors which are of the greatest importance in rela- 
tion to the vegetation are temperature and rainfall, the first of which 
is almost exactly uniform over areas of considerable extent, while 









the latter is inodifieJ in its influence by local differences of soil, 
topography, etc. The rainfall, for example, is practically uniform 
over the whole of Worcester County, yet the rain which falls iipon 
the dunes at Ocean City soon sinks to a level at which it is unobtain- 
able by the vegetation, while that which falls upon the clay soils in 
the interior of the county is retained in the surface layers. Im- 
portant to vegetation, but in a less degree, are humidity, sunshine, 
wind, fog and other elements of the climate. 

Temperature. — The most fundamental influence of temperature in 
an area is the excluding of all plants except those whose ecological 
optimum of temperature approaches the mean temperature of the 
growing season of the area. The native, introduced, and cultivated 
plants of Maryland find in its mean temperatures such as are more 
or less closely approximate to their optimum ; plants of the tropical 
and sub-tropical regions to the south are excluded from occurrence 
either by the direct fatal effect of freezing temperatures or by reason 
of the relative shortness of the growing season to their habits of 
growtli, flowering and setting seed. Plants of northern and arctic 
regions are excluded either by reason of the competition of the more 
accurately adapted plants, or, as has been suggested by Merriam*, 
by the harmful effect of the temperatures of a few weeks in the hot- 
test part of the siimmer. A most important end-effect of the 
temperature is, then, the determination of the character of the 
flora,- — rthere are certain strictly tropical families and genera, and 
others which occur solely or chiefly in the temperate or the arctic 
regions, a matter, however, into which the geological history of floras 
enters as an important consideration. 

A second influence of temperature is the regulation of the periodic 
]ihenomena of plants, — the date of germination for anniials or of 
leafing-out for perennials, the date of flowering, of the ripening of 
fruit or seed, the date of leaf -fall or death, etc. The annual curve of 
temperature for all regions lying within the iTorth Temperate Zone 
rises during the spring and summer months to a maximum and falls 
in the auiumn and winter to temperatiires which may be below those 

*Merriam, C. Hart, Laws of the Temperature Control of the Geographical 
Distribution of Terrestrial Animals and Plants, National Geographical Mag- 
azine, Vol. VI., 1S94, pp. 229-23S. 


reqnireil I)y plants. Tlip ;iniplitii<lc of the cin-ve varies from place 
to place, and the time dnring which it is below the ecological optimum 
for the majority of plants increases as we pass from the Tropic of 
Capricorn to the Arctic Circle, in other words the growing season 
decreases in length as we pass northward in the ISTorth Temperate 
Zone. The manner in which the length of the growing season affects 
plants i.^ different in different si^ecies. In snb-tropical Florida 
perennial plants maintain continued activity and herbaceous plants 
spring up and come to maturity without relation to the time of the 
year. Further north, in tlie latitwle of Maryland, some of the 
perennial plants, as our deciduous forest trees, become adjusted to 
the winter season through leaf-fall, while other perennial plants, as 
our pines and cedars, are permanently adjusted through the form 
and structure of their leaves to the unfavorable conditions of winter. 
The annual plants in this latitude are brought into unison so as to all 
germinate, grow and set seed during approximately the same months 
of the year. Still farther north, near to the Arctic Circle, the short- 
ness of the growing season gives the evergreen conifers an important 
place numerically among the woody perennials, while the herbaceous 
plants are either adjusted to the length of the season by rapidity of 
deA-elopment, or capable of Avithstanding arrest of development 
through a freezing temperature, and of continuing their development 
without backset on the return of spring. 

It is important to bear in mind that it is not the coldness of the 
winter which determines directl}' the habit of leaf-fall m deciduous 
trees, but that this phenomenon, which is equally observable in the 
trees of the tropics in different months of the year, is brought into 
unison in the temperate zones and prolonged through the existence in 
winter of conditions unfavorable to the absorption of soil-water by 
roots, — namely the frozen condition of the soil or its low tempera- 
ture. In the coniferous evergreens the balance between absorption 
and tran.s})iration is nuiintained during the winter through the form 
and structure of the leaves, not, however, without a consequent re- 
.'-triction of their capacity for activity during the favorable summer 
season. In the perennials of the temperate zone the low temperatui-es 
of winter are not fatal and the features of structure sometimes sup- 
posed to be protective against cold, — hairy or viscid winter buds. 


etc., — are merely protective against sudden changes of temperature, 
which are more injurious than the low temperature in itself. There 
are, nevertheless, many plants whose protoplasm is not capable of 
withstanding a temj^erature of 32°, or even a few degrees above this, 
except in the resting state of the seed, in which the water content of 
the protoplasm is low. 

Considerations regarding the length of the growing season and the 
effect of the annual march of temperature upon the growth and peri- 
odic phenomena of plants are of great theoretical and practical in- 
terest. The attempt has been made repeatedly to establish a definite 
mathematical relation between the stages in the annual march of 
temperature and the seasonal changes in the growth and periodic 
phenomena of plants. These attempts constitute the science of 
phenology, for the history of which the reader is referred to a recent 
publication by Professor Abbe*. The principal attempt of phenology' 
has been to show that the same plant species reaches the same stage 
of development or exhibits the same periodic phenomena in different 
locations, or in different years at the same location, when it has re- 
ceived a particular total amount of heat, or a particular proportion 
of the total heat of the growing season. This attempt has been beset 
with manj' difficulties, as are all attempts to establish biological laws 
on a priori grounds. On the side of the temperatures it is necessary 
to establish an arbitrary starting point from which to begin the ad- 
dition of the number of degrees ; it is necessary to use the degrees of 
temperature as observed in the shade or else to secure insolation 
temperatures, which cannot be reliably measiired ; it is necessary to 
ignore the fact that some of the light rays falling upon the foliage are 
converted into heat which is available to the plant. On the side of 
the plant it is necessary to ignore the physiological difference between 
the germination of annuals and the leafing-out of perennials; it is 
necessar}- to ignore the fact that a given ten degrees of the thermo- 
nietrical scale are not physiologically equivalent to any other ten 
degrees above or below these ; and above all it is necessary to ignore 
the fact of the influence upon the plant of many other external factors 

*Abbe. Cleveland. A First Report on the Relations between Climates and 
Crops, Bulletin 36, United States Weather Bureau, Washington, 1905. 



which may accelerate or retard the effect of a given number of degrees 
of total heat. 

Various attempts have been made to re-adjust phenological theory 
to fit the facts, as for example, the proposal of Quetelet to take for 
comparison the squares of the sums of temperatures, and that of von 
Oettingen to consider the proper temperature for the starting point 
for the addition of degrees to be that which gives results that best 
serve to make observations on the plant concordant with theory. In 
spite of the futility of the formal aim of phenology there is the high- 

FiG. 1. — Map of Maryland Showing Stations from which Climatological 
Data Are Given. 

est importance to he attached to the duration of the growing season 
for plants and to the character of the annual curve of temperature 
both as respects the duration of the highest temperature of summer 
and the lowness of the minimum temperatures of winter. 

It is only in a general study of the relations of temperature to the 
character of the flora and the march of periodic phenomena in areas 
of considerable size that any value attaches to the comparison of 
annual or monthly means, seasonal or monthly mean maximum and 
minimiim or daily ranges. Owing to the geographical position of 
Maryland and the increasing altitudes encountered in passing from 
the coast to the westernmost county there are differences in the cli- 
mate as respects temperature which are of importance to vegetation. 


The climatology of Marvlaiul has received exhaustive treatment iu 
the first two volumes of the publications of the Maryland Weather 
Service and in the County Reports of the Maryland Geological Sur- 
vey. For all detailed information as to the climatology of the state 
the reader is referred to these publications. It is my purpose here to 
set forth only a few of the most general features of climatology wliicli 
are of direct importance to vegetation. 

For piirposes of comparison of the temperature and rainfall of 
the different sections of the state I have secured data covering the 
eleven years from 1893 to 1903 for seven places about equidistant 
from each other along the longest axis of the state. These stations 
which may be located by the accompanying map are as follows: 

station County Zoue 

Sunnyside Garrett .Mountain 

Boettcherville Allegany Midland 

Green Spring Furnace. . . . Washington Midland 

Frederick Frederick Midland 

Baltimore Midland 

Fasten Talbot Coastal 

Pocoraoke City Worcester Coastal 

Temperature. — Following are the Temperature Data : 
Mean Monthly and Annual Temperatures, 1893-1903. 

Rnpttpiipv Green Pocii- 

Sunuysitle. Ini" SprlnjLf Frederick. Baltimore. Eastou. moke 

^i"e. Furnace. City. 

Jan 2C.3 29.5 30.8 31.1 33.2 33.2 38.1 

Feb 23.6 29.3 30.1 31.3 32.9 33.2 36.2 

Mar 37.0 41.4 42.0 43.1 43.7 44.6 47.8 

Apr 45.4 51.5 51.6 52.9 53.3 53.1 54.8 

May 57.2 63.4 63.5 64.0 64.2 63.7 65.2 

June C4.0 70.9 70.9 71.8 72.3 71.2 73.2 

July.... 68.3 74.8 75.8 77.1 77.7 77.0 78.5 

Aug 66.3 72.4 73.8 74.6 75.5 75.1 76.6 

Sept. ...60.9 66.1 67.3 08.3 69.3 69.4 71.0 

Oct 49.5 53.9 54.2 56.3 57.6 57.6 60.9 

Xov 38.0 42.7 43.4 44.9 46.4 46.1 51.5 

Dec 28.9 32.9 32.5 34.8 36.8 36.7 41.7 

Year 47.1 52.4 53.0 54.2 55.2 55.1 58.0 


















Monthly and Annual Mean Maximum Tejipeeatuees^ 












Jan. . . 









33 3 







Mar. . . 




Apr. .. 


May . . 








June . . 








Jnlv .. 








Ang. .. 











Sept. . . 


Oct. . . 








Nov. . . 








Dec. . . 


Year . . 








Monthly and Annual Mean Minimum Temperatures, 











Jan. . 








Feb. . 




Og 2 




Mar. . 

. . .26.2 







Apr. . 








May . 








June . 

. . .51.0 







July . 

. . .56.3 







An- . 








Sept. . 








Oct. . 








Xov. . 

. . .28.0 







Dec. . 

. . .19.0 







Year . 









MoxTiiEY AND AxxuAi. Meax Daily Eaxge OV 
Temperature, 1893-1903. 

















































2 8.. 5 





































Jan 17.0 

Feb 19.1 

Mar 21.4 

Apr 22.5 

May 20.5 

June . . . .25.2 
,liily .. ..24.1 

Ang 26.2 

Sept. . . .27.1 

Oct 27.5 

Xov 20.7 

Dec 18.7 

Year . . .23.0 

A coiapari.son of the mean annual temperatures for Sunnvside 
(47.1°) and Pocomoke City (58.0°) shows a difference of 11° be- 
tween these most widely separated stations. That the difference be- 
tween the means for Snnnyside and Boettcherville (5.3°) is greater 
than that between any other two stations is to be attributed to the 
greater difference of altitude and to the influence of the main ridge 
of the Alleghanies wpon the prevailing north-west winds of the winter 
months. The difference in the mean temj^erature between Green 
Spring Furnace and Fasten is only 2°. The difference of 3° between 
Easton and Pocomoke City is to be attributed to the nearness of the 
latter station to the ocean, as M'ell as to the presence of a large body 
of water to the west of it, and to its more southerly location. 

The annual mean maxima exhibit about the same relation as do 
the annual means, — that is the differences between Snnnyside and 
Pjoettcherville (7.8°) and between Easton and Pocomoke City (2.7°) 
are greater than the entire difference between Boettcherville and 
Easton (1.9°). The difference between the annual mean minima of 
Snnnyside and Pocomoke City is 13.1°, as contrasted with a differ- 
ence of 8.0 between their mean maxima, indicatin<r a "rcater dift'er- 


entiation of winter than of summer climate in the state. The data 
showing the mean daily range of temperature indicate a maximum of 
26.2° for Boettcherville, ranges which are nearly the same for Sunny- 
side and Green Spring Furnace, and appreciably lower ranges for the 
other four stations, with a minimum of 10.1° for Baltimore. 

The length of the growing season is a datum which must be de- 
termined for each plant species in order to have physiological value, 
owing to the specific differences of plants as respects the temperature 
which serves to awaken them to activity in the spring and to cause 
them to die or to resume winter dormancy in the autumn. For the 
purposes of Floristic Plant Geography we may, however, very well 
contrast the ditlerences in length of growing season in the different 
parts of Maryland by ascertaining the number of days falling be- 
tweeen the last vernal and first autumnal occurrence of certain low 
temperatures. The freezing point is the temperature which is of the 
most uniform influence in the demarcation of the growing season, 
pai'ticularly upon its termination, for it is only by the occurrence of 
lieavy frosts that the foliage of deciduous trees ceases to be fimctional 
and annual plants die. As respects the commencement of the grow- 
ing season the last occurrence of a minimum temperature of 32° is 
not equally significant, for many plants begin activity before the date 
of its occurrence and many others not until after. For the purpose 
of estimating the length of the growing season in different parts 
of Maryland two sets of data have been secured, — the first show- 
ing the number of days between the last occurrence of 32° in the 
spring and its first occurrence in the autumn, the second showing the 
number of days between the last and first occurrence of 40°, a tem- 
perature arbitrarily chosen as being about that at which light frost 
may occur, and above which most plants of the native flora may be at 
least somewhat active. 




Date or Last JMinimum Tempekatuke of 32° in Spring; axd of 
First Minimum Temperature of 32° in Autumn. in Spring. First in Autiuuu. Lenjftli of 

(Average Date) (Average Date) Interval 

1893-1903. 18!i3-ia03. in Days. 

Suunyside, May 16th, Septemiber 15tli, 122 

Boettcherville, April 26tli, October 4tli, 161 

Green Spring Furnace, April 20th, October 12tb, 175 

Frederick, April 10th, October 25th, 198 

Baltimore, April 4th, November lith, 224 

Easton, April 10th, November 2nd, 206 

Pocomoke City, April 16th, November 7th, 205 

Date of Last Minimum Temperature of 40° in Spring ; and or 
First Minimum Temperature of 40° in Autumn. 

Last in Spring. 

(Average Date) 


First in Autumn. 

(Average Date) 


Leiigtii of 
in Days. 


July 5th, 

August 31st, 



May 27th, 

September 15 th, 


Green Spring Furnace, 

May 18th, 

September 24th, 



May 2nd, 

October 3rd, 



April 24th, 

October 16th, 



May 10th, 

October 8 th, 


Pocomoke City, 

April 25th, 

October 14th, 

172 , 

These fignires show a marked contrast between the extreme sta- 
tions in Garrett and Worcester counties, a difference of 83 days in 
the first case and 115 days in the second,- — a mean difference of 
ihree months. That the figures show Baltimore to have a longer 
growing season than Easton or Pocomoke City is contrary to the 
evidence of the vegetation as repeatedly observed by the writer, and 
is doubtless due to the instruments at the Baltimore station being 
exposed in the midst of a large city. It is particularly noticeable 
that in the case of Pocomoke City the average date of the last occur- 
rence of 40° is only 9 days after the average date of the last occur- 
rence of 32°, while for Sunnyside the former date comes 50 days 
after the latter. This indicates a rapid oncoming of spring at Poco- 
moke City, with warm nights, and a long persistence of cool nights 



at Sunnyside. In the autumn, however, the average first occur- 
rence of 32° at Sunnyside follows more rapidly on that of 40° (16 
days) than it does at Pocomoke City (24 days). 

In the tirst volume of the Publications of the Maryland Weather 
Service (p. 487) is given a map showing the date of the advent of 
spring throughout the state, which is reproduced herewith. The 
isochronals on this map indicate the average date of the permanent 
occurrence of a daily mean temperature of 44°. This temperatm-e 
was taken by Mr. Walz, following Professor Harrington, on the as- 

FiG. 2. — Map of Maryland Showing the Advent of Spring. 

sumption of Ilcrve Magnon" based on a study of cereals, that plant 
protoplasm is inactive below a temperature of 42.8° Fahr. While 
there arc many plants in the Maryland flora which would not be 
wakened to activity by a temperature one degree above 43° and very 
many others which would be wakened by temjieratures lower than 
this, yet the isochronals for 44° may serve very well to indicate the 
character and rate of advance of other daily mean temperatures as 

•Herve Magnon, Des Conditions climatologiques des annees 1869-1879 en 
Normandie. et leiir influence sur la maturation des racoltes. Comptes 
Rendus, Vol. 89, 1879. 



well. Mr. Walz's map shows a difference of 39 days in the date of 
the advent of spring at Pocomoke City and Sunnyside, as con- 
trasted with the difference of 30 days in the date of the last occur- 
rence of 32°, and Yl days in the date of the last occurrence of 40°. 
While the difference between the date of arrival of spring at the 
extreme end of the state which is indicated in this map is approxi- 
mately correct, the actual dates given are about 10 days too early, 
so far as concerns the greatest mass of unfolding of foliage in de- 
ciduous trees. 

Humidify. — Data on atmospheric humidity are available only for 

Fig. 3. — Map of Maryland Showing Annual Precipitation in Inches. 

Baltimore, and woidd probably be found to differ for the other sta- 
tions in very nearly the same proportion as does the rainfall. The 
data for Ealtimore from 1893 to 1903 are as follows: 

January, 68.3; February, G6.0 ; March, 66.8; April, 60.0; May, 
65.1; June, 68.0; July, 67.1; August, 69.0; September, 70.4; 
October, 67.7; Xovember, 66.3; December, 67.6; Year, 66.86%. 

Ealn-fall. — The uniformly favorable conditions of rain-fall 
throughout the state for the development of the highest types of 
plant-life make a comparison of the rain-fall data for the different 
stations selected of less importance than in the case of temperature. 



For the sake, however, of showing the absolute amounts of rain-fall 
and the number of rainy days these data are here given : 

Monthly and Annual Precipitation, 1893- 
(In inches.) 



Jan. . 

Feb. . 

May , 

July . 
Oct. . 
Ifov. . 
Dec. . 

Year , 










55.12 36.27 35.71 41.43 40.47 41.35 39.44 

Average Number of Rainy Days, 1893-1903. 
(0.01 inch or more.) 



Jan 17 

Feb 17 

March 17 

April 14 

May 14 

June 13 

J"b- 13 

August 11 

Sept 9 

Oct 9 

Nov 13 

Dec 15 

Year 162 


Spriuj? FreiU'iiclc. Baltimore. Fastoii, 




















































]yind. — Data on wind velocity are also available only for the Bal- 
timore station, which may be well taken as representative of the con- 
ditions as resi>ects this factor for the entire state. The following 
figures show the total daily wind movement (miles per day) for the 
different months of the year, being based on the records of the 30 
years from 1873 to 1902 : 

January, 145; February, 162; March, 175; April, 16G; May, 
149; June, 142; July, 134; August, 122; September, 129; October, 
1 37 ; November, 143 ; December, 142 ; Year, 145. 

The most important influence of wind on vegetation lies in its ac- 
celeration of the rate of transpiration. This is an influence which is 
exerted upon all the plants of a given region, particularly those 
which are dominant in the various formations as contrasted with the 
sheltered subordinate vegetation. As a differential factor influ- 
encing the occurrence or exclusion of species the wind operates power- 
fully in situations where the soil moisture content is not high, as on 
the dunes and on rocky cliffs. Wind influences vegetation in quite 
another manner, in serving as one of the principal agencies in the 
distribution of small and buoyant seeds. 


The topography of an area exerts an influence upon the character 
and local distribution of plant-life chiefly through its determination 
of the amount and character of the soil-water, to a less degree through 
its determination of exposure to insolation and wind. In upland 
localities away from the influence of streams the water table, or 
gi'ound water level, is primarily determined by the elevation of the 
spot under consideration with respect to its immediate surroundings. 
In isolated gravel hills, s\ich as Egg Hill or Foys Hill in Cecil 
County, the water table is deepest at the summit of the hill but ap- 
proaches the surface as we descend, and at the base actually reaches 
the surface in the form of saturated areas of soil or running springs. 
It is, however, only in hills of homogeneous materials that such a 
simple condition exists. In hills bearing rock and merely a surface 
covering of soil the conditions of ground water movement and supply 
may be complicated in varioi* ways through differences in the per- 


meability of the rock to water and through its inclination or dip. A 
highly important factor in determining the Avater content of soils is 
their physical texture, for this determines both their capacity to re- 
tain water which falls upon them as rain and to lift water by capil- 
larity from the region of the ground water level. Coarse gravels and 
sands retain but a small percentage of the water which falls upon 
them while a high percentage is held by such soils as the clays and 
finer loams. Not only are clays and other tine soils capable of 
retaining water but also of lifting it by capillarity from lower levels 
as it is removed from the surface by evaporation or plant absorption. 
Gravels and coarse sands are incapable of thus lifting water by capil- 
larity from the lower levels of the soil. The water table is not then 
of such great importance to plant-life in itself as it is in its office as a 
reservoir from Avhich water may be supplied to the upper layers of 
the soil. The roots of upland plants are distributed through the soil 
chiefly in the region above the water table, where water is secured by 
the root hairs from the capillary films which surround the solid 
particles of the soil. Indeed, below the water table the soil is in a 
condition of saturation, which is hostile to the activity of the roots of 
u]il:nid plants through the exclusion of the air. In the beds of 
small valleys the water table often approaches the surface, being sup- 
jilied l)y the movement of the soil-water from the neighboring hills, 
and in this manner springs arise and streams are fed. Along streams 
the lioighi of the water table will depend upon the elevation of the 
banks. If these are low the earth immediately adjacent to the 
stream may be kept in a saturated condition or at least more moist 
than elsewhere. Percolation of stream water into the adjacent soil 
will account for the occurrence of trees along the streams of the semi- 
arid jilains of western Kansas and Nebraska, where the soil moisture 
is elsewhere so low, because of the low rain-fall, as not to support 
tree grov,th. Broad level stretches adjoining streams may be so 
nearly of the same level with the stream as to be inundated at the 
time of high tides or freshets. Such levels are built up gradually bv 
the deposition of silt at the time of their inundation. The soils of 
these flood plains may be of varying degrees of water content accord- 
ing to their elevation and the frequency of their inundation, but com- 
monly vary from high percentages of water to saturation. 


We thus see that the topographic features of an area, taken 
together with the j^hysical character of its soils, determine the vary- 
ing amounts of water available to plants for absorption over such 
small areas as possess uniform conditions of temperature, light, at- 
mospheric humidity and wind. The discrepancy which exists be- 
tween th(> uniformity of the atmospheric conditions to which the 
aerial parts of all the plants of a given locality of such size as a 
county are subjected, and the diversity of the soil conditions over the 
same area, differing with topography, is at the basis of the differences 
in vegetation which are so manifest between nearby ai-eas of different 
topographic character. 

The science of physiograpiiy has for its subject matter not only 
the description of jiresent topography but the study of the changes 
now going on in the topography. Such study enables the physi- 
ographer to unravel the past history of topographic features and to 
predict their fate. To the student of plant-life the most impoi'tant 
phase of pliysiography is the relation of present topography to the 
physical conditions of the soil. However, it is seen to be true that 
the relation of vegetation to topography persists throughout changes 
which take place in the history of topographic features. It there- 
fore follows that the vegetation of different topographic situations 
undergoes slow changes parallel to those in the topography and de- 
pendent upon them. In its relation to Ecological Plant Geography 
physiograpiiy is a study of the progressive changes in plant habitats, 
and is therefore of fundamental importance in interpreting the 
present changes in plant associations due to changing conditions, and 
in tracing the immediate past and future history of plant habitats.* 
The constant changes of topography ^\•hich physiography recognises 
are distinguishable first as those which are operative in reducing 
the land masses of the earth toward sea-level, and second those 
which are tending to straighten the shore-line of the sea and its 
arms. liainfall and stream action are the principal agents in the 
carrying on of the first of these processes, waves and along-shore 
currents the second; the first tend in their action toward a vertical 

*Cowles, H. C, The Physiographic Ecology of Chicago and Vicinity; a 
study of the Origin, Development and Classification of Plant Societies. 
Botanical Gazette, Vol. XXXI., 1901, pp. 73-108 and 145-182. 


leveling of the land by the erosion of highlands and deposition in 
streams and bays, the second tend toward a horizontal straightening 
of the shore-line by the wearing away of capes and headlands and 
the filling in of the inlets. 

The physiography of Maryland has received fnll treatment in an 
earlier volume of the publications of the Maryland Weather Serv- 
ice^. It becomes necessary here to present only a description of 
some of the features which are of principal importance in relation 
to the distribution of the vegetation. 

The Coastal Zone; Eastern Shore District. — Many of the 
physical features of the Eastern Shore District are siich as are 
characteristic of the Coastal Plain throughout the Atlantic sea- 
board. It is most level in the region of the Talbot terrace, the 
yotmgest of the Pleistocene formations, which has been described by 
Shattuck* as a subdivision of the Columbia formation of McGee. 
This terrace is most extensive in Worcester, Somerset, Dorchester 
and Talbot counties, and also forms a narrow strip bordering the 
shores of the northern counties (see map, Fig. 4.)'^ The upland 
rises from tide-level in some places so gradually as to give rise to 
extended areas of marshland, as in southern Dorchester Coiinty. In 
Drawbridge district of this county the marshes are 21/2 miles in 
width and the margin of the vipland jiist within them is from 2 to 
3 ft. above tide-level, while the slope of the upland is about 1 ft. to 
the mile as measured northward to the higher part of the county. In 
Somerset Coimty, to the west of Princess Anne, the outer end of the 
peninsula between Monie Bay and the Manokin Kiver lias a slope of 
1% ft. to the mile. In Somerset County an upland swamp lying on 
the divide between the Pocomoke and ]\Linokin rivers, between 

tAbbe, Cleveland, Jr., A General Report on the Physiography of Maryland. 
Maryland Weather Service, Vol. I., 1S99, pp. 39-216. 

*Shattuok, Greorge B., Pliocene and Pleistocene. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Baltimore, 1906. 

tit is the judgment of the writer that the map by Shattuck greatly exag- 
gerates the width of the Talbot formation along the upper waters of the 
Nanticoke and Choptank. Not having sufficiently complete data upon which 
to base a revision of those portions of the map. it is reproduced without 



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Princess Anne and Pocomoke City, is drained by a stream which 
has a fall of 3 ft. to the mile. On the occanward side of Worcester 
County, in the neighborhood of Berlin, a few places in which there 
are slopes of 25 ft. to the mile exhibit the maximum for the Talbot 
terrace and are exceptional. Along the streams which cross the Tal- 
bot terrace there are in some places bluffs or steep banks from 8 to 
15 ft. in height, as along the Pocomoke River between Pocomoke 
City and Rehoboth. Back of these banks the surface of the upland 
is nearly as level as it is back of the marshes of Dorchester County. 
The maximum elevations of the Talbot terrace where it abuts upon 
the older Wicomico terrace vary from 25 to 35 ft. 

The Wicomico terrace occupies the inland portions of the Eastern 
Shore, forming the greater part of the area of Caroline, Queen 
Anne's and Kent counties. Owing to its greater elevation and 
longer exposure to sub-aerial erosion as contrasted with the Talbot 
terrace, it presents a gently undulating topography. The distinct- 
ness of the two formations may well be observed at a point about 
one mile east of Easton in Talbot County, and near Eairlee in Kent 
County. There are but few places where the estuaries have worn 
away the Talbot terrace and brought the Wicomico to the shore-line 
i'.nd such places are invariably occupied by bluffs 40 to 60 ft. in 
height, as at Betterton in Kent Covmty. The Choptank River has 
also worn away the Talbot terrace at several places between Dover 
Bridge and Jamaica Point in Talbot County, where there are bluffs 
commonly about 20 ft. high. The portions of the Wicomico terrace 
Ij'ing in Wicomico, Caroline and Talbot counties have been eroded 
so as now to be completely drained by the streams which traverse 
them, while in the northern part of Queen Anne's County and the 
Eastern part of Kent the greater elevation of the upland together 
with the small drainage areas of the streams have combined to leave 
the upland relatively level and undrained. This gives rise to ex- 
tensive twamps, such as are to be seen in the neighborhood of Bar- 
clay and Sudlerville in Queen Anne's County. It also gives rise to 
many swamps or ponds occupying small abrupt depressions without 
outlet, which represent original depressions in the floor of the 
Wicomico sea. The ponds which occupy the largest and deepest of 


those depressions are of interest as being the only natural ponds in 
the state. They are often intermittent and usually too small to 
have been noted on the topographic maps of the United States 
Geological Survey, indeed the depressions themselves often occur at 
such levels as not to be indicated by contour lines. A few of them 
are shown on the St. Michaels sheet in the neighborhood of Wye 
Mills. The slopes bordering the Sassafras and Bohemia rivers are 
rather sttep, there being at many points a rise from tide-level to 
60 ft. -within half a mile. The greatest elevations of the Wicomico 
terrace oii the untapped divides are commonly from 60 to 70 ft. in 
Queen Anne's County, and 80 to 85 ft. in Ivent and southern Cecil 

The portion of Cecil County lying between the Elk and North- 
East rivers, known as Elk Neck, is made up mainly of Cretaceous 
deposits and differs very much in its topography from the remainder 
of the Eastern Shore. The surface is rolling and rises in groiips of 
rounded gravel hills several of which are over 300 ft. in elevation, 
the highest, Black Hill, being 311 ft. 

The low elevation of the southern portion of the Eastern Shore 
has favored the development of areas, often many thousands of 
acres in extent, in which the soil is saturated. Along the estuaries 
these areas are subject to the influence of salt or brackish water and 
are covered by grassy vegetation devoid of trees, — salt marshes. 
Above the influence of brackish water the inundated lands along the 
streams are forested, — nver or stream swamps. Lying well back 
from the streams on the poorly defined divides are areas subjected to 
inundation by rain in wet seasons and in which the soil is at all 
times saturated, whether or not there be standing water, — iipJnnd 

The flatness of the upland renders natural surface drainage 
jioor in all the more nearly level portions of the Eastern Shore, and 
on the areas of Elkton clay particularly the jieavy rains of the 

*The word mars]i. is used for a treeless plant community in a habitat with 
saturated soil, and the word sicamp for such an area in which trees form 
the dominant vegetation. This is in accord with local usage on the Eastern 
Shore and elsewhere in the Coastal Plain. 


Eiiminer months may cause the ground of cultivated fields or wood- 
land to lie for hours or even days in a submerged condition. This 
makes the ditching and draining of farm lands of great importance, 
but in these operations it is often difficult to secure sufficient fall in 
the drains to carry the water ofF. The total area of all classes of 
marsh and swamj^ land in the Eastern Shore counties is 276,736 
acres, of which 128,960 acres are in Dorchester County. 

Springs are of rare occurrence on the Eastern Shore. The 
smaller streams are fed chiefly by surface drainage and are there- 
fore subject to considerable fluctuations in volume or are intermittent. 
The writer has been told that even as considerable a stream as the 
Pocomoke River suffers a noticeable shrinkage of volume during 
periods of several weeks with low rain-fall. All of the rivers save 
the Elk and the N^orth-East rise in the Coastal Plain, and the cur- 
rents in them are extremely sluggish. The mouths are in all cases 
drowTied to form broad estuaries tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. 
The tide in the Chesapeake varies from a range of 4 ft. in the Pa- 
tuxent River to 1.4 ft. at Sharp's Island. In all the longer rivers 
the rise and fall of the tide in the estuary at the mouth causes a rise 
and fall of the waters of the upper part of the stream. In the Po- 
comoke River at Snow Hill there is a mean tide of 2i/> ft., although 
it is 18 miles above the uppermost part of the river in Avhich the 
water is brackish. Tiie ebb and flow to which these waters are sub- 
jected co-operates with the gentleness of the fall of the stream bed to 
render them sluggish. In the Pocomoke and ^N^autieokc rivers the 
water has the rich amber hue characteristic of so many coastal rivers 
that are bordered by cypress or white cedar swamps. 

27(6 Coastal Zone; Western Shore District. — The Coastal Zone 
of the Western Shore comprises all of St. Mary's, Charles, Calvert, 
Prince George's and Anne Arundel counties and portions of Balti- 
more and Harford counties, being bounded to the west and north by 
the "Fall-line." The topography of the Coastal Plain of the West- 
ern Shore may be stated in general terms to be a late initial stage in 
the dissection of a penejDlain. The maximum elevation varies from 
60 ft. in Harford County and 250 ft. in Anne Arundel County to as 
much as 292 ft. in portions of Prince George's County. The 


Coastal Plain portions of Hai'ford and Baltimore counties and a 
few places on the shore of Anne Arundel County are relatively level 
at elevations of 20 ft. or less, being in the Talbot formation; so also 
are portions of the interior in Charles and Prince George's counties 
at elevations of 100 to 120 ft, being in the Lafayette formation. It 
is in the southernmost part of the Chesapeake-Potomac peninsula, 
and particularly in the neighborhood of the estuaries that the 
topography is most sharply dissected. In almost all localities about 
the heads of estuaries there is a sharp rise from tide-level to eleva- 
tions of 100 to 140 ft., while along the Bay side of Calvert County 
there is a series of bluffs GO to 80 ft. in height. The initial state 
of the topography is revealed in the flat divides which lie between 
the heads of the smaller streams, as in the neighborhood of Brandy- 
wine in Prince George's County. 

The larger streams which traverse this area, the Patuxent, 
Patapsco and Gunpowder, rise in the Piedmont, while a number of 
the smaller streams, the Wicomico, the Severn and the Magothy, 
rise in the Coastal Plain. All of the larger streams merge into 
estuaries, which are in general shorter and more abrupt in their 
termination than those of the Eastern Shore. Consequent upon the 
character of the topography there is a much less development of 
marshes and swamps along the estuaries and streams than is the 
case on the Eastern Shore. Marshes are most extensive about 
Spesutie Island and southward along the Bay shore of Harford 
County. While there are no upland swamps the Western Shore 
district has the only typical peat bogs in the state outside the Moun- 
tain Zone. 

The Midland Zone; Lower Midland District. — The Lower ']sV\'\- 
land District comprises the northern half of Cecil County, the 
greater parts of Harford, Baltimore, Howard and Montgomery 
counties, and a portion of Carroll. It is underlaid by Crystalline 
rocks, mostly of a character very resistant to weathering. The 
topography of the region may be stated in general terms as being 
that of a maturely dissected peneplain. The gently rolling plateaus 
descend to the streams at first gently, then abruptly, there often 
being outcrops of rock adjacent to the streams. The maximum ele- 


vations in the Lower Midland range from 4S0 ft. for Cecil Connty 
near Eising Sun, to 740 ft. for Harford County near Jarrettsville, 
and 850 ft. for Montgomery County near Damascus. The general 
topography is very uniform throughout the district, and lakes and 
ponds are absent. Springs are abundant and constant streams of 
varying size dissect every corner of the district. Greater or smaller 
flood-plains have been built up along all of the streams, and in those 
that are least elevated above the mean level of their stream their 
vegetation is swamp forest. Marshes and other natural grassland 
formations are absent. The Susquehanna and Potomac are the only 
streams rising above the Lower Midland and traversing it. The 
Gunpowder, Patapsco and Patusent rise in it. 

Tlie Midland Zone; Upper Midland District. — The Upper Mid- 
land District embraces portions of Carroll and Montgomery coun- 
ties, the whole of Frederick and Washington counties, and the east- 
ern portion of Allegany County. It is bounded on the east by the 
summit of Parr's Ridge and on the west apjiroxiniately by the con- 
tour of 1500 ft. altitude. 

Parr's Ridge is an ill-defined series of elevations ranging from 
850 to 900 ft. in height. Just west of its southern termination 
stands the isolated mountain Sugar Loaf, of 1250 ft. altitude. 
These elevations are separated by the relatively level Frederick Val- 
ley from the Catoctin Ridge and the Blue Ridge, which traverse 
Frederick County in a nearly NNE-SSW direction. The floor of 
the Frederick Valley is from 250 to 500 ft. in elevation, and the 
highest points of the Catoctin and Blue Ridges reach 1500 to 2000 
ft. Extending west from the Blue Ridge to ISTorth Mountain is the 
Hagerstown Valley, 20 miles in width. From North Mountain to 
the Western edge of the Piedmont there is a continuoiis series of 
narrow valleys and steep ridges, — Tonoloway Ridge, Town Hill, 
Polish Mountain, Warrior Mountain, and other shorter ridges. The 
floors of these valleys range from 500 to 800 ft. in elevation, the 
ridges from 1300 to 2000 ft. The LTpper Midland presents a final 
stage of physiographic development, the result of which has been 
determined by the mineralogical character of the rocks of the dis- 
trict, each of the great valleys, Frederick Valley and Hagerstown 


Valley, being underlaid by limestone, the mountain ridges by a 
variety of non-calcareous rocks. The mountain slopes are of 
moderate steepness with thin soils, and in many localities with 
copious rock fragments or boulders at the surface. As in the Lower 
Midland, springs and constant streams are numerous but swamps 
are confined to low flood-plains or mountain "coves" with gentle 
slope, and ponds are absent. The district is drained by the Potomac 
and by its tributaries the Monocacy, Catoctin, Antietani, Cono- 
cocheague and Town creeks. The tributaries rise either in Mary- 
land or a few miles north in Pennsylvania in each case flowing 
entirely in valleys of the same mineralogical character throughout. 

The Mountain Zone. — The Mountain Zone embraces the valley of 
Georges Creek in Allegany County and nearly the whole of Garrett 
County, and is chiefly characterized hy the fact that it lies entirely 
above 1500 ft. elevation. 

The eastern edge of the Mountain Zone is formed by Wills Moun- 
tain, and by Dans Mountain, nearly level ridges, the former of which 
varies from 1600 to 1800 ft. in elevation, the latter from 2000 to 
2882 ft. at its highest point, Dans Rock. Parallel to these ridges 
and traversing the eastern edge of Garrett County are the Big 
Savage and Great Backbone ridges, the highest mountains in ^lary- 
land, ranging in elevation from 2900 to nearly 3200 ft. at many 
points and reaching near Table Bock 3340 ft., the highest elevation 
in the state. The valley between Dans J\Iountain and Big Savage 
is about S miles wide and is drained by Georges Creek, Braddock 
Run and Jennings Run. The valley falls below 1500 ft. only near 
the lower courses of the principal streams. The eastern slopes of 
the Great Backbone Ridge are drained by the Potomac and, as it is 
true of all the mountain ridges above mentioned, the eastern slope is 
much steeper than the western. To the west of Big Savage Moun- 
tain, Gariett County is traversed in a NE-SW direction by succes- 
sive ridges, — Meadow Mountain, Negro Mountain and Winding 
Ridge, the maximum elevations of which range from 2700 to 3000 
ft. West of Great Backbone Mountain is a relatively level plateau 
about 5 miles wide, of 2400 to 2500 ft. elevation, bounded on the 
west bv ill-defined ranges of hills of 2500 to 2900 ft. The 


physiography of the Mountain Zone is in the sequential stage 
throughoiit, and even in the narrowest and steepest valleys rock out- 
crops are rare and of limited extent. The valley between Big 
Savage and Meadow Mountains is drained by the Savage Kiver, 
which flows to the Potomac through the narrow valley which sepa- 
rates Big Savage and Backbone Mountains. The upper drainage 
basin of the Savage has the most riigged and precipitous topography 
of any portion of Maryland, many slopes being at the gTade of 
1200 ft. to the mile and exceptional ones 2500 ft. to the mile. To 
the west of Meadow and Great Backbone Mountains the Mountain 
Zone is drained by the Castleman and Youghiogheny rivers, which 
are in the drainage basin of the Mississippi. 

Peculiar to the Mountain Zone are the Swamps which are found 
along the upper waters of many streams draining narrow movmtain 
valleys in which the longitudinal slope is not gTeat. There is such a 
swamp two miles south of Finzel in Garrett County, and another at 
the head of Pine Swamp Run about four miles north-west of Barton, 
and more extensive ones occur at Cranesville and Thayerville. In 
the central plateau of Garrett County there are considerable areas of 
alluvial bottom land which have been built up by the deposition of 
eroded material in these swamps. The bottom lands are kncwn 
locally as "glades." 

Shore-Line Topograpliij. — Constant changes are taking place in 
the outline of the coast of the Ocean and Chesapeake Bay which are 
due to the destructive action of waves and tidal currents in wearing 
away the shore-line and the constructive action of the filling of in- 
lets and marshes by the depositing of the eroded material. The 
shore-line topography of Chesapeake Bay is in a sequential stage, 
having undergone considerable changes since the Talbot uplift, and 
being still far from a condition approaching stabilization. The 
destructive phase of change in shore-line topography is of little 
interest in its relation to vegetation, as it merely destroys Upland 
forest or Marsh. The constructive phases, however, result ulti- 
mately in the presenting of new habitats for occupation by plants, in 
which the physical conditions are usually of a marked character, so 
as to be hostile to the generality of Upland species. Eapid changes 


in the conditions, dne to physical agencies and to the vegeLation 
itself result in a gradual replacing of the earliest plant covering by 
successive different ones. As respects their physical conditions im- 
portant to plant life, new habitats due to shore-line changes fall into 
two classes, a — those arising from the deposition of fine material in 
the shallow water of inlets and coves, h — those arising from the 
building up of reefs or liars of coarse soil, wliicli takes place only on 
the shores of larger bodies of water where wave or tidal action is 
vigorous. The first of these classes embraces salt or brackish 
marshes, the second the f ringing-reef of the ocean front, and hooks, 
spits and bars siich as may be found at Koaring Point in the Nanti- 
eoke Eivor, at Castle Haven in the Choptank River, and at Lloyds 
Creek in the Sassafras River. The character of the material of 
which neAv features consist and the level to which they are built 
above tide determines their soil-water conditions, which in turn de- 
termine the occurrence of salt marsh, brackish marsh, strand or dune 
vegetation. A secondary result of deposit along shore-lines is the 
formation of bars which mt off small inlets from the main body of 
water as has occurred at a number of localities along the Chesapeake 
Bay in Kent and Anne Ainmdel counties. The conditions become 
gradually elianged from salt to fresh in these so-called "relic ponds." 


The relation in whicli the soil stands to plants is that of a store- 
house of water and raw food nuiterials. This causes all of the 
characteristics of the soil which have to do with the presence and 
availability of both the water and its dissolved substances to be of 
great imjiortance in the physiology of the plants occupying the soil, 
and the differences in the physiological character of different plants 
causes these soil conditions to play a very impoi'tnnt role in sorting 
the species which make up the flora of a given area. In other words, 
soil conditions are responsible for the distribution of j^lants in small 
areas with uniform climate. The fact has already been pointed out 
tliat the topography often o])erates in determining the water content 
of soils, yet it is only one of many factors which lie at the base of 
the characteristics of the soil. The direct importance of soils to 








plants then, consists tirst in the solnl)k'. food substances whicli tlicy 
contain, and second in the manner in which tliey make avaiLalde lo 
plants the water which climate and topography bring within the 
sphere of control of the soil itself. 

TJie principal bulk of soils is made up nf rock particles rich in 
difficultly soluble salts of alimtinum and silicon. It is to the iusolu- 
bilitv of these salts, in fact, tliat tjieir predominance is due. Soils 
owe their origin to the weathering of rocks and to the gradual disin- 
tegration and ])ulveviziug of the rock fragments by the action of 
frost, rain, etc. The rapidity with which a particular sort of rnck 
may be weathered to soil, and tlie degree of fineness to which its 
ultimate particles will be r<-duccd (l('])('inls uimmi the niin.Ta logical 
character of the rock. In regions where rocks have been exposed to 
the atmosphere for a very long time we will find overlying each rock 
formation the particular sort of soil to which it gives rise, as is the 
case throughout almost the whole of ^laryland to the north and west 
of the "FalMine." In the Coastal Plain the soils are derived from 
materials which have lieen transported by streams from the eroding 
upland and laid down in the floor of a shallow ocean. These facts 
point to a distribution of soils in the jMidland and Motmtain Zones 
of Maryland which is closely jiarallel to the distribution of the 
various rock formations. The fact that the soils became inhabited 
by plants very early in their origin is not only important in its re- 
lation to their further weathering but also to the admixture with 
the rock particles of minute fragments of organic matter, — 'the 
humus. The interstices between the particles of rock and humus 
may be completely filled with air or completely filled with water. 
Under average natural conditions in upland soils the interstices are 
])artly filled with water, which adheres by capillary attraction to 
the surfaces of the rock particles or accumulates in the acute angles 
formed by the contact of adjacent particles or is held by imbibition 
in the humus particles. 

In a review of the characteristics of the soil it is necessary to dis- 
tinguish between those that are chemical and those that are physical, 
between such features on the one liand as the cliemical nature of the 
rock particles or the amount and state of the luimus, or, o:t the other 


hand, the size of the rock particles. The constant contact of water 
with the rock particles and hnnins causes a continued solution of 
their comijonent substances, and all the importance of the chemical 
character of the rock particles lies in the substances which they yield 
into solution and thus make available to plants. The soil-water is, 
then, a very dilute solution in proportions varying with their solu- 
bility of all the substances with which it has come into contact in 
the soil. The existence in the soil-water of salts containing nitrogen, 
phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, mag-nesium, calcium and iron is in- 
dispensable to the nourishment of all green plants. Other elements 
may be taken up by plants but are used by them only as accessory 
and dispensable food substances. It is significant that the chemical 
character of most rocks is so complex that there are only rare cases in 
which soils lack any of the elements necessary to plant nutrition. 
It is true that some of the elements are present in soils only in very 
small quantities, as phosphorus, and may be drawn upon by plants 
more rapidly than they become available, or may be leached away by 
the action of the rain. The nitrogen demanded by plants can be 
used only in the form of nitrates which are very readily soluble 
salts. The nitrates of the soil are constantly being replenished by 
the action of bacteria upon the humus, and may be wanting either 
by the lack of humus or of sufficient aeration of the soil for the 
activity of the nitrifying bacteria, or by the too rapid leaching away 
of the products of bacterial action. 

It is evident, therefore, that iinfavorable conditions for plant 
growth may arise through the insufficiency in the soil-water of smiie 
of the less abundant or more readily leached salts. Equally un- 
favorable conditions may arise through the accumulation of pev- 
centages of any of the salts which are so high as to become toxic to 
roots. This is the condition in salt marshes and in the alkali soils 
of the western United States, and accounts for the absence of ordi- 
nary plants from these habitats and their peopling with specialized 
salt-resisting plants. The fact that a given percentage of salt in the 
soil-water is not equally toxic to all plants causes a sorting or elimi- 
nation of species, which may be observed both in the case of salt 
marshes and in the serpentine barrens, whore the excess of mag- 


nesiiim plays a role analagous to that of sodium chloride in the salt 

Kecent work in the Bureau of Soils of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment has sho^vn that toxic substances may be present in soils as a 
result of their excretion by the roots of plants. They are relatively 
comjjlex organic substances and each of them exerts its toxic effect 
only upon the same species of plant as that by which it was excreted. 
]\Iuch of the value of the practice of crop rotation would appear to be 
due to the accumulation of these toxic substances rather than to the 
exhaustion of any of the food elements of the soil.* 

The size of the rock particles of the soil and the proportion of 
humus material that it contains are the only physical characteristics 
which are of universal importance. The fact that the physical 
texture of soils determines so completely the control which they exert 
over the supplies of water furnished theui by rain-fall or under- 
ground seepage, makes very important a knowledge of the behavior 
of soils of different texture with respect to the receiving, retention 
and lifting of water. The gravels and sands are in all respects the 
reverse of the finer loams and clays in their relation to the soil- 
water. The former are highly receptive to the water which falls 
upon them as rain, while clays may be so unreceptive as to often 
"puddle" at the surface while their lower layers are not yet satura- 
ted. The capacity of the gravels and sands to retain water against 
the pull of gravity is very poor, while clay soils hold water so re- 
tentively that it may even be impossible for plants to secure it from 
moist clay owing to the strong retention which prevents the move- 
ment of water toward the root hairs of plants to replace that which 
has been absorbed. With respect to the capacity of the two classes 
of soils to lift water, the sands are capable of doing so poorly and 
only to inconsiderable heights, while clays lift slowly but to great 
distances. The loams such as form the bulk of the surface soil of 
agricultural lands are intermediate in character between the sands 
and clays, and present, therefore, the optimum soil conditions for 
plants, — a moderate amount of water received with ease and re- 

*For the original papers on root excretions see Bulletins 28, 36, 40 and 47 
of the Bureau of Soils. 


taiued well but not too forcefully. The liuinus material of soils is 
sponge-like and serves therefore to improve the water-holding 
capacity of sands, at the same time that it may also improve the 
texture of clays by increasing their aeration. The amount of air 
contained by soils is the reciprocal of the water content, so it follows 
that the aeration of sands is excellent while that of claj's is poor. 

The relative importance of the chemical and physical features of 
the soil in determining the character and distribution of the vegeta- 
tion is a matter that does not admit of an absolute answer. That 
the soil should contain the necessary elements of plant food, and in 
available form, and not in such abundance as to be toxic is of jjara- 
niount importance. That the physical character of the .soil should be 
such as to make available to the plant constant supplies of water, 
without at the same time depriving the root system of the necessary 
air for respiration is likewise of fundamental importance. As a 
differential factor in the distribution of vegetation, however, the 
physical character of .soils plays a more important role than the 

Not only does the chemical nature of the rock underlying residual 
soils determine the chemical character of the soil-Avater, but its 
mineralogical nature determines prinmrily the physical character of 
the soil. A homogeneous rock-exposure subjected to weathering 
becomes reduced to a soil of homogeneous texture. Galibro, for 
example, weathers to a clay, lime.stone to clay, and sandstone to sand, 
wlule a rock composed of several mixed minerals, as granite, usually 
gives rise to loam. It thus comes about that there is a close corre- 
spondence between the distribution of soils of different physical 
texture and the underlying rock formations in the part of Maryland 
above the "Fall-line." The careful ma])ping of the geological forma- 
tions of the state by the IVfaryland (jleological Survey, together with 
the soil surveys which have been made in seven counties* by the 
Btireau of Soils, serve to give a definite basis for a study of the 
relation of vegetation to the physical character of the soil. The soil 
tv]>es described by the Bureau "f Soils are distinguished on their 

•The counties in which soil surveys have been made are: 
Kent, Cecil. Harford, Prince George's. Calvert and St. Mary's. 


jtlivsical texture and the Tiature of the subsoih A total of 24 soil 
types have been described in the counties mapped. The ditferenccs 
between some of the types are inconsiderable and are without appar- 
ent influence as differential factors in the distribution of vegetation. 

Coastal Zone, Eastern Shore District. — On the Eastern Shore on 
the Talbot terrace the predominant soils are sands, sandy loams and 
clays. Through Worcester and Wicomico counties the sands and 
sandy-loams predominate ovoi- tin- clays while in Somerset, Dor- 
chester, Talbot and Qixeen Anne's counties the reverse is the case. 
The clay types are but two — Elkton clay and Galveston clay. The 
latter occurs only in tidal swamps, the former in the upland in situa- 
tions where it was laid down in Talbot time in the same manner in 
which the Galveston clay is being laid down today. The Meadow of 
the Soil Survey is closely similar to the Elkton clay and identical in 
the character of its vegetation. The Wicomico formation predomi- 
nates in sands, sandy loams and loams, with small areas of gravel 
along the inner edge of the Talbot terrace in the southern and cen- 
tral counties and extensive areas of it in portions of Cecil County. 
Sassafras loam and JSTorfolk sand are tlie predominant soils of the 
Wicomico terrace in Tvent and Cecil counties. 

Coastal Zone, ^\estern Shore Disiricl. — In this District the dis- 
tribution of the soils is very complex, \\'hich is to be accounted for 
by the fact that the geological history of the region has been the suc- 
cessive laying down imder water of strata of different character, the 
elevation of the whole mass, and the subsequent carvdng of the raised 
mass by erosion in such a manner as to expose the same soil forma- 
tions at the same elevation in every drainage basin. This area has a 
narrow strip of gravel along the ancient Talbot beach, as on the 
Eastern Shori', Avhile in a belt of country about 5 to 10 miles 
broad along the "Fall-line'" there are extensive areas of gravel con- 
tinuous with those on Elk Xeck and the "'Fall-line" portion of Cecil 
CJounty. Sands, sandy loams and loams are the chief soils of the 
land lying away from tiie "Fall-line," the two former in several 
types — Windsor sand, Norfolk sand, Collington sandy loam — being 
characteristic of the level interior of l^rince George's and Anne 
Arundel counties. Susquehanna clay is closely associated with Sus- 


quclianna gi-avel along the ''Fall-line" belt just alluded to. On the 
Talbot terrace, in the localities along the Chesapeake where it is 
widest, Elkton clay and Meadow occur, along with Sassafras loam 
or Sassafras sandy loam. 

Midland Zone, Loivcr Ulidlaiul District. — This district is under- 
laid by igneous and metamorphic rocks of Archean or early Paleozoic 
age — ^granite, gneiss, mica-schist, gabbro, marble and serpentine. The 
soils are loams and clays conforming with the rocks in distribution 
and having, in part, chemical as well as jjhysical features of impor- 
tance to vegetation. The granite, gneiss and mica-schist have given 
rise to the Cecil loam and the Cecil mica-loam, the slate to Cardiff 
slate loam, the gabbro to Cecil clay and the serpentine to Conowingo 
clay. The soil of the most marked chemical character is the Cono- 
wingo clay. The peculiar vegetation of this soil has long given the 
areas the name of Serpentine Barrens. Their peculiarity consists in 
the absence of the greater part of the flora of neighboring soils, the 
abundance of some plants iincommon elsewhere and the sole occur- 
rence of at least two species of herbaceous plants. These peculiari- 
ties of flora are to be ascribed to the toxic eti'ect of the high content 
of the soil water in magnesium, together with the absence of lime 
and potash. The G-abbro also presents a few peculiarities of vegeta- 
tion, chiefly the rarity of several species of Ericaceae and certain 
forest trees. This may be attributable in part to the high content of 
the mineral constituents of the soil in magnesium, although the pres- 
ence of lime makes this somewhat improbable.* The physical char- 
acter of the soil is a much more obvious cause for the absence of such 
sand-loving plants as the heaths alluded to. 

Midland Zone, Upper Midland District. — The Upper Midland 
District possesses a wide diversity of underlying rocks ranging in 
geological age from Archaean to Triassic, and the soils follow them 
closely in distribution. No soil surveys have been made in this Dis- 
trict nor in the Mountain Zone, so their soils are known technically 
only through surveys made in other states on the same geological 

*The influence of lime in counteracting tlie toxic effect of magnesium has 
been shown by May, Bulletin 1, Bureau of Plant Industry. 


formations.* Clays are widely distributed over the region of acid 
and basic volcanics in central Carroll, eastern Frederick and Avestern 
Montgomery counties, and also on the red shales of the ]^ewark for- 
mation in western Carroll, central Frederick and western Mont- 
gomery counties. The formei' of these areas is made up, hoM'ever, of 
clay-loams and loams (Cecil loam), which are frequently full of 
small rock fragments ; the latter of the areas also embraces consider- 
able clay loam and sandy loam. The most extensive clay areas are 
in the Frederick and Hagerstowii valleys, overlying the Shenandoah 
limestone, where a loam (HagerstoAvn loam) also occurs. Through 
the Catoctin and Blue Eidges many soil types are found — clays (the 
Porters clay), loams (Porters stony loam, Penn loam) and sandy 
loams. West of North Mountain shales and sandstones are the pre- 
dominant rocks, and loams or clay loams together with sands are the 
commonest soil types. There are restricted outcrops of limestone in 
the Niagara and the Jennings-Romney formations, yielding local 
areas of heavy clay. The shale soils are invariably thin and filled 
with small rock fragments, which renders them unfavorable for the 
development of the highest type of forest. 

Mountain Zone. — The soils of the Mountain Zone are similar in 
their general charactei" to those of the Upper Midland District Avest 
of North Mountain. The shales and sandstones of the Jennings, 
Hampshire and Conemaugh formations occupy a large part of the 
area of the Zone and have given rise to loams, sandy loams and sands. 
The ]\Iauch Chunk and Allegheny formations are more restricted in 
area, but similar in the character of the soils to which they have given 
origin. Small areas of limestone in the Greenbrier and Conemaugh 
have weathered to clay soils. The Pocono and Pottsville formations 
are of sandstone and have given rise to sandv-loams and sands. 

*Among these are the surveys of Adams, Lancaster and Lebanon counties, 

62 Tin-: i'i.ant javk ov 


AiiiiE, Clevet.ani). Jr. A General Report on the Physiography of Maryland. 
Publications of the Maryland Weather Service, Vol. I., pp. 39-216. Bal- 
timore. 1899. 

BoxsTEEL, F. E., and Carter, Williaii .1., ,Ir. Soil Survey of Worcester 
County, Maryland. Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1903, pp. 
165-189, with map, Washington, 1904. 

Bo.n-steel. Jay A., and Burke. R. T. Avd.n. Soil Survey of Calvert County. 
Maryland. Field Operations of the Division of Soils, 1900, pp. 147-171. 
with map, Washington, 1901. (Also in Maryland Geological Survey, 
Calvert County, pp. 135-167. Baltimore, 1907.) 

Boxsteel, Jay A. Soil Survey of Kent County, Maryland. Field Opera- 
tions of the Division of Soils. 1900. pp. 173-18G, with map, Washington, 

BoNSTEEL, Jay A. Soil Survey of Prince George's County, Maryland. Field 
Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1901, pp. 173-210, with map, Wash- 
ington, 1902. 

Bo.NsTEEL, Jay A. Soil Survey of St. Mary's County, Maryland. Field 
Operations of the Division of Soils, 1900, pp. 125-145. with map, Wash- 
ington, 1901. (Also in Maryland Geological Survey, St. Mary's County, 
pp. 125-146, Baltimore, 1907). 

DoRSEY, Clarence W. and Boxsteel, Jay A. Soil Survey of Cecil County, 
Maryland. Field Operations of the Division of Soils, 1900, pp. 103-124. 
with map, W^ashington, 1901. (Also in Maryland Geological Survey. 
Cecil County, pp. 227-248, Baltimore, 1902). 

DoRSEY, Clarence W. The Soils of Allegany County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Allegany County, pp. 195-216. Baltimore, 1900. 

Dorset, Clarence W. The Soils of Garrett County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Garrett County, pp. 233-252, Baltimore. 1902. 

Fassig, Oliver L. The Climate of Allegany County, Maryland Geological 
Survey, Allegany County, pp. 217-231, Baltimore, 1900. 

Fassig, Oliver L. The Climate of Cecil County. Maryland Geological Sur- 
vey, Cecil County, pp. 249-261, Baltimore, 1902. 

Fassig, Oliver L. The Climate of Garrett County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Garrett County, pp. 253-273, Baltimore, 1902. 

Fassig, Oliver L. Report on the Climate and Weather of Baltimore and 
Vicinity. Maryland Weather Service, Vol. 11, 515 pp. Baltimore, 1907. 

Smith, W. G., and Martin, J. O. Soil Survey of Harford County, Maryland. 
Field Operations of the Bureau of Soils, 1901, pp. 211-237, with map, 
Washington, 1902. 

•Much more extended lists of literature may be found in the publications 
which are listed here. 


Vd.N Hkujianx, C. F. The Climate of Calvert County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Calvert County, pp. 169-206, Baltimore. 1907. 

Von Heum.\m>;, C. F. The Climate of St. Mary's County. Maryland Geo- 
logical Survey, St. Mary's County, pp. 147-176, Baltimore, 1907. 

W.ii.z. F. J. Outline of the Present Knowledge of the Meteorology and 
Climatology of Maryland. Maryland Weather Service, Vol. I., pp. 417- 
551, Baltimore, 1899. 

WiiiTNEY, Milton. The Soils of Maryland. Report of the Maryland State 
Weather Service, Vol. III., pp. 15-22, Baltimore, 1S93. 







Tliere has nevor licon an attempt made at a complete euuniei-atioii 
of the flora of Maryland, although the state lies in a region iu which 
the collection and study of plants has been pursued since the middle 
of the Eighteenth Century. The early work of the Bartrams, of 
Pursh, Xuttall, ]\1 uhlenberg, Darlington and Rafinesque was carried 
on either partly in !^^aryland or so near its borders as to be applicable 
to its flora. 

'I'hc earliest li'^t of ]\laryland ]ibuits is that published in 1S.T7 l)y 
William E. A. Aikin, M. D., entitled "A Catalogue of Phaenogamous 
Plants and Ferns, Xative or Naturalized, Growing in the Vicinity of 
Baltimore, Marylaml."* Tiiis catalogue lists 1063 species, and is 
based on work doiie in 1834 and 1S35 in Frederick Coimty and in 
183G in the vicinity of Baltimore. The author says, "The low 
grounds of the Eastern Shore and tlie mountain ridges of Allegany 
County'*^ have been scarcely examined by the botanist." Seven years 
earlier than Aikin's List appeared the Prodromus of the Flora 
< 'dhunbiana compiled by J. A. Brereton, il. D., ami airanged accord- 
ing to the Linnaean System. This was the first of a number of lists 
of the plants of the District of Columbia, none of which have been 
strictly confined in their area to the District. 

In 1876 appeared the "Flora Columbiana," which embodied the 
results of the Potomac-Side Xaturalists' Club, under the guiding 

*For exact citations of literatvu-e see the List of Literature at tlie end 
of this chapter. 
tWhich then comprised the present counties of Allegany and Garrett. 


si)irit of George Vasey, then Botanist of tlie United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. This publication lists 1154 species of Flower- 
ing Plants and 37 of Ferns and Fern-allies. The continued activity 
of botanists connected with the Agrietdtural Department at Wash- 
ington led to the publication by Lester F. Ward in 1881 of his 
"Guide to the Flora of Washington and Viciuity," which embraces 
in its field all the country within a twenty-mile radius of the capitol, 
thereby including considerable portions of Montgomery and Prince 
George's counties, and small portions of three other counties of Mary- 
land. This work lists 1211 species of Flowering Plants and 42 of 
Ferns and Fern-allies, as well as a few Mosses and Liverworts. Six 
lists of additions to Ward's Flora have been published from time to 
time since 1881. In 1888 Basil Sellers published a "Check-list of 
Plants Compiled for the Vicinity of Baltimore." Tlie area com- 
prised was a sqtiare the side of which was twenty-five miles in lengiii 
and the centre the City Hall of Baltimore. SoUers' List was com- 
piled to include the species listed by Aikin (there reduced to 1009) 
and those in Ward's Flora and the first two lists of additions thereto, 
together with additions made by himself, Dr. Bolliug W. Barton and 
G«orge L. Smith. The total number of species thus listed is 1559 of 
Flowering Plants and 50 of Ferns and Fern-allies. William ]\r. 
Canby, of Wilmington, Delaware, did considerable collecting in the 
southern Eastern Shore, between 18C5 and 1875, and to him we owe 
the discovery there of Isoetes saccharata and Hydrocotyle canby i. 
Howard Sliriver, of Cumberland, was for many years interested in a 
study of the flora of the vicinity of Cumberland, work which has 
been contintied there since his death by Prof. George M. Perdew, 
who has kindly placed their local collection in the hands of the author. 
Other contributions to the knowledge of the flora of Maryland are 
mentioned in the List of Literature at the close of this chapter. 

In the Plant List which forms Part VII of this volume 1378 spe- 
cies of Flowering Plants and 59 species of Ferns and Fern-allies have 
been collected or observed.* The number of specie^; which will 1h> 

*It is of interest to note in comparison that the number of species of 
the same groups listed in Millspaugh's Flora of West Virginia is 1309; 
in Porter's Flora of Pennsylvania, 2201; and in Mohr's Plant Life of Ala- 
bama. 2476. 


found to grow witliin the borders of the state when its flora shall have 
been thoroughly exjiloited, will probably be between 1800 and 1900. 
The lack of a reasonably complete Flora of Maryland renders it 
impossible to Avork out in detail the features of the distribution of 
plants within the state and the relationsliips of the flora to that of 
other regions. The matter in liand is, howeveVj at least sufficient to 
permit a review of some of the main floristic features. 

The great bulk of the flora is of wide distribution througliout the 
Northeastern United States, or indeed tliroughout the whole of east- 
ern iSTorth America. The central counties in particular are rich in 
species which range from Ontario or the New England States to 
Michigan or Minnesota, and soiitli to Georgia and Alabama. In 
addition to this gi'oundwork of plants of wide distribution, the coastal 
section of the state is found to be rich in species the principal range 
of which is to the south, with their northern limit either in Maryland 
or in the coastal section of New Jersey or Long Island. In tlic 
higher mountains, on the other hand, there is a considerable element 
tlie chief range of which is to the nortli or tliroughout the Alleghany 
Mountains. The salt and brackish habitats about the Chesapeake 
Bay and the Ocean front afford congenial conditions for the growth 
of salt-loving, or halophytic, plants, wliieli ai-e a small but interesting- 
element of the flora. Intermingled with tlie native plants throughout 
the state is a large nnml)er of introduced foreign or western plants, 
chiefly weeds, wliich form an element of tlie flora wliich is constantly 
being augmented. 

The occurrence of the soutliern floral clement in the coastal portion 
of Maryland, and of the northern element in the higher mountain? 
suggests the subdivision of the state into three Zones in accordance 
therewith. The fact that many of the southern species are found 
throughout the Coastal Plain in 'Maryland suggests the "Fall-Line'' 
as the most natural boundary of the Coastal Zone. T'hat portion of 
the state lying between the "Fall-Line" and the higher m.ountains will 
here be designated as the Midlnnc! Zone. I'lie contour line of 1500 
feet elevation, running along tlie Eastern slopes of Wills, and Great 
Backbone Mountains forms the approximate eastern limit of the 
region characterized by the northern element, which will be desig- 
nated as the Mountain Zone. These zones apparently correspond 


respectively to the Alleghanian, Carolinian and Louisianian Zones of 
Verrill and to the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Anstral 
Life-zones of Merriam. 

Not only are there species present in tlie Coastal Zojie and in the 
Mountain Zone which are ahsent from the Midland Zone^ but there 
are species present in the Mountain and ]\[idland Zones which are 
absent from the Coastal Zone and others present in the Coastal and 
ilidland Zones which are absent from the Mountain Zone. While 
these Zones arc based primarily on floristic distinctness, there arc 
nevertheless ecological features characteristic of each, of which men- 
tion will be made later. 

The species wliicli are found only in the Coastal Zone in JMarylaud 
are the following, llaloph^•tes being omitted : 

Wood ward id virgin lea 
Woodtvardia areolata 
Lycopodium inundahim 
Pinus taeda 
Taxodium disticlium 
Chamaecyparis thy aides 
Typha angvsti folia 
Sagittaria lancifolia 
Sagittaria suhulata 
Erianthus compact us 
Pantcum digitarioides 
Zizania aquatica 
Uniola lax a 
Arundinaria tecla 
Cyperus pfteudovcgetns 
Cyperus retrofractvs 
Cyperus cylindririis 
Cyperus grayi 
KylUnga pumila 
Scirpus cylindricus 
Scirpus fiuviatilis 
Fuirena sqiiavrosa var. hispida 
Ryncliospora cornicidula 



FIG. 1 VIEW SIIOWIXG TR\^^I]lll^ 1I>()\1 M \US11 In Ul\hl! bWA.Ml' nX 1111. I'llCd.MnKE 



FIG. 2. — VIEW SHOWING MARGINAI, /uM nv MMi^ll \Li,!l\11" \n.\i. mill; i;i>GE OP 





Ryncliospora gracilcn ia 
Cladiuni mariscoidcs 
Carex vesHta 
Eriocaulon decangulare. 
Commelina liirtella 
Juncus repens 
Sniilax laurifolia 
Smilax walteri 
Myrica cerifera 
Myrica caiolinensis 
Qiiercus digitata 
Quercus nigra 
Quercus phellos 
Magnolia virginiana 
Itea virginica 
Liquidambar styrarifjua 
Rubus cimeifolius 
Cracca spicata 
Bradburya virginiana 
A eschyn o m ene virgin ica 
Rhynchosia erecin 
Polygala lutea 
Crotonopsis linearis 
Euphorbia ipecac uanliac 
Ilex opaca (as a tree) 
Ilex glabra 
Vitis rotundifoUa 
Ascyrum stans 
Triadenum pcfiolatum 
Hudsonia tomentosn 
Ludwigia spliacrocarpa 
Ludtvigia linearis 
Jussiaea dccurrens 
Proserpinaca pahisfris 
Aralia spinosa 
Hydrocotyle canbyi 
Ilydrocoiyle rerticillaia 


Ilydrocolyle ranunculoidcs 

Ceittella asiatica 

Nyssa hi flora 

Clethra alnifolia 

Kal m ia angufstifo Via 

Leucothoe racemosa 

Pieris mariava 

Symplocos tiiicloria (fide Rnsl)y) 

Polyprcmum prociimhriis 

Sahhatia dodccandra 

Limnantheminn aqiKdicum 

Asclepins lanceolata 

Koellia aristata 

Vinceioxicuni hirsiduni 

GratioJa pilosa 

Utricularia juncea 

Ui.ricularia clandestina 

Ufricidaria fibrosa 

Bignonia. crucigcra 

Tecoma radicans 

Diodia virginiana 

Galium hispidtdum 

Vihur7iiini venosum 

Viburnum nudum 

Lonicera sempervircnf: 

Elephantopiis nudattis 

Sclerolepis unifiora 

Eupatorium hys-wuifornim 

Heterotheca siilni.rilhiris 

Clirysopsis gi'iiinuiifolia 

Solidago odnra 

Aster speclalidia 

Helianthus an gusfif alius 



The species which are found only in tlie ]\ronntain Zone are the 
following : 

Larix laricina 
Picea mariana 
I'axus minor 
Cliiitonia umhellulata 
Disporum lanuginosmn 
Sireptopus roseiis 
Betula lutea 
Alnus incana 
Coptis trifolia 
Oirnicifuga amcricana 
Aconitum uncinatum 
Anemone trifolia 
Hepatica acuta 
Bicuculla cximia 
Saxifraga micixiniliidifoUa 
Daliharda revens 

Waldsteinia fragarioides 
Sorhus americana 

Acer pennsylvaniciim 

Acer spicatum 

Viola rotundif olia 

Cornus canadensis 

Azalea lutea 

Mennesia pilosa 

Gentiana linearis 

Vihurnum alnifolium 

Loniccra ciliata 

Solidago monticola 

Aster acinninatvs 

The species found throughout the ilountain and ^Midland Zones 
which are absent from the Coastal Zone are the following : 

Camptosorus rliizopliyllus 
Asplenium montamim 


Osmunda claytoniana 
Pellaea atropurpurca 
Cheilanthcs lanosa 
Selaginclla riipestris 
Films sir oh us 
UiiifoUiim canadeiisc 
Trillium spp. 
Orchis spectahiUs 
Cypripediuni parviflorinii 
Betula lenta 
Magnolia iripctula 
Caltlia paliistris 
Acfaea aJha 
Anemone virginiana 
CaidophyJliim tJialictroidcs 
Chelidon iv. m m a jus 
Bicuculla cucidlaria 
Capnoides sempervircns 
Sedum teJepMoides 
Sedum iernahim 
Mitdla diphylla 
Ribes spp. 

Opulaster opulifolius 
Porterantlms trifoUalns 
Astragalus caroHninni./s 
Ptelea trifolinta 
Euphorbia conunuhilit 
Staphylea irifolia 
Cubelium concolor 
Dirca. palusiris 
Panax quinquefoUuin 
Panax trifolium 
Cicuta btdbifera 
Rhododendron ina.vimiiin 
Obolaria virginica 
Phlox divaricata 
Hydrophyllum virglirivinn 


Phacelia dubia 
Monarda punctata 
Campanula americana 
Mertensia virginica 
Diervilla diervilla 
Campanula americana 
E upatoriii m sessilifoli inn 
Polymnia cayiadensis 
Chrysogonum Virginian urn 
Helianthus divaiicatus 
Verbesina alternifolia 

'J1ie species found throughout tlie Coastal and ilidland Zones 
whieli are ahscnt from the Mountain Zone are tlie following: 

Pinus virgmiana 
Juniperus virg in ia n a 
Saururus cernuus 
Castanea pumila 
Qucrcus marylandicn 
Quercus minor 
Quercus prinoides 
Uhnus americana 
Ulmus fulva 
Celtis occidentalis 
Celtis crassifolia 
Asimina triloba 
Platanus occidentalis 
Euonynus americnna 
Acer saccharinum 
Ceanolhus americana 
Cornus florida 
Diospyros virgininna 
Chionantlius virginicn 
Cunila origanoides 
Ch rysopsift mariana 


The Coastal Zone. 

^^jiiong the jjlauts of the Coastal Zone above listed a few are quite 
common throughout the Zone and leave off abruptly along its inner 
edge, for example, Liquidambar styraciflua. Magnolia virginiana, 
Clethra alnifolia, and Quercus digitata. Other species are less 
abundant than these but nevertheless occur throughout the Zone and 
are limited quite as sharply in their distribution by the "Fall-line." 
The only Coastal Zone plants which occur throughout llie Zone are 
the following : 

Woudivardiu virginica 
Woodwardia areolata 
Lycopodium inundatum 
Eriocaulon decangidaie 
Myrica carolinensis 
Quercus digitata 
Quercus phellos* 
Magnolia virginiana 
Itea virginica 
Liquidambar styraci/iua 
Euphorbia ipe ca cua n line 
Ilex opaca 
Ilex glabra 
Clethra alnifolia 
Leucothoe racemosa 
Pieris mariana 
Sabbatia dodecandra 
Tecoma radicans"^ 
Viburnum nudum 
Lonicera sempervirens 
Eupatorium liyssopifoUinn 

Since the entire length of tlie "Fall-line" in Maryland is but US 
miles, it becomes of interest to iuipiire into the distribution of the 

*Species thus designated occur for 10 to 20 miles above the "Fall-line" 
along the Potomac River. 


coastal plants of Maryland in the neighboring states, in order to see 
in how far the same relations of distribution may hold to the north 
and south. Of the species coextensive with the Coastal Zone all but 
three are found to the northward only in the Coastal Plain portions 
of New Jersey and Long Island or in analagous regions in southern 
'Sew England. The three excepted species are Woodwa7-dia virginica, 
Lycopodiiim inundatum and Myrica carolinensis, which range west- 
ward in the northern states as well as southward along the Coastal 

To the south, tlie somewhat scant literature as to the occurrence 
and distribution of plants would indicate that Clethra alni folia, 
Leiicothoe racemosa, and Ilex glabra are confined to the Coastal Plain 
as far as Alabama. A number of others appear to be common in the 
Coastal Plain and rare in the Piedmont, as Magnolia virginiana, Ttca 
virginica, Piens mariana. Tihtirnum nudum and Lonicera semper- 
rirens. Others range inland aliove the "Fall-line" in midiminislied 
abundance, as for example Quercus pliellos, Qu.ercus digitata. Ilex 
opaca and Liquidambar styraciflua, all of which are foimd through- 
out the Piedmont of ISforth Carolina faecording to Ashe) and 
throughout Alabama (according to Mohr). 

Of those species which are confined to the Coastal Zone in Mary- 
land, but are found only in the southern or southeastern part of it. 
the majority range to the north of Maryland in the Coastal Plain of 
'Sew Jersey or to Long Island or even as far north as j^cw England. 
Following are given the nortlu'vn limit and the known range in 
ilarvland of these species: 

L'hamavcy purls ihy aides 

Northern limit: Massacliusetts. 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico and Dorchester counties. 

Sagittaria subidata 

Northern limit: New Yorl<. 
Maryland: Wicomico County. 

Eriaiithus compacliis 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester, Caroline and Talbot counties. 

*Harper. R. M. Coastal Plain Plants in New England. Rhodora, Vol. VII, 
p. 69; and VIII, p. 27. 


Uniola laxa 

Northern limit: Long Island. 

Maryland: Wicomico and Somerset counties. 

Cyperus retrofraciris 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester and Wicomico counties. 

Fxiirena squarrosa var. hispiiht 
Northern limit: New York. 
Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico and Charles counties. 

Commelina Inrtella 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Smilax lanrifoHa 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico and Caroline counties. 

Acschynomene virginica 

Northern limit: Pennsylvania. 

Maryland: Wicomico and Prince George's counties. 

Poly gala lit tea 

Northern limit: Long Island. 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico, Dorchester, Caroline and Anne 
Arundel counties. 

Ascyrum stans 

Northern limit: Long Island. 

Maryland: Worcester, Caroline and Talbot counties. 

Tviadenum petiolatuni 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester, Somerset, Wicomico and Charles counties. 

Litdw igia sphaerocarpa 

Northern limit: Massachusetts. 
Maryland: Worcester and Talbot counties. 

Ludwigia linearis 

Northern limit: New York. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Hydrocotylc canbyi 

Northern limit: Massachusetts. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Hydrocotyle verticillaia 

Northern limit: Massachusetts. 
Maryland: Woi'cester and Talbot countifs. 






Ihjdrocutyle ranunculoidcs 
Northern limit: Pennsylvania. 

Maryland: Worcester, Caroline. Queen Anne's and Anne .\rundel 

Poly pre mum procumbens 
Northern limit: New Jersey. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Limnanthemum aquaticum 
Northern limit: New Jersey. 
Maryland: Wicomico and Dorchester counties. 

Asclcpias lanceolata 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Koellia aristata 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Gmtiola pilosa 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester, Dorchester, Caroline and Talbot counties. 

Diodia virginiana 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester and Charles counties. 

Helianthus avgtisfifolius 
Northern limit: Long Island. 
Maryland: Worcester County. 

Senecio iomeniosiift 

Northern limit: New Jersey. 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico and Caroline counties. 

Of those species which are found onlv in the C-oastal Zone m 
Maryland but are not coextensive witli it, a number find their 
extreme northern limit in the peninsula of Delaware and the Eastern 
Shore of Maryland, or in the Western Shore District of the Coastal 
Zone. Following are given the ranges in Maryland of these species: 

Taxodi u III did irii inn 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico. Somerset, Calvert and Charles 

Sagiitaria lancifolia 

Maryland: Worcester, Somerset, Caroline and Baltimore counties. 


Panicum digilarioides 

Maryland: Wicomico County. 

Arundinaria tecta 

Maryland: Anne Arundel County. 

Cyperus pseudo-vegetiis 

Maryland: Wicomico, Talbot, St. Mary's and Cliarles counties. 

Kyllinga pumila 

Maryland: Charles County. 

Scirpus cylindriciw 

Maryland: Wicomico County. 

Byncliospova corniculatn 

Maryland: Worcester and Charles counties. 

Jnncus repens 

Maryland: Wicomico County. 

Myrica cerifera 

Maryland: Worcester, Somerset, Wicomico, Dorchester, Caroline and 
Talbot counties. 

Quercus nigra 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico. Dorchester and Caroline counties. 

Cracca spicata 

Maryland: Wicomico County. 

Ryncliosia erecta 

Maryland: Worcester, Wicomico and Anne Arundel counties. 

Vitis rotundi folia 

Maryland: Worcester and Wicomico counties. 

Jiissaea decurrens 

Maryland: Charles County. 

Cevtella asiaiica 

Maryland: Worcester County. 

Symplocos tinctoria 

Maryland: Worcester County (fide Rusby). 

Vincetoxicum hirsidit m 
Maryland: Charles County. 

Utricularia jwicea 

Maryland: Worcester County. 

Bignonia critcigera 

Maryland: Somerset County. 

EJepliantopus nudahis 

Maryland: Worcester County. 


Hcterotheca ,^uhaxiUuris 
Maryland: Wicomico County. 

Chrysopsis graminifolia 

Maryland: Wicomico County. 

The southern relationship of the flora of the Coastal Zone is 
emphasized by the occurrence of members of sitch families as the 
Melastomaceae, Bignoniaceae, Loganiaccae, Ebenaceae and Symplo- 
caceae, all of which reach their gTeatest development in tropical and 
snbtroiiical regions, as well as by the occurrence of the shrubby Com- 
positae Iva fridescens and Baccharis halimifolia, the main branches 
of which are hardy in all but the most se%'ere winters. A number of 
tropical or subtropical exotics may be gro^vn without winter protec- 
tion in the Coastal Zone, but are rarely hardy in the Midland. 
Among these are the Fig (Ficus carica), the Mimosaceous ti-ee 
Alhkzia juliirassin, the Crepe-myrtle, (Lagerstroemia indica) and 
the Pomegranate {Pimica granatiim') . The predominance of pines, 
together with the occurrence of several broad-leaved evergreens, 
marks the relationship with the southern coastal pine belt and with 
the sub-tropical evergreen broad-leaved forests with which Maryland 
is in unbi'oken connection. In "March the observer of the vegetation 
in the Coastal Zone may find leaves on Magnolia virginiana. Ilex 
opaca. Ilex glabra, Kalmia latifolia, Kalmia angustifolia, Myrica 
cerifera, Euonymus americanus and Smilax rotundlfolia, as well as 
on such herbaceous plants as Chimaphila maculata. Chimaphila 
umhellata, Mitchella repcns, GaidtJieria procumhens, Tipularia uni- 
folia and Dryopteris achrostichoides. 

The noticeable richness of the Coastal Zone flora in Cyperaceae, 
Gramineae and Compositae, together with its poverty in rock-plants, 
vernal herbs and other hei'baceous plants of deep forests, leads up to 
the subject of the habitats which are confined to the Coastal Zone. 
The marked geologic and topographic features of the Coastal Plain 
determine the occurrence of plant habitats which are not to be found 
beyond its borders. Of these it is necessary to mention in some 
detail a) the Strand, b) the Salt Marshes, c) the Pine Barrens. 



The Strand, Beaches and Dimes of the Atlantic Ocean and the 
lower Chesapeake Bay liear a scanty flora, the members of which are 
xerophytes but not halophytes, as shown by Kearney* and as con- 
firmed by the occurrence of several of them on the Strand of tlie 
Great Lakes. 

The plants wliieli are confined to the Strand in Maryland are the 
following : 

Ammophila arenaria 

New Brunswick to Virginia: Great Lakes. 

Cyperus grayi 

Massachusetts to Florida. 

C'arex silicea 

Nova Scotia to Maryland. 

Ammodenia pepJoides 

Arctic Regions to Maryland; Europe: .\sia. 

Cahile edentula 

Newfoundland to Florida; Great Lakes; Minnesota; California. 

EupTiorhia polygovifolia 

Rhode Island to Florida; Great Lakes. 

Hndsonia iomentosa 

New Brunswick to Maryland: Great Lakes; Minnesota: Slave Lake. 

Oenothera humifusa 
New Jersey to Florida. 


The xerophilous plants of the Strand merge, as a class, into the 
halophytes. and these in turn into the class of fresh marsh plants. 
The degree of saltness of soil water which hulophytic plants are 
capable of enduring varies from species to species, so that wliile we 
find Salicornia herbacea and Spartina striata var. maritima in pro- 
nouncedly salt marshes only, such forms as Scirpus olneyl, Lylhruin 
alatum and Potamogeton crispus are found only in brackish or even 

♦Kearney, Thos. H. Are plants of Sea-Beaches and Dunes True Halo- 
phytes. Botanical Gazette, Vol. XXXVII, 1904, pp. 424-436. 


fresh situatious, and Eryngium virginianum, Ptilimnium capilla- 
ceum, Hibiscus mosheutos and others extend up the tidal streams far 
beyond the influence of brackish water, yet they are not found, in 
Maryland, off the larger tidal streams the vegetation of which merges 
below into j)urely halophytic marsh. Solidago sempervirens is found 
in all situations from the most saline marshes to those far upstream 
beyond the influence of brackish water, and as well on tlie Strand. 
Baccliaris halimifolia. whicli is usually found only along the line 
separating streams and marshes from the upland, is not infrequent 
in the Eastern Shore counties growing in pine woods at as much as 
two to four miles distance from the nearest shore-line, which accord- 
ing to Kearney, is also the case in tlie Dismal Swamp region. 

These statements go to show that the class halophytes is not a 
strictly coherent one, and that it is diflicult to draw a just lino 
between tlie physiologically true halophytes and a large number of 
slightly salt-resisting plants which are associated with certain of the 
halophytes in the brackish and fresh marshes of our tidal rivei-s. 
In the following of the halophytes of the Maryland flora the 
range of each is given in order to show the wide distribution of the 
majority of them. 

Pofamogeton crispiis 

Massachusetts to Virginia. 

Potamogrfon pertinotus 

Cape Breton Island to Florida and Texas. 

British Columbia to California. 


Ruppia marHima 

Nova Scotia to Florida and Texas, 

Pacific Coast and saline situations in the interior. 

South America. 


Zostcra marina 

Greenland to Florida. 
Pacific Coast, 


Trifilochin siriaia 

Maryland to Florida and Louisiana. 
South America. 

Spartina ■polystacliya 
Maine to Florida. 

Spartina stricta var. maritima 
Maine to Florida and Texas. 

Distichlis spicata 
Maine to Florida, 
Pacific Coast, and saline situations in tue interior, 

Scirpus vanvs 

Cape Breton Island to Florida and Texas. 

Pacific Coast, and saline situations in the interior. 


Scirpus olncijl 

Rhode Island to Florida and Texas, 

Pacific Coast, 


Scirpus rohustus 

Nova Scotia to Texas. 

Carex tenera 

Maine to Louisiana. 

Juvcus gerardi 
Ontario to Florida. 
Great Lakes and Pacific Coast. 

Polygonum mariiim inn 
Maine to Florida, 

Atriplex hastala 

New Brunswick to South Carolina, 
Saline situations in the interior, 

Salicornia It crhaccn 

Ontario to Georgia, saline situations in the interior, Europe, Asia. 

Tissa marina 

New Brunswick to Florida, Pacific Coast, Europe, Asia. 

KosteletzJcya virginica 

New York to Florida and Louisiana. 


iribiscus vioscheidos 

Massachusetts to Florida and Louisiana, 
Saline situations in the interior. 

Eryngiu m v irgin ianum 

New Jersey to Florida and Texas. 

Ptilimnium capillaceiiin 

Massachusetts to Florida and Texas. 

Limoniiim caroUn larnnn 

Labrador to Florida and Texas. 

Sahbalia stellaris 
Maine to Florida. 

Sahhaiia dodecandra 

Massachusetts to Florida and Alabama. 

Gerardia v la riti m a 

Maine to Florida and Louisiana. 

Iva frutesccns 

Massachusetts to Florida and Texas. 

Solidago sempervirens 
New Brunswick to Florida. 
Mexico, Bermuda. 

Aster tenvifoliiis 

Massachusetts to Florida. 

Aster subidatus 

New Hampshire to Florida. 

Baccliaris halimifoUa 

Massachusetts to Florida and Texas. 

PlucJiea foetida 

New Jersey to Florida and Texas. 
West Indies. 

Pluchea camphorata 

Massachusetts to Florida and Texas. 
Mexico. West Indie.". 


True Pine Barrens are fcmnd only in the Coastal Plain portions 
of tlie South Atlantic and Gnlf states from Virginia sonth to Florida 
and west to Louisiana, being nearly coextensive with the distribution 
of Piniis pnlnstris. Very many plants aliundaut and rliaraeteristic 


ill the true Pine Barrens are not found beyond their limits. Pine 
Barrens occur in the Coastal Plain of New Jersey and Long Island 
which differ from the true ones in the replacing of Piniis palustris 
by Pinus rk/ida, and of the grassy herbaceous vegetation by shi-ubs. 
However, many of the plants characteristic of the true Pine Barrens 
are found in the Barrens of New Jersey, and there, or in Long 
Island, find their northern limit. 

Neither the true nor the New Jersey type of Pine Barrens is found 
in Maryland. In the sandy portions of the Western Shore District 
of the Coastal Zone are areas which resemble the New Jersey 
Barrens in physiogTiomy, and in the soutlicrn Eastern Shore District 
are areas which resemble the true Pine Barrens in physiognomy, but 
nowhere is the characteristic floristic element present. The follow- 
ing are the species which are, in the main, confined to Pine Barren 
habitats and are found both in the true and the New Jersey Barrens: 

Lycopodium (dopccuroides 

Lycopodhim cmvl iiiiainnn 

A mph icdrpon a in pli ica vpon 

Ci/pcnis i/rayi (also a strand plant) 

Dichromena colorata 

Bynchospora pallida 

Ryncliospora torreyaua 

Carex walteriana 

Carc.v littoraUs 

A'vyri.s fimbriata 

Xyris toria 

Eriocaulon compressinn 

Tofieldia racemosa 

Xeropliylhun aspJiodcloidcs 

Helonias hullata 

Zygndeinis lelniiuiHioidcs 

Alrtris aiirca 

Smilax walteri 

Gyrotheca capitaia 

Lophiola americana 

Ilahenaria integra 


Pogonia divaricata 
Arenaria carol'miana 
Drosera filiformis 
Meibomia shicta 
Polygala lutea 
Ilex glabra 

Hyperic u m a dp ress u m. 
Hudsonia ericoides 
Rliexia aristosa 
Ludwinia hirtella 
Dendrium huxifoUum 
Proserpinaca pectinaia 
Pyxidanthera barbidala 
Sabbatia lanceolaf.a 
Gentiana porphyrio 
Breweria picheringil 
Tricliosiema. Uncare 
Kodlia aristata 
Gerardia, linifolia 
Sclerolepis iiniflora 
Eupatoriu m le ucolepis 
Chondrophora nudata 
Solidago stricfa 
Solidago fistidosa 
Coreopsis rosea 

Of this entire list of Pine Barren species the only ones tliat are 
known from Maryland are the folloAving: 

Cyperus gray!, (Woi'cester County) ; Smilax walieri, (Anne 
Arundel County) ; Polygala lutea, (Worcester, Wicomico, Dor- 
chester, Caroline and Anne Arundel counties) ; Ilex glabra, (Woi-- 
cester, Caroline and Anne Arundel counties), and Sclerolepis 
uniflora, (Wicomico County). 

]^ot only are the species which are rare in the I^ew Jersey Barrens 
apparently absent from Maryland, but fonns very abundant there 
have not yet been detected in this state, as for example : Lycopodium 


alopecuroides, Xyris fimbriata, Xcropliyllum aspliodeloides, Gyro- 
iJicca capitata, Arenaria caroUnana. Droscra filiformis, Iliidsonia 
ciiroidcs, Dendriua bu.vifoliinn ami Py.ridaDlJiriri Jmrhiihifa. 

The Midlaxd Zoxe. 

The Midland Zone possesses a rich flora, a laro-e part iif whicli 
ranges, as already stated, from Ontario and ISTew Enp;land south to 
Georgia and Alabama. There are apparently, however, no common 
plants which are confined to the Midland Zone in Marylaml, for 
those species which do not range south-east into the Coastal Zone do 
range west into the Mountain Zone, while those not ranging into the 
Mountain Zone are all found in the Coastal Zone. It is only in the 
Midland Zone that the limestone plants Asplcnium ruta-muraria and 
C ystnpteris hidbifpra and the serpentine plant Talimim teretifoUum 
have been found. Blius; aromattca, too, has been observed only in 
the Midland Zone, and ajipears to be more abundant on limestone. 

Under present-day conditions there appenrs to be a small element 
of the Midland flora whicJi occurs in tlie foot hills of Allegany 
County and in the Blue Ridge and Catoetin Mountains, which is 
not found in the Lower [Midland District. Tliat these species may 
jiave occurred in tlie Lower ]\Iiil]and District when the vegetation 
of Maryland was in its virgin state appears jirobable from the rare 
occurrence there, in favorable habitats, of species which are asso- 
ciated Avitli them in the Upper Midland District. Among these 
plants are the following: Pi.niis pimr/ens, Corylus 7-osfratn, Hulnulus 
Inpidiis. Adlumia fungosa. Spiraea corymhnsa, Bvhii.<^ ndoi-ahifi. Acer 
nigrum, Acer spicatum and Evpalorium sessilifoliunt. 

Along the Potomac River, and particularly in the vicinity of the 
Great Falls, are found a number of species which are known else- 
where only from the L^pper Midland District or the Mountain Zone. 
These are: Uniola latifolia, Ilysirix hystrix, Allium cernuum, 
Erythronium alhidum, Vagnera stellata, Parietaria pennsylvanica, 
Aconitum uncinatum (fide Ward), TrnnivcLteria carolinensis, Jeffer- 
sonia dlpltylla, Chaerophyllum prociunhens, Erigenia bidhosa. Phlox 
subidala and Vibiinnim pvbescens. 


Tlie occurrence of these species east of the Blue Ridge only along 
tlie Potomac may well be accounted for by the transport of seeds by 
the river. 

The MouNTAi^r Zone. 

An inspection of the ranges outside Maryland of the twenty-nine 
species already mentioned as confined to the IMountain Zone shows 
eight of them to be confined to the Alleghany mountains, ranging 
from jSTew York or Pennsylvania south to North Carolina or Georgia. 
These are : CUntonia umhellulata, Cimicifuga americana, Anemone 
trifolia, BicucuUa eximia, Saxifraga micranthidifolia, Azalea lutea, 
Menziesia pilosa and Bolidago monticola. 

The remaining number of Mountain Zone species range in the 
North from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia or Ontario west to Michi- 
gan, Minnesota or Manitoba, or indeed as far as Alaska in the case 
of Strcpiopus roseus and Corniis canadensis. Of the total number of 
Mountain Zone species the southern limit of range in the AUeglianies 
is as follows: 14 south to Georgia, 7 to North Carolina, 1 to Vir- 
ginia, 7 to Maryland. The species finding their southern limit in 
Mai-yland are the following: Larix laricina, Alnus incana, Coptis 
trifolia, Dalibarda rcpens, Cornus canadensis, Gentiana linearis and 
Lonicera ciliata. 

The most conspicuous habitat confined to the Mountain Zone is 
the swamp forest, which finds its typical development in the narrow 
mountain valleys with insuflScient longitudinal slope to effect ready 
drainage. In and about these swamps are found a number of the 
typically northern forms, for example Picea mariana, Larix laricina, 
Cornus canadensis, Dalibarda repens, Gentiana linearis, and Coptis 
trifolia. The predominance of Picea mariana and Pinus strobus 
along streams, in swamps and on the rich soil of flood plains and 
glades is of considerable interest in connection with the absence from 
the Mountain Zone of such common species characteristic of similar 
habitats in the Midland and Coastal Zones as Uhnus americana, 
Uhnvs fulra, Platamts occidcntulis and Acer saccliarinum. 

do the plant life of maeylaxd 

Gexeeal Considerations. 

The floristic distinctness of the three Zones of Maryland rests on 
the fact that their boundaries are the collective limits of geographical 
distribution of considerable numbers of species. Not only are cer- 
tain species limited absolutely in their range by the "Fall-line" or 
by the contour of 1500 feet elevation, whicli are tlie natural lines 
bounding the Zones, but others are abundant on one side of these 
bounds and rare on the other; in otlier words some plants terminate 
abruptly in their range, while others merge from abundance through 
iufrequency to rarity, and at length disappear. Liquidambar 
styraciflua, Clethra ahiifolia and the other plants listed on page 76 
are examples of such as terminate abruptly in range, while Tsiuja 
canadensis merges from abundance in the Mountain Zone and the 
Upf)er [Midland District through scarcity in the Lower Midland 
District to rarity in the Coastal Zone. 

The importance of temperature in determining the bounds of plant 
distribution has long been recognized and is still being overempha- 
sized by certain writers. The importance of conditions directly or 
indirectly determined by the character of the soil in controlling the 
local distribution and occurrence of plants has also been appreciated 
since the writing by DeCandolle of his "Essai filementaire de 
Geographie Botanique" in 1820. While the immediate influence of 
climatic factors, particularly temperature, in determining the geo- 
graphical distribution of plants is by no means to be underestimated, 
it needs, nevertheless, to be borne in mind that local soil conditions 
not only determine the occurrence of plant species witliin their area 
of distribution, but in many cases play a part also in determining the 
exact position of their limit of geographical distribution. An 
inquiry into the nature of the liabitat of several species which have 
the same geogTaphical range will again and again show the habitat 
of these species to be the same, as is true of the pine barren plants of 
the southeastern states and the bog plants of the northern states, the 
geographical distribution of these species being largely dependent on 
the distribution of the particular physical conditions which are favor- 
able to their development. 


Those particular constellations of physical conditions which we 
are accustomed to designate by the loose term "habitats" are different 
from each other chiefly by reason of differences in soil conditions, 
operating directly or indirectly. The fundamental determination 
of the soil characteristics of habitats by geology and topography and 
by physiographic changes, gives to the most marked habitats a 
definite geogi-aphical range. The three classes of plants of the 
Coastal Zone of Maryland which have already been listed, those of 
the Strand, of Salt Marshes and Pine Barrens are examples of plants 
which are limited to the Coastal Zone in their distribution by reason 
of the limitation of their habitats through geologic and physio- 
graphic causes. Each of the Floristic Zones possess habitats almost 
as strongly marked in their physical conditions and their vegetation 
as are the Salt Marshes and the Strand, as for example the Serpen- 
tine Barrens of the Lower Midland District and the Swamps of the 
Mountain Zone. In addition to these each Zone possesses many less 
sharply marked habitats in wliich the physical conditions are not so 
extreme and the vegetation not so distinctive. The Sandy Loam 
Upland Swamps and the Sandy Stream Swamps of the Coastal Zone 
are characterized by the abundance of several species which are infre- 
quent in the Midland and ]\Iountain Zones, as well as by purely 
Coastal species. In a sandy swamp two miles southeast of Towson, 
Baltimore County, and therefore about seven miles from the "Fall- 
Line" are to be found Liquidamhar sfy7-aciflua. Ilex opaca. Magnolia 
virginiana, Clethra alnifolia and Vibiirmivi nudum, all of which, 
excepting Ilex opaca, are unknown from any other stations off the 
Coastal Plain. On the southern slope of Sugar Loaf Mountain, in 
Frederick County, 32 miles from the "Fall-line," the soil is a coarse 
sand derived from disintegration of the underlying sandstone. In 
certain places where the topographic conditions render this soil con- 
stantly wet or even saturated, may be found Chionantlius virginica. 
Ilex verticillata, Eupatorium verhenacfoliuni, Eupatorium rotundi- 
folium, Rynchospora glomerata, Xyris caroUniana, Triadenum vir- 
ginicum and Juncus dicliotomus, all of which are common in the wet 
sandy habitats of the Coastal Zone, but are rare in the Midland Zone, 
being found only in such habitats as that just described. In like 
manner the species common in the Midland Zone mav be found infre- 


quently in favorable habitats iu the Coastal Zone. In Charles and 
St. Mary's counties, about the head of the Wicomico River, are 
narrow ravines in which Susquehanna gravel is underlaid by an 
extremely compact and impermeable gray clay of Miocene age, 
analagous to underlying rock in its relation to soil water movement. 
This causes the soil conditions to resemble closely those of ravines 
in the Midland Zone, and here jiiay be found such species as Cercis 
canadensis, Ilamamelis virfiiniana, Hydrangea arhorescens, Cimici- 
fuga racemosa, Heuchera americana and Carex platypliylla, all of 
which are rare in the Coastal Zone. These facts indicate that the 
texture of tlie soil and its topographic position largely determine the 
occurrence of species wliich, were it not for the existence of these 
favoring habitats of restricted area, might be presumed to be absent 
from extended districts. 

Any study of the bounds of species must keep in view the three 
sets of factors which are operative in determining the general area 
of distribution of plants — namely the historical, climatic and 
edaphic, the last comprising all the factors immediately determined 
by the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil. The his- 
torical considerations wliieli have to do with the range of a species 
relate to its phylogenetic origin, its migration and its distribution at 
successive geological periods. The nature of the area of distribution 
of a number of the Coastal species of Maryland at the present day 
is such as to indicate tliat they have migrated northward in the 
Coastal Plain from the South Atlantic states since the most recent 
elevations of the Coastal Plain. These are species which had their 
origin in the South Atlantic states or had been driven thither during 
the Glacial Epoch. The genus Liquidamhar was represented during 
prc-glacial time by several species of wide distribution through the 
northern liemisphere, yet Liquidamhar styraciflua is at present con- 
fined to the Coastal Plain, at least east of the Alleghany Mountains. 
Clethra alnifoUa is known from the Interglacial beds of the Don 
River Valley, Canada, wliioh points to tlie more extensive distribu- 
tion of tliis species during the era of mild climate between the two 
periods of maximum glaciation. tlinn at present. Liquidamhar and 
Clethra are examples of species whicli sought a retreat in the south- 
eastern states during Glacial time and have since migrated north- 


ward along the newly emerged Coastal Plain. Among the numerous 
species endemic to the pine barrens of the southern Coastal Plain are 
doubtless many which have originated since the Glacial Epoch.* 

The present limit of distribution of species coextensive with the 
Coastal Plain is determined by their manner and rate of migration 
quite as much as by any existing external factors. The sharpness 
with Avhich these species are limited by the "Fall-Line" points to 
their northward migration since Glacial time. Tlie limitation of 
species by climatic factors is largely, though not solely, a matter of 
temperature. The gradually decreasing temperature of the growing 
season eneoimtered in passing northward in the Coastal Plain is 
paralleled by the gradual disappearance of species.^ In spite of the 
importance of the temperature element of the climate in relation to 
the general area of distribution of plants, it is not possible to ascribe 
the limiting of the Coastal Zone species to this or to any combination 
of climatic factors. The edaphic conditions in the Coastal Zone and 
the ]\Iidland Zone are in sharp contrast owing to the presence of 
underlying rock in the former, the greater predominance of sands 
and sandy loams in the former and of loams and clays in the latter, 
and the totally different topography in the Uvo. 

The facts already related as to the importance of edaphic factors 
in conditioning the occurrence of Coastal species in the Midland 
Zone and vice versa, are not without bearing on the case of tlie species 
entirely restricted to the Midland and Coastal Zones. The complete 
limitation of species to the Coastal Zone is but a step further in the 
operation of the same laws that limit the Coastal species to restricted 
habitats when they occur in the Midland. The broader lines of 
distribution are drawn by historical and climatic factors, the minor 
details of the limitation of distribution, as well as of local occixrrence, 
are due to edaphic conditions. Where a sharji line of demarcation 
occurs betAveen regions of different edaphic character, as the "Fall- 

*The criteria which serve to indicate the place of origin and paths of 
migration o£ species have been well summed up by Adams, C. C. The South- 
eastern United States as a centre of Geographical Distribution of Flora and 
Tauna. Biological Bulletin, Vol. III., No. 3, 1902, pp. 115-134. 

tFor exact data as to the northern limit of distribution of southern 
Coastal Plain species see: Kearney, Thomas H., Report on a Botanical Sur- 
vey of the Dismal Swamp Region. 1901, pp. 4.t1-457. 


line," the boiinds of species wliicli histoi'y and climate brings near 
the line, will there coincide with it, while in other parts of the range 
of the plant, where its history has been diiferent or the climate now 
differs, it may be able to override qnite as distinct a line of edaphic 

Several of the species confined to tlie Coastal Zone may be found 
in cultivation in the Midland Zone. The writer has noticed Magnolia 
virginiana and Tecoma radicans at Cumberland, and Lonicera sem- 
pervirens near Midlothian, Allegany County. Ilex opaca, too, while 
never found as a tree in the Midland Zone, occurs as a rare shrub. 
These facts indicate that there is nothing in the slightly more rigorous 
climatic conditions of the Midland Zone to exclude the species named, 
and point to the cause of the limitation of their present migration as 
being uncongenial soil conditions or the competition of plants more 
accurately adjusted to these soil conditions. 


AiKix, William E. A., M. D.. Catalogue of Phenogamous Plants and Ferns, 
native or naturalized, growing in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland. 
Transactions of the Maryland Academy of Sciences and Literature. Vol. 
I. pp. 55-91, Baltimore, 1837. 
Lists 1063 species. 
Barton, Bolling W., M. D. Botanical Conditions in Western Maryland. 
The New Pedagogue, Vol. I. pp. 99-101, Baltimore, 1899. 
A popular account of a visit to Garrett County. 
Breretox. J. A., M. D. Prodromus of the Flora Columbiana, pp. 86. Wash- 
ington, 1830. 
Arranged on the Linnean System. 
Caxby, AVilliam M. Notes of Botanical Visits to the Lower part of Dela- 
ware and the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Proceedings of the .\cadem;' 
of Sciences, Philadelphia, 1864, pp. 16-19. 
Notes on 11 species new to Maryland. 
CiucKERiNG, J. W., Jr. a Season's Botanizing. Field and Forest, Vol. III., 
pp. 151-155, 1878. 

Relates in part to a visit to Salisbury and Ocean City, mentioning 
over 20 species which are uncommon or new to the State. 
Clark, Hubert Lyman. Notes on Maryland Plants. Rhodora, Vol. VI., pp. 
176-177, 1904. 

Notes on plants observed in 1903 in the vicinity of Easton and between 
Berlin and Ocean City. Reports four extensions of range. 


CURRAN, H. M. The Forests of Calvert County. Maryland Geological Survey, 
Calvert County, pp. 213-222, 1907. 
Lists 52 species of trees. 
CuRRAN, H. M. The Forests of Cecil County. Maryland Geological Survey, 
Cecil County, pp 295-314, 1902. 
Lists 61 .species of trees. 
CtiRRAN, H. M. The Forests of Garrett County. Maryland Geological Survey. 
Garrett County, pp. 303-329, 1902. 
Lists 60 species of trees. 
DucATEL, J. T. Outlines of the Physical Geography of Maryland, embrac- 
ing its prominent Geological Features. Transactions of the Maryland 
Academy of Sciences and Literature, Vol. L, pp 24-54, with map of the 
State, 1837. 

Contains remarks on the soils and trees of the State, with some men- 
tion of the herbaceous vegetation. The author was at that time State 
Harper, Roland M. Centers of Distribution of Coastal Plain Plants. Science. 
Vol. XXV., pp. 539-541, 1907. 

Comments on the absence of the characteristic pine barren plants 
from Maryland and Delaware. 
Holm, Theodore. Third List of Additions to the Flora of Washington, D. C. 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. VIL, pp. 
105-132, 1892. 
Hol:m. TiiEODORf;. Fourth List of Additions to the Flora of Washington. 
D. C. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. X., 
pp. 29-43, 1896. 
Holm, Theodore. Fifth List of Additions to the Flora of Washington, D. C. 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. XIV., p. 7, 1901. 
Hc.nter, Ward a.xd Knowlton. Botany of the Zoological Park (of Washing- 
ton, D. C). Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1890, pp. 
Knowltox, F. H. Second List of Additions to the Flora of Washington, 
D. C. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. III., 
pp. 106-132, 1886. 

Mell, C. D. The Forests of St. Mary's County. Maryland Geological Survey, 

St. Mary's County, pp. 183-203, 1907. 
Lists 62 species of trees. 
NoRTo.N, J. B. S. and Walls, E. P. The Wild Legumes of Maryland and 

their Utilization. Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 

100, 1905. 

Oldberg, Rudolph. Mosses of the District of Columbia. Field and Forest, 
Vol. II.. 1876. 


Palmer, William. A Rich Locality. The Fern Bulletin, Vol. IX., p. 18, 1901. 
Notes on a few species of ferns growing near Potomac, Montgomery- 
Rafinesqtje, C. S. New and Rare Plants of Maryland near Baltimore. 
Atlantic Journal, Vol. I., p. 119, 1832. 

Notes on the occurrence of some nine species, with descriptions of 
two that are new. 
RusBY, H. H. A Botanical Excursion to Assateague Bay. Bulletin of the 
Torrey Botanical Club, Vol. XVIII.. pp. 250-255, 1891. 
Notes on a number of species observed in Worcester County. 
Se.\man, William Henry. Remarks on the Flora of the Potomac. Field 
and Forest. Vol. I., pp. 21-25, 1875 

A popular account of the finding of a few species of interest along 
the Potomac River near Washington. 
Shrivee, Howard. List of Wild Flowers and Trees in the Vicinity of Cumber- 
land, Maryland, pp. 38, Cumberland, 1901. 

Lists 854 species in the order of their blooming time. 
Shull, George H. Geographic Distribution of Isoetes saccharata. Botanical 
Gazette, Vol. XXXVI.. pp. 187-202. with map, 1903. 

Notes on all the known stations for this plant, the geographical dis- 
tribution of which is correlated with the geomorphic movements of the 
Coastal Plain. 
Sollers, Basil. Check List of Plants compiled for the AHcinity of Baltimore, 
pp. 72, Baltimore, 1888. 
Lists 1609 species. 
SoT.LERs, Basil. The Flora of Maryland. Maryland, its Resources, Industries 
and Institutions, Chapter VI., pp 218-235. Baltimore, 1893. 

A brief account of the general features of the vegetation and flora of 
Steele, Edward S. Sixth List of Additions to the Flora of Washington, 
D. C. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. XIV., 
pp. 47-86, 1901. 
SuDWORTii. George B. The Forests of Allegany County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Allegany County, pp. 263-290, 1900. 
Lists 72 species of trees. 
Waki), Lester F. Guide to the Flora of Washington and Vicinity. Bulletin 
of the United States National Museum No. 22, pp. 264, with map, Wash- 
ington, 1881. 

Lists 1211 Phanerogams, 42 Ferns and Fern-allies, 98 Mosses, 29 
Hepatics and 4 Algae. 
Ward, Lester F. First List of Additions to the Flora of Washington, D. C. 
Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, Vol. II., p. 84, 1885. 


Waters, Campbell E. The Flora of a Sphagnum Bog. Science, Vol. XXII., 
p. 15, 1905. 

Notes on some of the uncommon plants found growing around Saw 
Mill Pond, near Glenburnie, Anne Arundel Count.v. 
■vVater.^, Cajiphell E. Some rare Perns found near Baltimore. .Johns Hop- 
kins University Circulars, Vol. XIV., p. 25. 1895. 

Mentions the occurrence of 22 species of Perns and Fern-allies. 
Zox, Raphael. Chestnut in Southern Maryland. Bureau of Forestry, Bul- 
letin 53, Washington, 1904. 

Contains data as to the composition of the forests ot the Western 
Shore district of the Coastal Zone. 

. Florula Columbiensis, Washington, 1819. 

. Flora Columbiana, or Catalogue of Plants growing 

without Cultivation, collected by members of the Potomac-Side Natural- 
ists' Club in the District of Columbia and its immediate Vicinity, pp. 
31, Vv'ashington, 1876. 

Lists 1154 Phanerogams, 37 Perns and Fern-allies. 97 Mosses and ?9 










The vegetation of the Eastern Shore District of the Coastal Zone 
is more highly diversified than that of any of the other ecological 
districts of Maryland. This is dne in part to the variety of soils, 
in part to the extent and diversity of the sAvamps and marshes, and 
in no small share to the fact that the most common and characteristic 
forest tree of the southernmost counties, the Loblolly Pine (Plniis 
taeda), finds the northern limit of its range for Maryland in Kent 
and Queen Anne's counties, while several of the tree species common 
in the latter countries, as well as in the Midland Zone, are rare or 
absent on the southern Eastern Shore. The most conspicuous differ- 
ence between the upland forests of the upper and lower counties of 
the Eastern Shore is that the former are deciduous, with oak, chest- 
nut and hickory predominating, while the latter are evergi'een witli 
the Loblolly Pine predominating, or the Loblolly together witli the 
Scrub Pine {Pinus virginiana) .'^ The visitor to the shores of the 
Anemessex River, in Somerset C'ounty, will find a forest composed 
almost solely of Loblolly Pine, in which the Chestnut and the Chest- 
nut Oak are absent ; while on the hills of Elk Neck, in Cecil County, 
he will find that the last-named trees form almost the entire forest 
stand and that the Loblolly is absent, not ranging so far north. 

While the limits of the ranges of ti'ecs are important in bringing 
about a diversity of forest composition in ditferent sections of the 

*The Loblolly is locally known on the Eastern Shore as the "Bull Pine" 
and the Scrub Pine as the "Spruce Pine." 


I'lasttTii Sliore, yet tlic clianiftfr of tlic soils is fif veiy great iiiipor- 
tanee in this respect. In Kent County near the limit of the Loblolly 
Pine it oecnrs only on Elkton Clay and Meadow,* while in Worcester 
and Wicdiiiicd countios it dcenrs on soils of every texture from clay 
to sand. In the northern part of Wicomico County and the southern 
]»art of Tall)()t County occur loams which support a forest largely 
nuule u]) of <l('ciduous sjiecies, and on similar soils in northern Queen 
Anne's and in Kent counties is a similar forest made up exclusively 
of deciduous species. While the general distribution of the Loblolly 
Pine is determined by historical and climatic factors, yet its relative 
abundance at different localities within its area is determined by the 
character of the soil. While it grows on a diversity of soils 100 
miles south of its limit, yet it extends to its limit chiefly on the soils 
which are everywhere most favorable to its dominance. The occtii'- 
rcnce of deciduous forests on loam at ]ioints 50 miles soutli of ]iure 
stands of Loblolly Pine on Elkton Clay shows the great imporlauce 
of soils in sorting and rendering locally dominant or rare the various 
species of the arborescent flora. 

As already pointed out in the intro(hu'fion, the soils of the Kastern 
Shore fall into two classes of very distinct texture a) the heavy 
Elkton Clay, Meadow and related soils (locally known as "white oak 
soil") and b) the various types of sand and sandy loam. While the 
distinctness of the physical texture of these two classes of soils is the 
primary factor in determining the character and distribution of 
vegetation in the upland, nevertheless the topography plays a second- 
ary role in determining the average moisture content of both the 
heavy and the light classes of soils. In the River Swamps and 
Mai'shes the topographic position, conditioning as it does a saturation 
of the soil, reduces the importance of its physical texture to a negli- 
gible minimum. Yet in the T])land Swam]is the character of the 
soil does cause differences of vegetation in spite of its high moisture 
content, because of the more favorable conditions for the movenunit 
and aeration f)f tlie soil water in the Sandy Loam Upland Swamps as 
contrasted with the Clay Upland Swamps. Indeed the differences 
in the vegetation of tb(> heavy and light soils here should not be 

*The term "Meadow" is here employeil in tlie technical sense in which it is 
used b,v the United States Soil Bureau. 



o H 

m "-J 

« 9 

o ;g 




attribiited entirely to their pliysical texture in view of the ahnost 
universal acidity of the Elkton Clay and Meadow. 

A matter of considerable importance in relation to the distribution 
of vegetation on the Eastern Shore is the position and character of 
the Talbot and Wicomico formations, the most recent deposits of 
Pleistocene age. These formations exist as nearly level terraces, the 
former and older of which lies almost entirely inland and is in an 
early sequential stage of erosion, while the latter borders the Chesa- 
peake Bay as a low terrace of \-arying width. The features of the 

-Map of Maryland showing the distribution of the Talbot and 
Wicomico formations. 

topograiihy and soils of these formations jiave been descrilied in the 
introduction and their area is shown on the accompanying map. 

In tlie Tallwt Formation there is no relation between the topog- 
raphy and the distribution of tlie soils, .so that there occur areas of 
well-drained Elkton clay or Meadow and well-drained sandy loams 
and sands, as well as areas of these same soils which lie so as to be 
almost constantly saturated. Distinctions are observable between the 
vegetation of the well drained clay and the well drained light soils. 
and also between the poorly drained areas on the tAvo classes of soils. 
The Avell drained soils will be licre designated as "Upland" and the 
poorly drained ones as "Upland Swamps," in distinction to the 


swamps which border streams. Upland Swamps commonly occupy 
tlie ill-defined divides between streams, yet altogether identical 
swamps occur back of broad areas o£ marsh. Many considerations 
make it more natural to treat the Upland Swamps in connection with 
the Upland rather than with the River Swamps and the Stream 
Swamps, one of the most important of these being the easy transition 
Avhich often exists between the Upland and the Upland Swamps. 
The poor drainage of the Talbot terrace causes considerable fluctua- 
tions in the soil moisture conditions of Upland Swamps according to 
rainfall. Inundation is common on the clay in the early summer; 
on the lighter soils the fluctuations of moisture content Avith rainfall 
are more rapid, and the Upland Swamps on these soils are more 
sharply limited as well as more distinct from the Upland in their 
vegetation than is the case on the clay. 

As pointed out in the introduction, the sandy loams and sands 
predominate in the Talbot terrace south of the JSTanticoke River, with 
small areas of Elkton clay lying inland. On the Bay side of 
Somerset County and north of the Nanticoke River the Elkton clay 
and Meadow predominate in the Talbot terrace. Throughout 
Somerset, Dorchester, Talbot and Queen Anne's counties the Upland 
Clay Forest is a pure stand of the Loblolly Pine or a mixed stand in 
which that tree is dominant. The existence of the pure stands is 
to be accounted for in part by the possible influence of the immediate 
proximity of tide-water in excluding other species, and in part by 
the fact that in this area and upon this soil tlie Loblolly Pine is tho 
tree which most readily reseeds abandoned fields and some cut-over 
areas. In Worcester and Wicomico counties, where the areas of 
Elkton Clay lie remote from the tide-water, the forest exhibits a 
predominant proportion of the same deciduous species which in less 
])ercentages are characteristic of the soil nearer to tide water. In 
Kent County the Loblolly Pine reaches its northernmost range and 
pTire stands of it have not been seen north of Cliffs Landing, on 
Chester River, nor isolated trees north of Fairlee. The Elkton clay 
of Kent County, however, and tlie almost identical Meadow as well. 
bear a forest made up of just those species which are associated with 
tlie Loblolly Pine to the Southward. These are such trees as are 


found on other soil? chiefly in swamps or low ground, and the fact 
is even more notahly applicable to the shrubs. 

The Clay Upland Swamps occur extensively in Dorchester County 
and are characterized by a close similarity to the ordinary Clay 
Upland forest, but have a greater proportion of deciduous trees, a 
richer and constant stand of shi-ubs and almost complete absence of 
iierbaceous vegetation. Here prevail conditions extremely hostile to 
soil aeration, and the plant covering is more notable for the species 
which are absent from it than for those that are present. 

Under Sandy I-oam Upland "Forests and Sandy Loam Upland 
Swamps ■will be comprised the description of all vegetation on the 
Sassafras and Portsmouth sandy loams as well as on the Norfolk and 
Portsmouth sands, for there are no marked and constant character- 
istics distinguishing the plant-covering of these several soils. On 
the Sandy Loam Uplands there may occur pure or nearly pure stands 
of the Loblolly Pine, but these are beyond doubt due to artificial 
conditions. There is no doubt but that the virgin forests of the 
lighter soils of the Talbot formation formed a mixed stand of pine 
and deciduous species. The Scrub Pine is a freqiient associate of 
the Loblolly in the Sandy Loam Uplands, and at many localities 50 
per cent, of the forest is made up of the Scrub Pine, the White Oak, 
other oaks and the SAveet Gum. 

The Sandy Loam Upland Swamps occur chiefly south of the 
Nanticoke Kiver, and may occupy untapped divides or may lie back 
of marshes. The predominant tree is the Loblolly Pine, while the 
admixture of 10 to 40 per cent, of deciduous species is made up of 
the Willow Oak, Water Oak, Cow Oak, Tlolly, Mag-nolia and White 
Oak. Where the deciduous species are more abundant the under- 
growth is dense ; wliere the Loblolly is dominant the undergroA\'th is 

The Upland forests of the Wicomico terrace exhibit a marked 
difference in their composition as one travels northward from Salis- 
bury through the portions of Wicomico, Caroline, Queen Anne's and 
Kent covmties which lie near the Delaware line. The difference is 
chiefly due to the gradual disappearance of the Loblolly Pine and 
the coming in of hickories, the Chestnut and the Chestnut Oak, 
resulting in a transition from forests wliich are cliieflv coniferous in 


Wicomico County to tliose tlial are entirely deciduons in Kent. 
Pure stands of the Loblolly Pine are not wanting on the Wicomico 
terrace in Wicomico Coimty, and the Scrub Pine is far more abun- 
dant than on the Talbot terrace. The two pines occur together, some- 
times forming purely coniferous forest or in other localities farther 
north exhibiting an increasing percentage of deciduous trees. The 
Scrub Pine is fovnid in pure stands at many places in Caroline 
County, diie again to unusual conditions. It is only to the north 
of Denton, Hillsborongii and Queenstown that the deciduous element 
is dominant. 

The Kavine Slopes of the Wieomicd terrace are distinguished in 
their vegetation by rehxtionship with the ]\[idland Zone forests. 
These slopes are either old beaches of the Talbot sea, in which case 
they may lead down to flood plains with meandering streams or lo 
estuaries, or they may lie at a greater elevation and be due to the 
erosion of the Wicomico terrace. The soil is often gravel* forming 
a congenial habitat for the Chestnut ajid Chestnut Oak, the former 
of which reaches its southern liiiiit for the Eastern Shore near Agnei-, 
Caroline County, and the latter at Watts C*reek, Cai'oline County, 
both stations being on Ravine Slopes. 

The narrow Flooil Plains along the streams of the Wicomico ter- 
race, which have l)een deposited since the initial stages of the erosion 
of the terrace, possess deep ricli soils tlic water content of which is 
constantly higher than that of the r))l:iiid. Imt \-ari('s with the degree 
to which the Flood Plain has be<'n liuilr up. The arborescent flora 
of this habitat is related to that of ^iniihir habitats in the Midland 
Zone rather than to any of the types of Swamp on the Eastern Shore. 

The Upland Swamps of the Wicomico terrace are most abundant 
in the northeastern ]iart of Queen Aime's County, where they occupy 
the uneroded surface of the terrace at elevations of GO to 70 feet, at 
not more than five to eight miles from tide water. With the e.xcejD- 
tion of the absence of pine these Swamps bear a close resemblance to 
the Clay Upland Swamps of Dorchester County, both in their tree 
species and in the lu.xuriance of the undergrowth. Among the com- 
monest trees are Black Gum, Swamp Oak, Ueil ]\raple and Sweet 

*See the Soil map of Kent County; Division of Soils. Field Operations, 1900. 


Aloui;- the Pocoinoke River and its tributaries. Dividing- and 
Xassawango creeks, is found a ty])(' of swamp, which will here be 
designated as "River Swamp," in which the Bald Cypress is the 
characteristic tree. These Swamps extend from just above Rehoboth 
to the Delaware line, occupying a zone on each side of the river not 
exceeding half a mile in width. Tlie soil of the River Swamps is 
saturated or at times inundated, tlie level of the river varying with 
both tide and rainfall. The Wliite Cedar is a rare associate of the 
Bald Cypress, the other species being deciduous, as Red Maple, Black 
Gum, Sweet Gum and Green Ash. There is a scattering growth of 
shrubs but the herbaceous vegetation is very poor. 

Considerable difference is observable between the River Swamps 
of the Pocomoke and the type of Swamp which borders the upper 
waters of the Xanticoke and Choptank an<l all the smaller streams of 
the Talbot formation, which will be designated ''Stream Sw'araps."* 
The most striking characteristic of the Stream Swamps is the low 
stature of the trees and the irregular sky-line which they present. 
While the River Swamps begin on the Pocomoke just above the high- 
est point of saline influence, the Stream Swaiups do not appear in 
ascending the Choptank until 20 miles of brackish and fresh nuirsh 
liave been passed. There is no ohvinus difference in the physical 
conditions on the two rivers to aeconnt for the difference between the 
occurrence of swamp on the one and marshes on the other. It is 
true that the Bald Cypress does not o<^'eur im the Choptank River 
(and apparently not on tlu^ Xanficokc, while it is rare on the 
Wicomico), and leaving out the Cypress from the River Swamps 
would make them not very different in composition from the Stream 
Swamps, although they would still lie very different in the higher and 
regular stature of the trees, anil in the accompanying herbaceous 
vegetation. If the difference were merely a matter of the range of 
the Cypress we would expect to find Stream Swamps on the Choptank 
where we find marshes. 

The Marshes of the Eastern Sliore fall into two classes, sail and 
fresh, which grade into each other along ilie larger streams. The 

*The Stream Swamps are locally known as "cripple," a word which is said 
to be a. contraction of the Dutch kreupelbosch. meaning underwood, a word 
borrowed by the early settlers of New Jersey from their New York neighbors. 


Salt Marshes are characterized by a simplicity of flora and by a 
uniform physiognomy of the vegetation, while the Fresh Marshes are 
usually extremely rich in species, and vary greatly in aspect and 
flora in places only a few rods apart. Tn the broad marsh lands of 
Dorchester County the fresh portions of the marsh next the Upland 
resemble the Salt Marshes in their uniformity of physiognomy and 
to some extent in their simplicity of flora. Along the upper waters 
of the larger rivers the Marshes give place to Stream Swamps with 
an outer zone of emersed aquatic plants. The Salt Marshes have 
their greatest extent through Somerset, Dorchester and Talbot coun- 
ties, along the Chesapeake Bay and its larger estuaries. In the 
estuaries which end bluntly, as the .^nemessex in Soiaerset County 
and the Little Choptank in Dorchester County, the Salt Marsh is 
found to their heads, while in those that are fed by fresh rivers, as 
the ISTanticoke and Choptank, the Salt Marsh merges into Fresh 
Marsh at about the point where the estuary ceases and the stream 
may be said to begin. Along the landward side of Sinepuxent Bay 
and Chincoteague Bay (Assateague Sound) there is considerable 
marsh land, which is mostly Fresh Marsh, merging back into Sandy- 
loam Upland Swamps. 

The fresh water aqiiatic vegetation of the Eastern Shore is best 
developed in the artificial mill-ponds, where species are found in 
abundance which must have been much less common under virgin 
conditions, when their occurrence was limited to the streams. The 
difference in the floras of quiet and running waters are slight. 
There are but few stagnant ponds and no peat bogs in the Eastern 
Shore. The aquatic flora of brackish waters is poorer than that 
of the fresh, and that of salt water poorer still. The map (Plate 
V.) drawn to show the distribution of terrestrial halophytic plants 
will serve equally well to show the lower limits of the brackish 
water aquatics in the rivers and at the head of the Chesapeake. 

The vegetation of the Dunes and Strand along the ocean front 
is characteristically devoid of trees and made up of a limited num- 
ber of species of grasses and other herbaceous plants of xerophil- 
ous character. At several places in Chesapeake Bay there are 
recently formed hooks and spits in which the soil is a coarse sand 
and the vegetation similar to that of the Ocean Dunes. 


Permitting the above brief sketch of the character and location 
of the plant habitats, or habitat-groups, of the Eastern Shore to 
serve to orient the reader, each of these will now be treated in 
detail in the order mentioned. 

Upland Vegetation. 

the talbot terrace. 

■ Clay Upland. — No one who has traveled the waters of the Ches- 
apeake Bay can have failed to notice the pure stands of Loblolly 
Pine which occupy islands and narrow necks of land adjacent to 
tide water, as at Poplar Island in Talbot County, and near Marion 
in Somerset County. In the interior such pure stands are not ab- 
sent, but far less frequent than are mixed stands in which the 
Loblolly predominates. In what manner and to what extent the 
proximity of salt water may be responsible for the purity of these 
stands is not apparent upon observation, but their almost universal 
occurrence in such situations makes it at least probable that there 
may be some such influence operating to eliminate other tree species, 
and that the pure stands are not due, in all cases at least, to arti- 
ficial reforestation. Away from the immediate proximity of the 
shore the typical forest of the Clay Upland has the Loblolly Pine 
as its predominant tree with from 15% to 50% of the Scrub Pine 
or deciduous species. In the Elkton Clay of central Worcester 
County, however, the Loblolly gives way to a larger percentage 
of the accompanying trees, while in Kent County and the small 
areas of Elkton Clay in Cecil County the deciduous species alone 
make up the forest stand. 

The Scrub Pine is never so abundant as the Loblolly Pine in 
the typical areas, although it is more so at some localities in cen- 
tral Worcester County, as near Wesley. In Talbot County the Scrub 
Pine is rare in the lower part of Bay Hundred District, Broad 
Creek Neck and Deep Neck; in the upper part of Broad Creek 
Neck and near Claiborne there are some stands in which it forms 
15%, while near Eoyal Oak it increases to 30% of the stand. The 
increase in the proportion of the Scrub Pine on passing inland 
is characteristic of all parts of the Elkton Clay, and its absence 


from the Clay Upland Swamps, together with its abundance on 
the lighter soils of the Wicomico fonnation points to the better 
drainage and aeration of the clay as being more favorable to its 
oecTirrence. The deciduous species which are the most frequent 
and abundant associates of the Loblolly on the Elkton Clay are 
the Sweet Gum and the White Oak. Near the shores the Sweet 
Gum often occurs in small percentages as the only deciduous tree, 
as at many places in Bay Himdred District in Talbot County. 
Other CDmnion associates are the Willow Oak, the Spanish Oak 
and the Sour Gum.*^ 

In the extensive clay areas of Dorchester County the Loblolly 
is dominant ; its most characteristic associates are the White Oak, 
the Spanish Oak, the Sweet Gum, the Swamp Oak, the Willow 
Oak and the Sour Gmn ; with 10% to 15% of the forest made up 
of Scrub Pine, Black Oak, Persimmon, Dogwood, Holly, Pig-nut 
Hickory, Sassafras, Ked Maple and Beech. In central Worcester 
County the dominance of the Loblolly yields to a groujiing of 
Loblolly, Scrub Pine, Willow Oak, White Oak and Swamp Oak, 
with the deciduous species often predominating. On the Meadow 
soil of Kent County, near Tolchester, there is a purely deciduous 
stand of Willow Oak, White Oak, Sweet Gum, Eed Maple, Spanish 
Oak, Sweet Gum and Black Haw, the same species that are the 
associates of the Loblolly in Talbctt and Dorchester counties. On 
one of the nprthernninst areas nf Elkton Clay, a ravine bottom 
near Elkton, Cecil County, is a stand of "Willow Oak, White Oak, 
Black Oak, Chestnut, Beech, Bed jMajde, Pig-nut Hickory and 
Holly, which agrees in make-up with the deciduous element of the 
typical areas, with the addition i)f the Chestnut, which is extremely 
abundant on neighboring soils in Cecil County. The Elkton Clay 
Upland and the Elkton Clay Swamps are notable throughout for 
the absence of Scrub Pine, Black Jack Oak, Tulip tree and the 
Ehn, all of wliich arc abundant on other soils of the Talbot forma- 
tion or on the Wicomico terrace. 

In .luiie I'.tOl a grove of Loblolly Pino near Claiborne, Talbot 
Covmtv was visited, which has since licon cut. Ilic jnni's were 

*In all enumerations of siJOfies they are named in the order of their 




\ i:(,r:rA ri< 




alxjiit sevcntv-tivc ycavs old ami SO tVet hiii'li, tlio grove displaying 
a 2)liysiogniiiny wliicli was uinlonbtcdly iinicli nearer that of the 
virgin forests of the Clay I'plaiid than any other stand seen. There 
were no deciduous trees of the same height as the jiines, but there 
were cnongh from 40 to 60 feet high to form a nearly continnons 
eanojiy of deciduons foliage beneath that of the pines. The Span- 
ish, White and Black Oaks made up aboTit 70% of the deciduous 
trees, Sweet Gum, Holly and the Willow Oak forming the renuiin- 
der. Among the saplings G to 10 feet in height were a number of 
Chestnut and a few of the Chestnut Oak, neither of which trees 
has been seen elsewhere in more than four localities off the gravel 
beach of the Talbot sea simth of Denton and Qncenstown. With 
them were Dog-wood, Bayberry and the Blue berry and young trees 
of the Holly. The herbaceous vegetation was very poor and the 
seedling trees were exclusivly those of the predominant oaks. 

The shrubby vegetation of the Clay Upland Forests varies in its 
density in accordance with the dominance of the coniferous or the 
deciduous trees. In pure or nearly pure growths of the Loblolly 
or the Lobliilly and Scrub Pines the shrubs are fi'w and scattere<l, 
tlie floor (if the forest often being almost l>are of any vegetation 
and smoothly carpeted with ]iiue needles. Where the deciduons 
ti'ees are more abundant the shrubs are more numerous. In the 
pure stands of Loblolly near tide-water Myrica caroUnensis, Myrica 
cerifcra and Baccharis halimifolia are the connnonest shrubs. Else- 
where additional common species are: 

}'iicriiinnn sfiiinnicniii 
T iiccninnii rnn/mJiosinn 
(iiii/hissdcia rcsiiiosa 
Viburnum deii ta i u in 
Azalea nudi flora 
A'oJisDia Uijii.siriiKi 
1 ilniriiiDn prunifoJium 
Aniiia sphiosa 
Aranid iirhiitifolia. 


The herbaceous vegetation of these forests is poor both in species 
and individuals. The Grasses and Sedges are abundantly repre- 
sented, while even the best drained areas are poor or wanting in 
a number of forms characteristic of the Sandy Loam forests, as for 
example the species of Meibomia and Lespedeza, Baptisia tinctoria, 
Siylosanthes hifiora. Cassia nictitans, Euphorhia ipecacuanhae, 
Adopogon carolinianum, Specularia perfoUata and Ceanothus 
americanus. In the pure or nearly pure coniferous stands the fol- 
lowing are the commonest species: 

Melampymm lineare 
Panicum capillare 
Panicum hariulatum, 
Solidago hicolor 
Dantlionia spicaia 
Chimaphila maculcda 
Panicum microcarpo)i 
Eatonia nitida 
Oxalis stricta 
Aster undulatus 
Chimaphila umbellata 
Eatonia pennsylvanica 
Carex caroliniana 
Anthoxanthum, odoratum 
Solidago odor a 
Cassia chamaecrista 
Lespedeza procumbens 
Carex vestita. 

Clay Upland Swamps. — Clay Upland Swamps are not sharply 
delimited from the Clay Upland, as before stated. They are to be 
found in their most pronounced character and greatest extent in 
Dorchester County in Drawbridge, Bucktown, Church Creek, Lakes 
and Parsons Creek Districts — the- region in which there is the 
largest area of Elkton Clay or related soils undissected by estuaries. 

The Upland Swamps never bear pure stands of Loblolly Pine, 
and Scrub Pine is altogether absent, while the same deciduous 


species that are subordinate in the Upland are here more abimdant. 
Among these Sweet Gum, White Oak, Sour Gum, Willow Oak, Red 
Maple and Swamp Oak are the most frequent, while Holly and Cow 
Oak are occasional. In many localities the Loblolly Pine forms 
as little as 10% or 15% of the stand. 

The shrubs are richer in the number of individuals than in any 
other forests of the Eastern Shore District, comprising: 

Cletlira alnifolia 
Xolisma ligustrina 
Vaccinium corymbosum 
Azalea viscosa 
Leucothoe racemosa 
Viburnum dentatum 
Itea virginica 
Vibuimum prunifolium 
Magnolia virginiana 
Ilex verticillata 
Cornus florida 
Ahiiis rugosa. 

The dense shade of the trees and shrubs makes the floor of the 
Clay Upland Swamps very poor in herbaceous vegetation. The 
only common species are: Carex caroliniana, Carex comosa, Panic- 
ularia pallida, Carex lupulina, Carex hirta. 

Thin and scattered beds of peat moss {Sphagnum) are extremely 
abundant in the swamps, although unaccompanied by any charac- 
teristic bog plants. In depressions in the forest where there is 
standing water throughout at least the early summer may be found 
a richer representation of pahistrine plants. 

Mijriophylluni verticillnfirm 
Polygonum, hydropiper 
Isnardia pahisiris 
Proserpinaca palustris 
Lycopus rubelliis 
Trladenum virginicum 
Gratiola sphaerocarpa 


Callitriclte licferdpliylla 
Bhexia mariana 
J uncus effusus 
Eleocharis tenuis 
Eleocharis ciifiehnanni. 

Saxdy Loam Uplamd Foeksts. — In tlio Sandy Liiam Upland 
Forests on the Talbot tei'race the eoniferoiis trees freqnentl^y form 
pure stands, and in the mixed stands are always dominant over the 
deeiduons species. The pure coniferous stands may lie made up of 
Loblolly Pine alone, bnt the Scrub Pine is not infrequent, excei)t 
in the northern part of Worcester County in the vicinity of Berlin, 
varying in its percentage from 10% in many localities to as much 
as 60% at some places south of Salislniry. The commonest of the 
deciduous associates is the Spanish Oak, which is likewise infre- 
quent in the vicinity of Berlin. Only slightly less frequent is the 
White Oak, wliile other common sjiecics arc the Black Oak, the 
Post Oak, Black Jack Oak, the Willow Oak, Sweet (iuni. Pig-nut 
Hickory, Sassafras and Dogwood. Less frequent are Sour Ouni, 
Red Maple, Holly, Red Cedar, Persimmon and Scarlet Oak. 

In Worcester County, where the Sandy Loam areas of the Tal- 
bot formation are most extensive, the shrubby vegetation is very 
variable in its abundance of individuals, exceeding, however, the 
Clay Upland areas. Characteristic species are: Vaccuitum conjin- 
bosum. Azalea nudiflora. Myrira carol iiieiisis. T!]ni.< ropalliiia. 
Clethra alnifolia. Ilex glabra. Aralia spi nosa. Less fr('(|iient are: 
Myrica cerifera. Crataegus uiitfJarn. V ihiiriuim pniinfulnun , 
Yiburnnin Jciitatum, JIamatuvlig rinimnnia. 

The herbaceous vegetation is poor in vci-nal and ricli in autumnal 
species. It is richest in individuals wlicve the forrst has ihc largest 
admixture of deciduous species, and in(dudes those characteristic 
of the Clay Upland, together with many fimnd in greater abun- 
dance on the Wicomico terrace. The most fre(iu('nt hcrl)aceous 
species in Worcester and Wicomico counties are: 

Lcspedeza repeiis 
Me ibom la paa Ic ii la la 
Solidago rugosa 


Bapthia linclnrin 
Cracca ririjiniatia 
Lechea iiiinor 
Eupatoriiiiii rohiiijifolnun 
Gerardia purpunii 
Lespedeza prociiinlifiis 
Galium circaezans 
Meiho))! la viridlflorn 
Hieracium rcnusitin 
Aster jiaiiifuJdius 
Anteiniiiria iihuilaiiiinfoha 
Pieris lupiiVnia 
Panic a III inicrocarpon 
Stylosanihcs biflora 
Ascyrum sfans 
Cli iiiuipli iki niociilcda, 
Ch ihiaph ila ii nihclJaia 
Asclepias tiihcrum 
Erar/ruslls pihi.m 
( 'assi/i rliaiiiarrrisf'i 
Asicr piili'iift 
PuJipjalit iimnuiia. 

Less frequent are : 

Etipliorhia ipecac iKtidiae 
Koellia fiexuosa 
Aleibomia nadi flora 
Lobelia inflata 
Diodia teres 
Iloustoiiui. piirpHrcd 
Gyrostarh i/s sliii plc.r 
Elepli a III op us It II da t us 
Bradburya virginiana 
Any cilia dichotoma 
Polygala incarnata 
Aster ericoides 


Stropliostijles umhellata 
Senecio tomentosus 
Gnaplialium purpureuin 
Eupatorium hyssopifolium 
Chrysopsis mariana 
Gymnopogon ambiguus 
Polygala nuttallii 
Rynchosia erecta 
Lobelia nuttallii 
Cyperus retrofractus 
Polyprernum, procumhens 
Uniola laxa 
Sericocarpus asieroides. 

Sandy Loam Upland Swamps. — The Sandy Loam Upland 
Swamps are almost entirely confined to Worcester and Wicomico 
coimties, the only portion of the Talbot formation in which 
there are large continuous areas • of light soils. Typical examples 
may be found in northern Worcester County in a swamp three 
miles east of Berlin on the divide between Turville and Ayer 
creeks, and another two miles northwest of St. Martin, on the 
divide between the St. Martin and Pocomoke rivers. A second 
type of the Sandy Loam Upland Swamp is found just back 
of the broad marshes, and may be seen near Boxiron, Greenback- 
ville and elsewhere along Chincoteague Bay in Worcester County. 
The first of these swamp types is dominated by deciduous trees, 
the latter by pines ; although the proportion of the dominant species 
is different, the floras of the two types are not very unlike. Where 
the Loblolly is the chief tree this habitat resembles in physiognomy, 
and to a slight extent in flora, the moist Pine Barrens of North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The Scrub Pine is invari- 
ably absent. The deciduous species make up from 50% to 80% of 
the stand in the first type and from 10% to 40% in the second type, 
being made up characteristically of Willow Oak, White Oak, Sweet 
Gum, Red Maple, Water Oak, Cow Oak, Black Gum, Magnolia, 
Holly and Dog^vood and less frequently of Fringe Tree and the 
River Birch. 

.\!vr.Axn weather service 117 

The floor of the Uphmd Swamps of the deciduous type is closed 
by a dense stand of shrubs from three to eight feet in height, among 
which the most common are: Myrica cerifera, Viburnum deniatum, 
Rhus vernix, Pieris mariana, Ilea virginica, AraJia spinosa, Aronia 
arhutifolia, Euonymus americanus. 

In the coniferous type of Swamp the stand of shrubs is much 
more open, and at many localities in Worcester County is made up 
almost entirely of Myrica cerifera, although the species mentioned 
above also occur in other places. 

The herbaceous vegetation of the deciduous swamps is almost as 
poor as that of the Clay Upland Swamps, and likewise there is 
often a carpet of peat moss to be found beneath the dense shade 
of the shrubs. In the coniferous swamps, however, there is a richer 
stand of herbaceous plants than in the Upland forests in which the 
conifers are dominant, and it is here that the resemblance to the 
soiithern Pine Barrens is to be noted, to which allusion has been 
made. Among the most characteristic species are the following: 

Eyncliospora glomerata 

Xyris communis 

Bliexia mariana 

Drosera intermedia 

Osmunda regalis 

Cyperus diandrus 

Fimhristylis laxa 

Juncus dicliotomus 

Woodivardia areolata 

Rynchospora cymosa 

Polygala lutea 

Hypericum mutilum 

Lobelia nuttallii 

Fuirena squarrosa vav. Ji is pi da 

Rhexia virgiitica 

Habenaria cristaia 

Diodia virginiana 

Barionia virginica 

Drosera rotundifolia 


Woodivardia virgin Ira 
Gratiola pllosa 
Tnaden um virgimcuvi 
Ryncliospora corniculata 
Panicum harhulntuvi. 


Upland Forest. — Extending fnan northern Worcester County to 
southern Cecil the area of the Uphind of the Wicomico formation 
presents a striking difference soutli of Queenstown, Greensborougb 
and Denton and north of these towns. In both regions the Wicomico 
UpLind is the choicest agricultural land of the several counties, 
and in portions of Queen Anne's and Kent so thoroughly has it been 
cleared that one may often ride for an hour withovit seeing any 
forest whatever. After due allowance has been made for altera- 
tion in the character of the forests due to their being in earlier or 
later stages of reforestation, there is still a very distinct difference 
between the coniferous forests of the southern counties and the 
jjurely deciduous forest of the region lying north of the towns just 
mentioned. These will be discussed separately. 

Coniferous Upland Forest. — These forests are well within the 
range of the Loblolly Pine, and are made up of that tree together 
with the Scrub Pine in varying percentages of admixture. The 
pines may form from 60% to 100% of the stand, decreasing in their 
dominance with age, but never disappearing from their associa- 
tion with the deciduous trees in the oldest stands. The commonest 
of the deciduous trees in this type of forest are the White Oak and 
the Spanish Oak, which together seldom form less than 75% of the 
deciduous element. Other associates are the Black Oak, Sweet 
Gum, Sassafras, the Black Jack Oak, the Pig-nut Hickory, the 
Mocker-nut Hickory, the Willow Oak, the Black Gum and the 
Persimmon. Among the infrequent trees in this forest are the 
Scarlet Oak, the Post Oak, the Beech and the Eed Maple. The 
Chestnut is noticeably rare. 

The variable stand of shrubs is made up of: Gai/lussacia resin- 
osa, Vaccinlum corymbosum, Rhus copaUlna, Myrlca carolinensis, 
Vlhtirninn prinilfolhnn and Cornus florida. 






The herbaceous vegetation is miich the same as that which has 
already been listed for the Clay Upland forests, and like it is poor 
in individuals. 

Throughout the greater part of Caroline and Queen Anne's coun- 
ties the Scrub Pine is more conspicuous than the Loblolly in the 
first stage of reforestation, and there are many stands of Scrub 
Pine north of Denton and Greensborough, that is, within the de- 
ciduous forest area, but these are all destined to become replaced 
by purely deciduous forest in the coiirse of time. 

Deciduous Upland Forest. — The Deciduous Upland Forests of 
the Wicomico formation in Queen Anne's, Kent and southern Cecil 
. counties are made up in part of the same species which accompany 
the pines in the coniferous forest of the lower counties, bvit a few 
new species are encountered here, such as are of much greater 
abimdance in the Midland Zone, and a few species which are quite 
rare in the lower counties now become important constituents of 
the forest. The most noticeable addition to the forest flora is the 
Chestnut, and the most noticeable change in relative abundance 
is that which brings the Hickories to the fore as very important 
constituents of the oldest stands of forest. 

In a grove about 40 years old three miles west of Chestertown, 
Kent County, the Mocker-nut Hickory, the Pig-nut Hickory and 
the Bitter-nut Hickory formed 55% of the forest stand, the Black 
Oak 20%, the Spanish Oak 10% and the Willow Oak, the Sweet 
Gum and the Black Gum 5% each. A second stand was examined 
near Schenk Corners, Queen Anne's County, in which the Hick- 
ories did not predominate, the percentage of the various trees being 
as follows : 



White Oak 


Willow Oak 


Black Oak 


Sweet Gum 


Spanish Oak 


Scarlet Oak 


Mocker-nut Hickory 



Eed Maple 4 

Black Gimi 4 

Post Oak 2 

Swamp Oak 2 

Miscellaneous 1 

The character of the iiiidergTowth and herbaceous vegetation 
in the forests of the Wicomico Upland depends "upon the surface 
soil conditions, ■which are in turn dependent upon the stage of re- 
forestation that has been reached. The subordinate vegetation is 
divisible into a more xerophilous set characterising the earlier stages 
of reforestation, in which the soil is more exposed to the sun's 
rays, and a more hygrophilons set which characterise the shade of 
the later stages of the forest. 

Among the commonest of tlic xerophilous set arc: 

PofentiUa canadensis 
Antennaria pla7itagin i folia 
Hieracium venosum 
Meibomia ohtusa 
Cassia chamaecrista 
Cracca virginiana 
Meibomia viridiflora 
Solidago ncmoralis 
Nahalus albus 
Lespedeza liirfa 
Galium circaezans 
Panicum depaupcratum 
Sericocarpns asteroides 
Lechea minor 
Pyrola rotundifulia 
Polygala cruciata 
Meib omia micli auxi i 
Muhlenbergia diffusa 
Euphorbia corollata 
Ceanothus americana 
E apaiorium verhenaefolium 


Apocynuni androsaemifoliiim 
Hieracium scabrum 
Eatonia nitida 
Polygala verticillata 
Kneiffia fruticosa. 

The most characteristic of the hygrophilous siDecies are: 

Aslcr puniceiis 
Astej' cordifolius 
Solidago caesia 
Viola lanceolata 
Geum canadense 
Lobelia inflata 
Ranunculus ahorfivus 
Scrophularia manjlandica 
Senecio aureus 
Steironema ciUatinn 
Eupatorium perfoUatum 
Vernonia noveboracensis 
Uvularia sessilifolia 
Medeola virginiana 
Asplenium filix-foemina 
Collinsonia canadensis 
Polygala mariana 
Linum virginianum 
Polygonatum biflorum 
Oxalis stricta 
Penthorum sedoidcs 

Eavine Slopes. — The Ravine Slopes of the Wicomico terrace fall 
into two distinct groups, those with gravel soil and those with loam 
or sandy loam soil. The former are the slopes of the beach of the 
Talbot sea, the latter are slopes due to erosion on the Wicomico for- 
mation. On the gravel Ravine Slopes the Chestnut and the Chestnut 
Oak are the dominant trees from the vicinity of Denton and Wye 
Mills northward. The White and Black Oaks are the dominant spe- 


cies southward, and are associated with the Chestnut and Chestnut 
Oak in the upper Eastern Shore. The shrubby vegetation is com- 
monly made up of thickets of Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) and the most 
common of the scattered herbaceous plants is Deschampsia flexuosa. 
On the loam Ravine Slopes is to be found a much richer flora, in 
which the principal trees are the Beech, the White Oak, the But- 
tonwood, the Spanish Oak, the Pig-nut Hickory, the Bed Mulberry, 
the Wild Black Cherry, the Hackberry, the Holly and rarely the 
Bed Oak and the Loblolly Pine. Very infrequent is the Linden 
(Tilia ainericana) , which is not known outside this habitat on the 
Eastern Shore. Another tree common in the Upper Midland Dis- 
trict and Mountain Zone which is known only from a single sta- 
tion on the Eastern Shore is the Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) ^ 
which is found on the Bavine Slopes of Watts Creek in Caroline 
County, three miles south of Denton. A number of shrubs and 
herbs have been seen in Bavine Slope forests which are very rare 
or imknown in other habitats on the Eastern Shore, including 
Corylus americana, Vagnera racemosa. Salvia lyrata, Heuchera 
americana, Asarum canadense, Aristolochia serpentaria, Phegopteris 
phegopteris and Polypodium vulgare. 

It must be noted here that there are a few localities on the Tal- 
bot terrace where it has undergone considerable erosion and pre- 
sents limited areas of Bavine Slope and Flood Plain. This is true 
of the broader parts where it attains the greatest elevation adjoin- 
ing the Wicomico, as in Windmill and Peachblossom branches south 
of Easton, Talbot County. In this region the vegetation of the 
Slopes and Flood Plains on the Talbot terrace is identical with that 
on the Wicomico. 

Flood Plains. — In many of the Flood Plains of the Wicomico 
terrace the average soil moisture content is near saturation, in others 
it is much less, but in even the lowest it ranges much higher than in 
any of the upland soils. The forest is entirely deciduous, in the 
wetter Flood Plains it resembles that of the Stream Swamps to be 
described later, in the drier it resembles the Flood Plain forests of 
the ]\Iidland Zone. 


A typical example of the wet type of Flood Plain has been ex- 
amined along Miles Creek, aboiit three miles east of Trappe in 
southern Talbot County, where the predominant trees are the Ked 
ilaple, Black Gum, White Ash, Winterberry and Magnolia. The 
shrubs are: Clethra alnifolia, Alnus rugosa. Viburnum dentatum, 
Cephalanthus occidentalis and Rhus vernix. Characteristic her- 
baceous species are: Saururus cernuus, Osmunda cinnamomea, 
Onoclea sensibilis, Clirysos'plenium americanum, Chelone glabra, 
Triadenum virginicum, Impatiens biflora, Viola blanda, Ranuncu- 
lus sceleraius, Carex inlumescens and Galimn triflorum. 

The forest of the drier Flood Plains bears less resemblance to 
the Stream Swamps, as the trees are of larger stature, the Red 
ifaple and Black Gum are less abundant, and the Winterberry and 
Cephalanthus are rare : The predominant trees are the Tulip Tree, 
the Elm, the Sweet Gum, the White Ash, the Buttonwood, the 
Hornbeam, the Willow Oak, Eed Maple and Black Gum. Charac- 
teristic shrubs and herbs are: Benzoin benzoin. Viburnum den- 
tatum, Euonymus americanus, Botrychium virginianum, Homa- 
locenclirus virginicus, Polygonatum bifiorum, Arisaema triphyllum, 
Viola blanda. Aster puniceus, Oxalis stricta. 

At several places along Marshyhope Creek in the vicinity of 
Federalsburg, Caroline County, there are sandy Flood Plains which 
are of more recent formation than the Talbot terrace and abut 
directly vipon the Wicomico Upland. They are markedly different 
from the Upland Flood Plains of the Wicomico formation, and are 
related on the one hand to the Sandy Loam Upland Swamps and 
on the other to the Stream Swamps which are to be subsequently 
described. The commonest trees are the Loblolly Pine and the 
Water Oak; abundantly represented- are the Holly, the Black Gum, 
the Magnolia, the White Ash, the Fringe Tree, the Dogwood and 
the Hornbeam. The shrubby and herbaceous vegetation includes 
Clethra alnifolia. Viburnum dentatum, Azalea nudiflora, Euony- 
mus americana, Mitchella repens, Carex intumescens, Carex laxi- 
culmis and Carex folliculata. Lianes are abundant, including Smi- 
lax rotundifolia, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Vitis labrusca, Te- 
coma radicans and Dioscorea villosa. 

These Flood Plains are of interest because of their being (to- 
gether with the Sandy Loam Upland Swamps) the only forested 


moist sandy habitats of tlie Eastern Shore, and because of tlie south- 
ern range of their predominant species. They differ from the 
Upland Swamps in the absence of the Pine Barren class of her- 
baceous plants, and they differ from the Stream Swamps in the 
absence of the Ked Maple, the Winterberry and several of their 
associates. The Hornbeam is an uncommon tree in the Coastal 
Zone, where it is found only in Flood Plains, and it is a striking 
fact that it here occurs in the same habitat with several trees of 
soutliern rauge which are iiot found outside the Coastal Zone. 

UplxVnd Swamps. — The Upland Swamps of the Wicomico terrace 
are found only in northern Caroline County and the north-eastern 
]iart of Queen Anne's County in the vicinity of Marydel, Barclay and 
Sudlerville. The soils are chiefly sandy loams and silt loams of the 
Norfolk and Portsmouth series, with a high content of organic mat- 
ter and rendered acid by the poor drainage. The arborescent flora is 
distinctly different from that of the Sandy Loam Upland Swamps, 
and more nearly related to that of the Clay Upland Swamps. Its 
trees are Black Gvim, Swamp Oak, Red Maple, Sweet Gum, Wil- 
low Oak and White Oak, all of which appear to occur in about 
equal abundance. Holly, Beech, Magnolia and the Swamp Poplar 
are infrequent. The shrubs and herbs of these Upland Swamps 
resemble those of the Piver Swamjjs, among the most notable 
species being Ilea virginica, Aronia arhutifoUa, Azalea viscosa var. 
fjlauca, Pohjgoinnn amphihium, Utricularia inflafa and Proser- 
jiiiiaca pa]uf:fn!<. 

Swamp Vegetation. 

EiVEE swamps. 

The River Swamps are characterized chiefly by the occurrence 
of the Bald Cypress, which is in all places the dominant tree, occur- 
ing in some localities in almost pure stands. Outside the margins 
of the Pocomoke River and its two chief tributaries the Bald Cy- 
]n'ess occurs in Upland Swamps in a few localities in Worcester 
County, is frequent along the Wicomico River, and is known from 
two localities in the Western Shore District of the Coastal Zone. 


The Cypress first appears in ascending the Pocomoke Eiver at 
( "edar Hall Landing, and a few small trees are to be seen opposite 
Rehoboth on the outer edge of the broad brackish marsh. At a 
point about a mile and a half above Eehoboth the brackish marsh 
terminates abruptly and the Eiver Swamps occupy the margins of 
the river. The narrowness and deepness of the Pocomoke are not 
favorable to the occurrence of extensive pure stands of Cypress, and 
at most localities there are several other tree species associated with 
it. The characteristic peculiarities of the Cypress, the swollen base 
of the trunk and the "knees," are not very markedly developed in 
the second growth trees along the Pocomoke, but may be observed 
in the trees of the pure stand in Newhope Pond, an old artificial 
inillpond near Willard, which is crossed by the Baltimore, Chesa- 
peake and Atlantic Railway. Below Mattaponi Landing there is 
no emersed aquatic vegetation outside the Swamp, but there are a 
few places on the convex sides of the river where there are narrow 
zones of such jilants as are characteristic of the Fresh Marshes. 
Above Mattaponi a zone of Nymphaea advena and Pontcderia cor- 
data is almost continuous along the outer margin of the Swamp. 

The River Swamp occupies a narrow shelf which rises as one 
advances from the river back toward the Upland, and decreases 
in the frequency of inundation by the fluctuating level of the river. 
It is in the outer zone of the Swamps that the Cypress is most 
abundant, the inner zone often bearing a near resemblance to the 
Saudy loam Upland Swamps. The most abundant associates of 
the Cypress are Black Gum, Red Maple, Sweet Gum, Tupelo, Green 
Ash and Magnolia. Less abundant are Tulip tree, Winterberry, 
Hornbeam, Swamp Poplar, Water Oak and White Cedar. In the 
inner zone of the Swamps the Loblolly Pine, White Oak and Holly 
also occur, the Cypress becomes less abundant and the Black Gum, 
Red Maple and Sweet Gum more so. 

The undergrowth of the River Swamps is usually rather thick 
and is rich in species. Prequent and characteristic are: 

Myrica ccrifera 
Clcthra ainifolia 
Xolisma ligustrina 


Alnus rugosa 
Cephalanthus occidcntaUs 
Cornus amomum 
Viburnum dentatum 
Pieris mariana 
Decodon verticillalus 
Gaylussa cia fro n dom . 

The woody climbers are conspicuous by their abundance, and in- 
teresting as comprising two southern forms here near the northern 
limit of their range, — the last named. 

Tecoma radicans 
Vilis lahrusca 
Vitis aestivalis 
Smilax rotundifolia 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 
Rhus radicans 
Vitis rotundifolia 
Bignonia crucigera. 

Within the Swamp the lierhneeous vegetation is very poor in 
imlividuals and comprises: 

Hypericum mutilum 
Impatiens hiflora 
Hydrocotyle umhellata 
Triadenum petiolatum 
Dryopteris thelypteris 
Lohelia cardinalis 
Dulichium arundinaccum 
Isnardia palustris 
Proserpinaca palustris 
Saururus cernuus 
BoeJimeria cylindrica 
Penthorum sedoides 
Lycopus virginicus 
Carex lupuliformis 







Stream Swamps are found throughout the Talbot terrace along 
non-tidal fresh streams, along the headwaters of the longer rivers, 
around millponds and in the zone between Fresh Marshes and the 
Upland. Their place is taken on the Wicomico terrace by the Flood 
Plain forest, to which they bear some resemblances as well as to the 
Eiver Swamps. They are widely distributed in Dorchester County 
along Transquaking, Little Blackwater and Chicacomico rivers and 
elsewhere. The most northerly point at which a typical Stream 
Swamp has been seen is at Howell Point, in Kent County, where 
there is a small area lying back of a Fresh Marsh. 

The trees of the Stream Swamps are a mixed stand of deciduous 
species of small and irregular stature, the shrubs are numerous, and 
the herbaceous vegetation richer than in any other type of swamp 
in the state. The Loblolly Pine and the White Cedar are present 
in certain of the swamps, but never become so abundant as to destroy 
the characteristic physiognomy, and neither does their presence cor- 
respond with differences in the accompanying vegetation. It ap- 
pears, in other words, that the Eiver Swamps of the Pocomoke 
occuiDy an area in which the physical conditions are not sufficiently 
different from those in the Stream Swamps to explain the differ- 
ences in flora between the two, and neither does the abundant pres- 
ence of the White Cedar in the Kiver Swamps modify the plant 
assemblage away from the character of the purely deciduous swamps, 
or toward the character of the River Swamps. 

The most common deciduous species of the Stream Swamp are 
the Eed Maple, the Winterberry and the Green Ash. In most of 
the swamps of Dorchester and Talbot counties, and in that at 
Ilowells Point, the first of these is dominant; in several swamps 
at the head of short tributaries of the Choptank the second is most 
abundant; while along the headwaters of the Choptank River the 
last-named is far more abundant than both the others. The Loblolly 
is conspicuous as an associate of these trees only on the upper 
waters of the Choptank and l^anticoke, where it occupies isolated 
elevated situations and does not occur along the margin of the river. 
The White Cedar is infrequent in the swamps of the Wicomico; on 


the Nanticoke it begins to occur just north of Vienna and becomes 
abundant at the confluence of ilarshyhope Creek, extending thence 
up the river to Seaford, DeLaware and beyond. The White Cedar, 
unlike the Loblolly, occupies the lowest parts of the swamp and is 
indeed most frequent along the very margin of the water. The 
only plant which has been detected as a constant associate of the 
Cedar and absent from other portions of the Stream Swamps is 
Almis inariiima, a fall-flowering species of Alder which is prob- 
ably endemic to the Chesapeake-Delaware peninsula. The common- 
est of the secondary trees are the Black Gima, Magnolia, Sweet Gum 
and Black Willow ; the Swamp Oak and the Eiver Birch being pres- 
ent in the swamps which border some of the smaller streams. The 
commonest shrubs are Clethra alnifolia, Alnus rugosa, Cephalan- 
tlius occidentalis, Decodon verticillatus, Coriuis amomum, Itca vir- 
ginica, Rhus vernix, Vihtirnum dentatum. 

These form a close stand together with some of the larger of the 
herbaceous plants, the whole often forming thickets which are dif- 
ficult to penetrate. The herbaceous plants are altogether more sun- 
loving species than those foimd in the River Swamps. Among the 
most characteristic may be mentioned : 

Rosa Carolina 
Carex prasina 
Typha latifolia 
Osmunda cinnainomea 
Inipatiens hiflora 
Sawtirus cernuus 
Osmunda regalis 
Sagittaria latifolia 
Cicuta maculata 
Rumex verticillatus 
Pelfandra virginica 
Pontedena cordata 
Vernonia novehoracevsis 
Polygonum liydropiper 
Iris versicolor 



Proserpinaca imlustns 
Thalidrum purpurasceiis 
Tiula curtilhda 
Boeli )ncn'a cyliiidricu. 

^Faksii Vegktatiox. 

The Marshes of the Eastern Shore aggregate iiiaiiy aeres in area, 
being iDOst extensive in Dorchester and Somerset counties around 
Tangier Sound, occupying considerable areas along the shores of all 



Fio. 5. — Map of Maryland showing the distribution of Halophytic Vegetation 
in Chesapeal<e Bay and its estuaries. 

the larger estuaries, following far up the longer rivers and around 
the shores of Chincoteague Bay on the ocean front. On Tangier 
Sound the marshes are pronouncedly salt, as they are on all of the 
larger estuaries of the southern part of the Bay, while in the rivers 
at the head of the Bay they are entirely fresh. The transition from 
Salt ]Marshes to Fresh Marshes may be observed not only along the 
open waters of the Chesapeake in passing from the Capes to the 
mouth of the Susquehanna, but also in passing \ip any of the longer 
rivers emptying into the lower Bay, or in passing toward the uj^land 
over any of the extended areas of Marsh on Tangier Sound. The 


gradual nature of all these transitions makes somewhat artificial 
an attempt to treat the two classes of Marshes separately. 

The topography of the upland determines largely the extent of 
(lie Marshes. Where there is a very gradual shelving of the sur- 
face from below tide level to a flat upland there are the largest 
marshes, as in southern Dorchester County, where one may pass 
from the shores of Fishing Bay over three to five miles of Marsh 
liefore readiing the upland. In such localities may be observed the 
transition from Salt to Fresh Marsh above noted, while the nar- 
rower fringes of Salt Marsh abut directly upon a higher upland 
witliout intervening Fresh Marsh. On the Choptank River, Eastern 
Bay and Chester River and their tributaries the Salt Marshes are 
not extensive, while in the Sassafras, Bohemia, Elk and JTorth East 
rivers the halophytic element is almost entirely absent. 

The usual precession of plant habitats observed in passing up one 
of the longer rivers of the Eastern Shore, as the Nanticoke or Chop- 
tank, is (1) Salt Marsh abutting directly upon the upland, (2) 
Salt Marsh with Fresh Marsh lying between it and the upland, 
(3) Fresh Marsh abutting uj^on the upland, (4) Fresh Marsh with 
Stream Swamp lying between it and the upland, (5) Stream Swamjj. 
The Fresh Marshes which border the longer rivers have a rich flora 
whicli is very diverse in the grouping of its species, while the Fresh 
Marshes that lie back of the broad areas of Salt Marsh are more 
like the Salt Marshes superficially, in the simplicity of their flora 
and the uniformity in the grouping of the species from place to 
place. The Fresh Marshes occupy but a small part of the course 
of the Pocomoke River, from Shelltown to Rehoboth, where they 
give way to River Swamps. On the ISTanticoke they extend from 
Roaring Point to Riverton, and on the Choptank from Jamaica 
Point to the confluence of Tuckahoe Creek. The water of the great 
higoon of Worcester County is brackish only in its lower half,* be- 
coming fresh on passing north of Ricks Point into Newport, Sine- 
p\ixent, Isle of Wight and Assowoman bays. 

*See Ducatel, Outlines of the Physical Geography of Maryland. 
IVIaryland Academy Science and Literature, Vol. I., 1837, pp. 24-54. 



The pronouncedly Salt Marshes are found along estuaries in which 
the water is salt, from just within the level of the lowest neap tides 
up to a point somewhat above that reached by mean high tide. 
These marshes bear a very uniform physiognomy due to the pre- 
dominance of Spartina stricta var. maritima. The outer parts of 
the Salt Marshes, subject to the most prolonged inundation, are 
pure stands of Spartina, while in the inner portions there are asso- 
ciated with it some of the more salt resisting plants of the halophytic 
flora, as Salicornia herhacea, Tissa marina, Atriplex liastata, and 
Aster tenuifolius. Passing toward the upland on the areas which 
are above mean high tide but subject to overflow at spring tide and 
other exceptional tides, is found a type of Marsh in which Spartina 
stricta var. maritima is absent and Spartina patens and Distichlis 
spicata form a low turf of finer texture which, by reason of the 
density of its stand, possesses usually as few accompanying species 
as does the outer zone. Of these the commonest are Aster tenui- 
folius, Aster suhulatus, Juncus gerardi, Gerardia maritima, 
Pluchea foetida, Pluchea camphorata. Behind the narrowest of the 
Spartina stricta zones the Spartina patens zone is not found ; where 
there is a less rapid transition to the upland and along the transition 
zone in the longer rivers it reaches its best development. There are 
frequent depressions in the general level of the marsh that have 
been rendered so salt by successive inundation and evaporation that 
they are occupied only by Salicornia or are sometimes entirely bare. 
With this exception there is little to break the uniformity of the 
plant covering. 

The physical features of Salt Marshes and the physiology of their 
vegetation have been fully discussed by Kearney* for the lower 
Chesapeake, and the conditions are practically identical in the Salt 
Marshes of the portions of the Bay lying in Maryland. 

*Kearney, Thomas H., A Botanical Survey of the Dismal Swamp Region. 
Cont. Nat. Herb.. Vol. V., 1901. 



The areas of Fresh Marshes which have been examined on the 
longer rivers of the lower Chesapeake Bay exhibit a close agreement 
on the Pocomoke Kiver opposite Eehoboth, on the ^STanticoke at 
Vienna and on the Choptank in the vicinity of Dover Bridge. The 
spring aspect of the Marshes is monotonoiis, and the snmmer months 
are the period of greatest vegetative activity. It is only in Septem- 
ber that one may gain an adequate idea of the richness of the flora, 
and from then until frost the marshes are conspicuously beautiful, 
the varied shades of green being softened to rich browns, and 
brightened by the yellow and purple flowers of Bidens and Vernonia. 

The extreme outer margin of the marshes is formed by Nymphaea 
advena, and adjacent to it is a zone in which are also such emersed 
aquatics as Peltandra virginica, Pontederia cordata, Sagitfarla 
latifolia and Scirpus lacustris. In this outermost zone Hibiscus 
moscheutos sometimes occurs in great abundance, or in a few places 
where thei'e are natural dykes along the outer edge of the marsh 
and along one side of the streamways through it, Baccharis haliini- 
folia may be found, as on the ISTantieoke about four miles south of 

The one fresh water plant which is more capable than any otlicr 
of resisting brackish conditions is Scirpus americaniis. Only slightly 
less so are Scirpus olneyi, Scirpus rohustus, Spartina polystachya 
and Zizania aquaiica. These species are the first that are encount- 
ered in passing up stream out of the purely halophytie marshes, and 
Spartina stricta var. maritima and Spartina patens soon give way 
to stands in which one or another of these is dominant, for they are 
never associated in a imiform admixture over areas of any extent. 
There are no observable differences in physical conditions to ac- 
count for the sporadic occurrence and distribution of the stands of 
these several plants, which appear to be ecologically equivalent and 
to dominate or give way according to the chance conditions of repro- 
duction by either seeds or rootstocks. The only other species which 
form pure stands with any frequency are Phragmites phragmites, 
which is however, not at all a common grass in the marshes, al- 
tliouffh it is confined to tliem in its occurrence in Marvland, and 


Typha angiistifolia, which is not as abundant in the larger fresh 
marshes as it is in those of the estuaries at the head of the Chesa- 

Outside pure stands the sjiecies above mentioned also occur spo- 
radically in portions of the marshes in which a number of other 
species of the same stature grow. While the flora of any square rod 
of such areas of Fresh Marsh would be the same as that of any 
other square rod, yet there are not only no two square rods but 
scarcely any two square yards that would show the same species 
present in anything like the same proportional abundance. The 
life conditions are here such as favor a large number of species ; 
the total flora is made up of herbaceous plants, — save for Hibiscus 
and Baccharis, — and each growing season witnesses a new shifting 
and a new readjustment of the elements of the vegetation. Most 
prominent among the species of highest stature in the Fresh 
Marshes are : 

Vernonia novehoracensis 

Asclepias pulchra 

Bidens trichosperma var. tcnuUoha 

Eryngium virginianum 

Eupatorium perfoliabim 

Acnida cannabina 

Helenium autumnal e 

Impatiens biflora 

Carex lurida 

Panicum walteri 

Lobelia elongafa 

Carex crinita 

Carex albolutescens 

Sagittaria latifolia 

Cyperus flavescens 

Juncus effusus 

Pontederia cordata 

Sium cicutaefolium 

Kosteletzlvya virginica 

Sagittaria lancifolia 

Solidago sempervirens. 


Growing among the above species is an equally rich and diversi- 
fied association of plants of subordinate statnre. Few of these are 
found in any considerable numbers in the pure stands of the Fresh 
Marsh, but in the mixed stands they are abundant, and particularly 
so in the inner portion of the marshes next the mainland, where 
the stature of the dominant species is much less. These species are: 

Ptilimnium capillaceinn 
Hypericum mutUum 
Hydrocotyle umhellata 
Polygonum liydropipcroides 
Lippia lanceolata 
Juncus canadensis 
Epilohium coloratum 
Dryopteris thelypteris 
Sabhatia stellaris 
Sabbatia dodccandra 
Juncus acuminatus 
Cyperus nuttallii 
Iris versicolor 
Oxypolis rigidus 
Hypericum, canadcnse 
Willughbaea scandens 
Galium triflorum 
Triadenum virginicum 
Polygonum sagiiiatum 
Polygonum arifolium 
Proserpinaca palusiris 
Aeschynomene virgin ica 
Stachys ambigua 
Samolus valanderi 
Lysimachia terrestris. 

On all of the Fresh Marshes which extend from the river to the 
upland the stature of the vegetation gradually decreases from about 
six feet to a low turf only a few inches in height. The Salt Marsh 
grasses Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata, occasionally extend 




up stream into the fresh water ztme as constituents of this turf. 
The soil which underlies it is not the pure Galveston clay, as the 
black muck of the Marshes proper has been designated by the Soil 
Survey, but contains a great deal of sand, and the vegetation cor- 
respondingly comprises some of the herbaceous species of the Sandy 
Loam Upland Swamps, as Rynchospora glomerata, Xyris communis 
and Ehcxia mariana. In addition to these are such forms as Eri- 
ncaulon decangulare, Fimhristylis castanea, Cladium mariscoides, 
Erianihus compactus, Panicum virgatum, Proserpinaca palustris 
and Hydrocotyle ranunculoides. 

Just outside the Fresh Marshes there is frequently a narrow strip 
of muddy shore unoccupied by large perennial vegetation and sub- 
ject to alternate submergence and exposure. At a few localities 
these tidal mud flats have been foimd to bear a sparse growth of 
small forms, most of which arc known only in sucli lialiitats, and all 
but the first two of which are qiiite uncommon : 

Eleocharis acicularis 
Lilaeopsis lineata 
Sagittaria suhulata 
Elatinc americana 
Lophotocarpus spoiigiosus 
Sagittaria engelmanniaiia 
Limosella tenuifolia 
MicrantJiemum micivnthcwoidcs 
Sagittaria graminea 
Isoctes saccJiarata. 

The Fresh Marshes which lie in the transition zone between the 
broad areas of Salt Marsh and the upland in southern Dorchester 
County present an extremely uniform aspect over thousands of acres, 
as seen at Keene Ditch and at several localities near Bestpitch 
Ferry. The soil of the Marshes at these places is in a constant 
state of saturation, is inundated at the time of the highest tides, 
and is a black muck of the Galveston Clay type. The vegetation 
is a pure stand of Scirpus olneyi in many localities, or in others a 
mixture of it and Scirpus americamis. There is an extremely sparse 


accompaniment of species such as are also found in the Fresh 
Marshes of the rivers, as: Scirpus lacustris, Asclepias pulchra, 
Sium cicutaefolium, Hibiscus viosclieuios, Bidens trichosperma var. 
tenuiloha, Ptilimnium capillaceum, Lysimachia ferresfris. 

In the vicinity of Greenhackville, Worcester County, the Salt 
Marshes of Spartina stricta var. maritima and Spartina patens form 
the outer margin of the marshland. Following up any of the nu- 
merous small streams which flow ofl: the upland in this locality 
there is a rapid transition to Fresh Marsh (See Plate VI, Fig. 2), in 
which Scirpus olneyi is often the only conspicuous plant, or in which 
Scirpus olneyi, Scirpus americanus, Scirpus rohustus and Typha 
angustifolia are intermingled or occur in groups. The species which 
are of subordinate importance in these Marshes are partly of the 
same stature as the species mentioned, as Lythrum lineare, Eryn- 
gium virginianum, and Kosteletzkya virginica. Of smaller stature 
and frequent occurrence are Samolus floribimdus, Hydrocotyle um- 
hellata, and Sabhatia dodecandra. On passing toward the upland 
the Marsh merges rapidly into a sand}' bog, suggesting the inner 
sandy areas of the river marshes but much more pronouncedly unlike 
the Fresh Marshes themselves. There are scattered chimps of Alnus 
rugosn with liorbacoous vcs'etntion cnmprisine;: 

Droscra intermedia 
Rynchospora alba 
Rynchospora glomcrata 
Triadenum virginicum 
Fuirena squarrosa var. /( i.spida 
Hypericum mutilum 
Rhexia mariana 
Xyris communis 
Triglocliin striata 
Lycopodium inundatum 
Eryngium virginianum 
Nymphaea advena 
Utricidaria juncea. 

The Fresh Marshes in the vicinity of Ocean City and Turville 
Creek are much richer in species than those near Grccnbackville. 


Their outer margins are of the Spartina stricta type or of the Scirpits 
olneyi type. Within, they are of a character intermediate between 
Fresh Marshes and Bogs, Init somewhat drier than either. These 
areas lie above the reach of tides, the soil is a coarse sand, never 
saturated but always moist, the vegetation is sparse and open and 
at a few places near the upland seedlings of Loblolly Pine are gain- 
ing a foothold. These '"heaths" would appear to have come about 
through the building up of bogs, such as have been described for the 
vicinity of Greenbackville, by sand from the upland transported by 
surface drainage. They are traversed by slow streams and have 
more moist sections resembling the ordinary Fresh Marshes and 
drier sections resembling bogs. Characteristic of the moist parts 

Scirpus ivbuaias 
Fimhristylis castanea 
Gerardia maritima 
Cyperus nuttallii 
Asclepias pulclira 
J uncus canadensis 
Sabbatia stellaris 
Eryngium virginiainnii 
Hydrocotyle ranun cidoides 
Hydrocotyie canbyi. 

Characteristic of the drier parts are: 

Lobelia indtnUii 
Linum medium 
Drosera intermedia 
Eutliamia graminifolin 
Strophostyles helvoJa 
Poly gala mariana 
Asclepias lanceolata 
Cassia nictitans 
Eupatonum hyssop ifo I i u m 
Sericocarpus Unifolius 
Centella asiatica 


Tri'psacum dactyloides 
Lycopodium inundaium 
Habenaria ciliaris 
Paspalum floridanum. 

Along the shores of Eastern Bay there are numerous narrow 
bodies of Salt Marsh. On entering the short estuaries, as Wye and 
Miles rivers the transition to Fresh Marsh is found to be very 
rapid, only a few such forms as Solidago sempervirens. Hibiscus 
moscheutos, Kosteletzkya virginica and Achida cannabina making 
their way from the brackish water zone into the heads of the branch 
estuaries. On the Chester Eiver the Salt Marshes are confined to 
the shores south of the mouth of Corsica Creek, while in the vicinity 
of Chestertown and Centreville the marshes are fresh. 

The Fresh Marshes found from Eastern Bay northward arc less 
variable in character and not so rich in their flora as those of the 
longer ri\-ers from the Choptank southward. There are frequently 
extended pure stands of Typha angustifolia, as on Corsica Creek 
in the vicinity of Centreville, or pure stands of Zizania aquatica or 
of Spartina polystachya as in several reentrants near Perryville, 
Cecil County, or less frequently Acorus calamus forms considerable 
areas of the mai-sh, as in Elk Eiver, and is indeed seldom found 
outside these pure stands. On Morgan Creek, in Kent County, 
there is a pure stand of Typha angustifolia on one side of the creek 
and a piare stand of Zizania aquatica on the other, the difference in 
the occurrence of the two being apparently related to the slightly 
higher level of the Marsh on the Zizania side. 

In the mixed Eresh Marshes of the Elk and jSTortheast rivers 
there are a few forms to be found Avhich do not occur outside the 
marshes of tidal streams, but many of tlieni are such as are also 
characteristic of the marsh-like habitats of the upland — meadows, 
the margins of streams, etc. Of tliese the jirincipal species are : 

Typha angusiifoha 
Spartina polystachya 
Zizania aquatica 
Acorus calamus 



Scirpus americanus 

Acnida cannahina 

Heletiiuni autumnale 

Bidens trichosperma var. ieniiiloha 

Cicuta maculata 

Inipatiens hiflora 

Sium cicutaefoUum 

Solidago sempervirens 

Scirpus polypliyllus 

Polygonum hydropiper 

Eudheckia laciniata 

Galium irifiorum 

Ilysanthes duhia 

Bidens laevis 

Sagittaria vaviabUis 

Pontederia cordata 

Carex lurida 

Homalocenchrus oryzoides. 

The accompanying outline map (Fig. G) will serve to illustrate 
the rapid transition from brackish to fresh vegetation in the estu- 
aries of the central part of the Chesapeake Bav. The area is at the 

Pjg. 6. — Diagram of the Plant growth near Probasco's Landing, Talbot 

mouth of a small stream which flows into Skipton Creek, Talbot 
County, in the near vicinity of Probasco's Landing. The position 
of the upland is indicated by U U. Area I. is a fringe of Spartina 
pohjstachya, Aster tenuifolius, Pluchea camplwrata. Polygonum 


acre, Acnida cannabina, and Lytlirum lineare. Area //. is above 
mean tide-level and bears a turf of Spartina patens. Scattered in- 
dividuals of depaui^erate Spartina polystachya occur in the outer 
margin of area II. and along the stream are a few plants of Acnida 
cannabina. In area VI. there is considerable Distichlis spicata in- 
termingled with Spartina patens. Ai-ea III. is a mixed stand of 
Typlia angustifolia, Scirpus rohustus and Acnida. Areas IV. and 
V. are stands of Typlia angustifolia with Polygonum acre and Sinim 
ncutae folium. Area VII. is the characteristic marginal zone of 
Hibiscus mosclieutos and Baccharis hahnimif olia. 

Aquatic Vegetation. 

The waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the larger estuaries con- 
tain a relatively poor algal flora as compared with those parts of the 
Atlantic coast where there are rocks and boulders serving as points 
of attachment. Species of Ulva, Enteroniorpha and Cladophora 
are the commonest Green Algae along the shores and in the shal- 
lower waters. The Brown Algae are represented chiefly by Ecto- 
carpus, and the Bed Algae by several species of Ceramium and by 
Dasya elegans. The Phanerogamic aquatics of salt water are only 
two in number, Zostera marina, which is most abundant along the 
shores of Chincoteagaie Bay and the lower Chesapeake, where the 
water is violently agitated by the waves ; and Ruppia maritima. 
which is abundant on muddy bottoms in shoal water not only in 
salt water but in brackish and fresh parts of the longer estuaries. 

The Phanerogamic aquatics are much more abundant in the fresh 
waters about the head of the Bay and in the Chester, Sassafras, 
Bohemia, Elk and North East rivei's. The commonest of these is 
Vallisneria spiralis, which under the name "Wild Celery" is well 
known as an important food-plant of the wild duck. Vallisneria is 
extremely abundant in the shallow waters about the head of the Bay, 
where, at low tide, the floating ends of the ribbon-like leaves betray 
its presence over areas many acres in extent. Potamogeton crispus 
is often associated with Vallisneria, and has been noticed to be par- 
ticularly abundant in the Chester and Sassafras rivei's. These 
aquatics grow where they are subjected to the pull of strong 

.mat:vlam)'in::; skkvice 141 

tidal currents, which they are structurally well fitted to withstand. 
In more protected situations MyriophyUum liumile, Potamogeton 
pedinatus and Naias flexilis occur, while in the quite shoal waters 
Heteranthera reniformis, Eriocaulon septangulare, Isnardia palus- 
fris and Utricularia gibha form the first zone of plants outside the 
emersed aquatics. 

There is no part of the Eastern Shore in which there is a larger 
number of constantly flowing streams of small size than in Dor- 
chester County, where the various feeders of the Blackwater, Trans- 
quaking and Chicacomico rivers possess a gi-eater variety of aquatic 
vegetation than is found elsewhere. Various species of Potamogeton 
are the commonest and most conspicuous of these, including Pota- 
mogeton natans, Potamogeton nuttalUi, Potamogeton pulcher, 
Potamogeton lonchites, and Potamogeton diversif alius , together 
with Ceratophyllum demersum, MyriophyUum pinnatum and 
Utricularia gibba. Quieter waters abound in Castalia odorata, 
Brasenia purpurea and Limnanthemuni aquaticum, mingling often- 
times with such plants as Nympliaea advena, Pontederia cordata. 
Peltandra virginica. Polygonum ampliibium and Bumex verticil- 
latus, which border the marginal Stream Swamps. The only float- 
ing members of the aquatic flora, Lenma minor and Spirodela 
polyrrhiza, are abundant in the quiet margins of such streams, often 
accompanied by the Hepatic Riccia fluitans. In both quiet and 
swift-flowing waters Callitriche heteropliylla is abundant, together 
with Potamogeton diversifolius. (See Plate VI, Fig. 1.) 

The still waters of the artificial mill-ponds so abundant on the 
Eastern Shore are not essentially different in their aquatic flora 
from the streams just described. Castalia, Brasenia, and such spe- 
cies as Utncularia vulgaris, Potamogeton nuttallii and Potamogeton 
imians, Naias flexilis and MyriophyUum liumile are wide-spread and 
abundant. By no means wide-spread and found only in standing 
\\atcr is the interesting Utricularia inflata, which is conspicuous on 
the surface of the water by reason of the five to eight radiating stems 
which are enlarged by spongy tissue in a manner which enables them 
to serve as organs of flotation. 


Dune and Strand Vegetation. 

The fringing bar which forms the ocean front of Maryland is 
very narrow from the Delaware line southward to the head of the 
Chincoteague Bay, below which it widens, but nowhere exceeds a 
Miile in width. The bar is fringed by Fresh or Salt Marsh along 
its inner side and the outer side is a low series of Dunes, nowhere 
reaching such size as those at Cape Henry or Cape Henlopen and 
everywhere being in a comparatively stable condition (See Plate 
VIII, Fig. 2.) The only trees on the bar are those forming a small 
grove of Loblolly Pine at the extreme northern end near Fenwicls 
Island Light. 

The predominant plant of the Dunes is Ammophila arenaria, with 
which are associated the j^lants characteristic of dunes throughout 
the l^forth Atlantic coast, as Calcile edentula, Hudsonia tomentosa, 
Ammodenia peploides, Oenothera humifusa, Xanthium canadense, 
SahoJa hali, Euphorbia polygonifolia and Polygonum maritimum. 

At a few places on the shores of the Chesapeake the tidal cur- 
rents have transported sand and silt along shore in such a manner 
as to build spits or cusps projecting from the old shore line. These 
newly-built spits, with coarse sandy soil and soil water which is, 
at some times at least, highly salt are closely similar in their vegeta- 
tion to the fringing bar of the Atlantic coast. Two of these spits 
are worthy of detailed description, one at Castle Haven in Dor- 
chester County, and a second at Lloyds Creek, near Betterton in 
Kent County, beyond the range of the halophytic flora. The former 
is young in terms of its vegetation ; the second much older as evi- 
denced by the forest covering of its inner end. 

The spit at Castle Haven projects eastward from a headland which 
shows evidence of having been worn back several hundred feet in 
very recent time (Fig. 7). The inner portion of the spit (/) is 
underlaid by the remains of a marsh, which has little eft'ect upon 
the present conditions for vegetation. The outer portion (77) is 
recent. The old substratum is probably responsible for the small 
lake in the old part of the spit. 



ill.. 1. — MliW SHOWING .SHill; i'l.M-; SliKlliNt, .V.N Al;.\.M)ONE[l HELD. CALVEKT (-UI.NTY. 



jMaryland weathee service 143 

Area I. has a shelving Leach devoid of vegetation and bounded 
by a low bluff 1 to 2^/2 feet high. Its central portion is occupied 
by a sparse stand of Ammophila arenaria, with scattered individ- 
uals of Cyperus grayi, Xanthium canadense, Cakile edentula, 
Euphoi'bia polygonifolia, Strophostyles helvola and Asparagus offi- 
cinalis. There are a few clumps of Iva frutescens and two individ- 
uals of the Ked Cedar. The inner edge of the spit is also marked 
by a low bluff outside which is a fringe of Spartina stricia var. mari- 
tima. Surrounding the lake is a fringe of the same grass with a 
few individuals of Baccharis and Iva. Area III. is occupied by a 
marsh of Spartina patens, Scirpus americanus, Solidago semper- 
virens and Juncus canadensis. The inner edge of the marsh is also 
fringed by a scattered row of Iva and Baccharis. Area II. is devoid 
of vegetation and is covered by high tide. 

Fig. 7 Diagram of the Plant growth on Castle Haven spit, Dorchester 


Lloyds Creek is an irregularly triangailar estuary, tributary to 
the Sassafras River. The spit extends from the western edge of 
the Creek toward the east, parallel to the general course of the 
shore line of the river. There is an island of old upland in the 
centre of the spit which was doubtless connected with the mainland 
by a tying-bar at a period mucli in adwanee of the formation of the 
outer end of the spit. 

The outer beach of the spit is bounded by a low bluff, just within 
which there is a ridge from which the surface slopes away at first 
abruptly and then gradually to the water level on the inner side. 
The vegetation of the beach consisted, when visited, solely of scat- 
tered individuals of Polonisia graveolens, which is found in similar 
habitats at the north (and is here south of its reported range) and 

144 THE ri,AXT i.ikp: of makyi.axd 

a few chniips of Diantliera ainericana, wliicli lias not been seen else- 
where in the Coastal Zone, being commoner in the shallow beds of 
running streams in the Midland and Mountain Zones. Area TIT. 
is level, without trees or slirulis and covered by n \i'ry upen stand of 
the following: 

Panicum virgatum 
Andropogon virginicus 
Diodia teres 
Cyperus grayi 
Physalis lieteropliyUa 
Apocynum cannabiniim 
Plantago lanceolata 
Asparagus officinalis 
Leptilon canadense 
Strophosfyles lielvola 
Poa compressa 
Solidago semper vircvs. 

Area I. bears a very scattered stand of Ked Cedar much over- 
grown with Vitis lahrusca, a few trees of the Persimmon and a few 
young individuals of the Tree-of-Heaven and the Yellow Locust. 
In Area IT., particularly that part of it in front of the island, there 

Pio. 8. Diagram of the Plant growth on Lloyds Creek spit. Kent County. 

is a closed stand of Red Cedar, Spanish Oak (one individual of 
which was 14 inches in diameter). Post Oak, Persimmon and Hack- 
berry. Among the trees are numerous individuals of Myrica caro- 
linensis and a few plants of Euphorbia ipecacuanliae and Opuntia 
opuntia. Area IV. is a small marsh bordered with Baccharis and 
with a mixed stand of Hibiscus moscheutos, PcUandra virginica, 
Scirpus americanus, Scirpus robustus and Pontederia cordata. 
Area V. is occupied by a marsh with Typlia and Acorus, such as 
extends round the shores of the entire creek. 



A review of the cliaractei- of the dominant upland vegetation on 
the Eastern Shore shows that of the Talbot Formation to be related 
to that found in the tide-water sections of Virginia and North Caro- 
lina, and to the coniferous forest region of the southern Coastal 
Plain, while the vegetation of the Wicomico Formation is related 
to that of the Piedmont plateau of Maryland and the adjoining 
states. The botanical history of the Eastern Shore is that of the 
repeopling with plant life of an area which has been raised by two 
well-defined uplifts from the floor of the sea in recent geological 
time. The immigi-ant species which have reached the area through 
natural means have come partly from the older portions of the 
Coastal Plain in states to the south, and partly from the Piedmont 
Plateau of the contig-uous land to the north. On the Wicomico 
Formation the Piedmont element predominates, on the Talbot 
Formation the southern or Coastal Plain element, which is to be 
attributed mainly to the persistence of the immigrant species on 
the soils most closely resembling those of their original habitat. 

The distinctness of the vegetation of the Eastern Shore and of 
the Coastal Plain of ISTew Jersey is most striking both from a 
floristic and from an ecological point of view. The Pine Barrens 
of New Jersey are an almost pure stand of Finns rigida, a tree which 
is extremely rare on the Eastern Shore, and among their herbaceous 
plants are the Pine Barren species mentioned in Part II., which are 
of southern relationship, and a number of bog species, which are of 
northern relationship but are found much farther south both in and 
out of the mountains. On the Eastern Shore there are habitats which 
would ajipear to be congenial ones for the Pine Barren species, yet 
they are represented by a very few forms and the bog species are like- 
wise absent. There is a notable difference in the topography and the 
local distribution of habitats in the two states, yet there are areas of 
Upland and of Upland Swamp in Maryland which appear to present 
conditions identical with those in certain habitats of the New Jer- 
sey Barrens. Botanical history likewise fails to afford an explana- 
tion of the observed facts, for the geomorphic histories of the Coastal 
Plain in Marvland and New Jerscv have been identical. 


The natural secular changes in the character of the vegetation 
which are going on today are (1) those taking place on the Upland 
on account of changes in physical conditions due to erosion, (2) 
those taking place along the shore-lines and dne to the formation or 
exposure of new plant habitats. In the preceding pages of this 
Chapter attention has been called to the Midland relationship of the 
forest found in the Flood Plains of the Eastern Shore and in Chap- 
ter II. several habitats were pointed oiit in which Midland species 
were found, otherwise rare in the Coastal Zone. The changes going 
oil at present in the topography of the Upland of the Eastern Shore 
are very slight, on account of the small drainage area of the streams 
and the fact that the surface is already so nearly level. On the 
Wicomico terrace the Eavine Slopes are being worn back and the 
Flood Plains are gradually being built up. The conditions at the 
lieads of some of the older Flood Plains would indicate that the 
Upland type of forest encroaches upon that of the Flood Plains as 
the latter silt up to a level at which their soil moisture content 
becomes equal to that of the Upland. Although the forests of the 
Flood Plains approach more nearly the mesophytic forests of the 
Piedmont yet they cannot be looked upon as the type which is the 
climax on the Eastern Shore. The Flood Plain forest is a transient 
one, representing the transition from Stream Swamp to Upland, and 
although it may be considered a higher type of forest than that of 
the Ui^land from a purely abstract point of view, yet it does not 
represent the natural balance between the flora of the Eastern Shore 
and the conditions which are most widespread and are determined 
by the maturing of the topography, — namely those of the Upland. 
Into the composition of the Upland forest come both tlic pines and 
the deciduous species, — Oaks, Giuns and Maple, and all old stands 
of forest examined, and all evidence from the phenomena of re- 
forestation would indicate that the climax forest of the Talbot For- 
mation of the Eastern Shore is one in which the Pines are pre- 
dominant but invariably accompanied by deciduous species. The 
Loblolly Pine is not infrequent in Swamps but is most abundant 
on light sands and on the Elkton Clay. While these soils may 
seem to be very dissimilar in their relation to the movement of 
soil water, yet the fineness of the clay causes it to hold to its stores 


of water so tenaciously that the plants gi-owing in it often suffer 
drought when there is an abundance of water within very short 
distance but very firmly held by the capillarity of the fine soil. 
The Loblolly is, in other words found most abundantly in the soils 
which are subject to the greatest fluctuations of soil moisture content. 

The feature of change in shore line topography which has the 
greatest mass effect upon vegetation is that of the filling in of 
coves and bays and the narrowing of estuaries. The deposition of 
silt in the marshes has increased greatly since the cultivation of the 
Upland incident to the settling of the country, and has tended to 
obsciire the real trend of change. The upbuilding of Marshes in- 
variably leads to the entrance of the Stream Swamp flora, some of 
the herbaceous members of which are already present in the Marshes. 
Acer rubrum is the first of the trees to enter the Marsh formation, 
as it does repeatedly for many years before the conditions are fa- 
vorable for the development of the trees beyond the seedling stage. 
The upb^iilding of shoals gives opportunity for the encroachment of 
the Marsh vegetation on the waters, which is taking place to a 
limited extent. The foremost plant in this advance is Spartina 
stricta var. maritima. Where the upbuilding is rapid and dwe to 
the action of currents rather than to the slow deposition of mud 
from muddy water, the soil is coarser and is raised to a level such 
that it is well drained. This process gives rise to sand bars or 
spits which maintain a xerophilous vegetation and develop a forest 
covering much more directly and rapidly than do the newly up- 
built Marshes, as has been described for several localities in Chesa- 
peake Bay. 

Geological evidence shows that the Eastern Shore is at present 
undergoing a slow subsidence, the end effect of which will be to 
offset the upbuilding of marshes, if not to actually increase the 
areas of marshland, causing them to encroach on the Upland. At 
two localities on the inner edge of the extensive marshes of Dor- 
chester County the writer saw unmistakable evidence of the en- 
croachment of the Fresh Marsh upon forests of Pinus taeda. These 
localities are where the Upland behind them is very flat for many 
miles. The slight erosion from this very stretch of country is 


attested by the brown color of the water of the streams (the Chica- 
comico, TraBsquaking and Little Blackwater Rivers) which are 
scarcely clouded even at times of heavy rain. Moreover the areas 
noted are miles from the outlets of the streams, and several miles 
from the open tidewater, so that they are doubly protected from the 
deposition of silt. The evidences of the encroachment of the Marsh 
are the occurrence of remains of Pinus tacda at considerable distance 
beyond the present forest and the occurrence of half dead trees well 
outside the line of the present shore. The Marsh plants, on the 
other hand, are to be found in the outermost zone of the Pine forest 
in undiminished abinidance and vigor. The evidence of the vegeta- 
tioii was confirmed by learning at one of the localities that a planta- 
tion (Guinea Neck) had existed before the war in a place where 
there is now only a very small island not already occupied by Marsh 






The Western Shore District is a favorable region for study since 
topographic maps of the whole area are obtainable, and four ont 
of the six counties have been mapped by the United States Soil 
Survey in cooperation with the Maryland Geological Survey. The 
climatic conditions have also been carefully studied. Since Balti- 
more lies in the district, and Washington lies on its border, lists 
and collections of plants have been easily available. It was found 
possible to visit a few of the localities twice, in June and Septem- 
ber, but most of the work was done during July and August, hence 
no mention is made of vernal vegetation. This is the less unfor- 
tunate in that the arborescent vegetation seems to be the most ini- 
j)ortant from the ecological standpoint, and in that the salt marshes 
show their most characteristic vegetation in the' latter part of the 


This district of the Coastal Zone lies, as its name implies, on the 
western shore of Chesapeake Bay. It extends from about latitude 
.'28°]Sr to 39° 30'?r., a distance of almost 100 miles, and has a max- 
iminn width of 40 miles in the southern part, where it ineliides prac- 
tically all of the counties of Charles, St. Mary's, Calvert, Anne 
Arundel, and most of Prince George's, while at its northern ex- 
tremity it narrows rapidly, including a strip along the eastern side 
of Baltimore and Harford counties. It has approximately the form 


of a riglit-aiigled triangle with the apex in western Charles Comity 
and the hypotennse along Chesapeake Bay. Along its western side, 
Avhere it does not border on the Potomac River it merges into the 
Piedmont Plateau, or Midland Zone. The total area is aboiit 2100 
square miles. Except along the shore of Calvert Countj^, the coast 
is much indented by estuaries. As to relief the surface may be 
roughly divided into (1) a bordering fringe of low flat country 
having a gi-eater or less breadth and occupying the bulk of the 
peninsulas such as Gunpowder IS^eck, and (2) an inner plateau 
ranging in height from 120 to 250 feet or more, where it joins 
the ]\Iidland Zone. The second section is usually gently undulating, 
but in some places the divides are scored by deep ravines, as in 
the vicinity of Marlborough, Prince George's Coimty. On the east 
side of Calvert County the marginal strip is lacking, and the shore 
is precipitous owing to the erosion along the western side of Ches- 
apeake Bay. In most instances a narrow strip of sandy beach lines 
the cliff, but on headlands the sediment has been swept away by 
littoral currents. For a more detailed account of the topography 
of the region the reader is referred to Vol. I. of the Publications 
of the Maryland Weather Service. 

Owing to the labors of the Soil Survey, the soils of the region are 
well imderstood, the following counties having been surveyed: St. 
Mary's, Calvert, Prince George's and Harford. The results so 
obtained have been used as a basis for many of the observations made 
in the present chapter. Throughout the Coastal Plain only sedi- 
mentary deposits occur, consisting of unconsolidated sands, clays 
and gravels, together with remains of organic life such as marl beds. 
In most parts of the area the bed-rock lies too far below the sur- 
face to exert any influence on vegetation. The soils represent de- 
posits of material of a variety of kinds brought by streams and 
littoral currents during one or another of the periods of submer- 
gence of the region. These deposits have been repeatedly elevated 
and subjected to the action of atmospheric agents and running 
water, so that the materials have undergone some rearrangement 
even since the last elevation of the strata. The effect of this series 
of events has been to mix the deposits which may earlier have been 







separate, so that a considerable variety of soils are found iu the 
district, including clays, loams, sands, of which the following de- 
serve notice: 

Susquehanna day. A stiff pnrpHsh colored impervious soil, fa- 
miliar to those who have traveled by train between Washington and 

Ellion clay. A yellow-gray variety, becoming friable when 
drained. Found at the heads of embayments in Harford County. 

Lcouardtown loam. A silty yellow loam, clay-like when wet, 
and forming hard lumps when dried. It occurs in extended areas 
in St. Mary's County, where it is sometimes called "white oak soil." 

Norfolk loam. More sandy than the preceding, and more valuable 
for agricultural purposes. J^ot so widely distributed as the pre- 
ceding, but found in St. Mary's County and the "Forest of Prince 
George" in south-east Prince George's Coiauty. 

Collington sandy loam. A residual soil derived from the weather- 
ing of greensand; has a loose loamy, coarse texture. One of the 
richest soils of the region. A large area occurs in the "Forest of 
Prince George." 

Sassafras loam. A mixture of sand and clay derived from older 
strata and redeposited by stream action. In the southern part of the 
area it occupies a level 60 to 90 feet above tide-water, but in Har- 
ford and Baltimore counties, occupies the region which borders on 
the Bay, and is often low and swampy. 

Norfolk sand. A reddish loamy material found in high and also 
in low positions, owing to stream action. Widely distributed in Cal- 
vert County. 

Windsor sand. Coarser than the last, with an even coarser sub- 
soil. Found in northern St. Mary's and Calvert counties. 

Meadoir. Under this name are included the areas along the bot- 
toms of streams, also more particularly the low flat areas bordering 
many of the larger bodies of water, and composed of tine silt and 
clay deposited while the area was sidjmerged. 



Two topics of paramount interest present themselves in this re- 
gion : The succession of types of forest growth and the salt marshes 
with their transition to fresh marshes. Seldom does a better op- 
portunity arise for observing the succession of groups of arborescent 
growth which may cover an area. In southern Maryland many 
areas which were highly cultivated prior to 1865 have for forty 
years been neglected by man so that nature has been able to work 
out her own methods which are of much interest. Moreover the 
large number of estuaries and bays makes possible a thorough 
study of the relation between halophytic and fresh water vegeta- 
tion. Other topics are dealt with, as may be seen from a glance 
at the table of contents. The forests will be first considered. 

Considering the proximity of the region to the nation's cajutal, 
a surprisingly large portion of the surface is forest-covered. In 
St. Mary's County fully half the area is uncultivated, for economic 
reasons which do not need to be discussed here. It was hoped that 
some areas of virgin forest might be found, hence inquiries and 
search were made in many places. The nearest apjiroach to orig- 
inal conditions was seen on Lord Calvert's estate in Prince George's 
County, on a tract two miles north of Hai-wood in Anne Arundel 
County, at Leonardtown in St. Mary's County, and in the Zekiah 
swamp in Charles County, biit on none of these tracts does an un- 
altered growth occur. They will be further considered in appro- 
priate places. A fairly natural division o£ the forests into upland 
and lowland may be made. 

Upland Fokests. — An attemj^t is here made to arrange these into 
ecological groups which will represent the order of development of 
forests in accordance with the now well-accepted principle of suc- 
cession, which may be stated thus: the vegetation found upon an 
area does not represent a fixed or stable condition, but one of pro- 
gressive change, dependent upon the changing topography of the 
region and on changes in soil, etc., brought about by the plants them- 


selves. The problem as presented in Southern Maryland is, given 
an estate consisting of abandoned fields, what will be the history of 
such a tract if it is not interfered with? With this problem in 
view we may proceed to a description of the various types. 

Pine Association. — The pines which arc common in this district 
are two in number, the Scrub Pine (Pinus virginiana) and the 
Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda). Regarding other species, the reports of 
the Soil Survey speak of "Pitch Pine" as occurring in St. Mary's 
County. This name is ordinarily applied to Pinus rigida, but in 
the reports mentioned, manifestly refers to Pinus virginiana. Mell* 
includes Piiius rigida in his catalogue of the trees occurring in St. 
Mary's County, althoiigh Curran'' does not mention it as occurring 
in Calvert County, where the conditions ought to be quite as favor- 
able for this species. Curran (I.e.) reports the occurrence of Pinus 
cchinafa in Calvert County to the extent of less than 5% in Scrub 
Pine associations. Strangely enough Mell does not include this 
species in his list of the trees of St. Mary's County although on 
account of the southerly range of the species one would expect to 
find it on the peninsula terminated by Point Lookout as well as in 
Calvert County. In St. Mary's County the writer was informed 
of the occurrence of a "Yellow Pine," but no person pointed out 
any examples to the writer, who also was unable to discover any. 
It was thought that in the northern part of the district, toward 
Havre de Grace, additional species might be found, but this area 
provetl to have very few pines, and these of the two species common 
throughout the district. The Scrub Pine, commonly called 
"spruce pine" in the region, doubtless on account of the shortness 
of its leaves, is the most abundant conifer of the Western Shore 
District. It is easily distinguished by the shortness of its leaves 
and by their grouping in fascicles of two. As is true of pines in 
general, it has two forms, dependent upon whether the trees grow 
isolated or in close association. The two types are shown in Plates 
X and XL The former shows the iTSiial appearance of the tree as 

*MelI, C. D. The Forests of St. Mary's County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, St. Mary's County, 1907. 

tCurran, H. M. The Forests of Calvert County. Maryland Geological Sur- 
vey, Calvert County, 1907. 


found on sandy beaches with its low, branching habit and the persist- 
ence of its cones. The latter represents part of an almost pnre stand 
in St. Mary's County, from which much of the older timber has been 
cut, showing their habit of growth when crowded. This species is 
found in every part of the district and in all sorts of habitats, from a 
clay bluff to a mesophytic valley, though mucli less common in the 
latter location. It may occur to the exclusion of all other trees, as on 
small tracts in many places in Southern Maryland, for example, at 
Bel Alton in Charles County, and at Hill's Bridge, and South River, 
in Anne Arundel County. Usually, however, these pure stands are 
of young trees, representing in a number of cases, a field which 
had been abandoned for upwards of a score of years. That this 
species is the pioneer tree in such positions was abundantly proved 
by observation of all stages of its invasion of vacant areas. In some 
cases the furrows of the corn field were still distinct, yet the pines 
upon the area were 10 to 20 feet high. Several features of the 
Pine enable it to play the part of a pioneer. Its winged seeds cause 
it to spread more quickly than do trees whose seeds are heavy, as 
for example, the oaks. Further the f)ines of this region are able 
to endure strong insolation and dryness of soil, even in the young 
stages. Again, they are fast growers, so that they easily overtop 
other trees which may begin the race at the same time. The con- 
sideration of a specific case will be of advantage. On a plot 33 feet 
square in a corn field which has been left for three or four years 
M'ere found the following: Scrub Pine, 2 seedlings, Loblolly Pine, 
10 seedlings, (both of these derived from a grove near by), Hick- 
ory, 1 seedling, Black Gum, 1 seedling. Persimmon, 2 small sap- 
lings (which had doubtless been allowed to grow while the field was 
in use) and 3 seedlings, 13 plants of Buhus villosus and Ruhus can- 
adensis, together with herbaceous vegetation such as Potentilla can- 
adensis, SoUdago and Erigeron of several species. Judging by the 
appearance of neighboring areas, the pines would in a few years 
overtop the other trees present, and a pure pine stand would occupy 
the field. 

Habitats where Scrub Pine seems likely to more or less perma- 
nently usurp the area are (1) hilltops, on account of dryness of 
the soil and strength of the wind, (2) sand strands, where the 
humus content of the soil is insufficient to support many species. 


and the salt winds too prevalent to admit of oaks. In accordance 
with its xerophytic habit, the Scrub Pine is generally the first tree 
to appear on the sides of railway cuttings, as may be seen, for ex- 
ample, near Eosedale in Baltimore County on the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad. 'So account of herbaceous vegetation need be given, 
for in a pure stand of pine the trees are so close together that there 
is insiifficient light for any undergrowth, in fact the excessi's-e crowd- 
ing of the trees prevents their own proper development. 

The other pine of the region, the Loblolly, can be readily dis- 
tinguished by its longer leaves, which are grouped in threes. It 
commonly goes by the name of "Foxtail Pine." On the sand strand 
at Piney Point, St. Mary's County, the vegetation is almost entirely 
coniferous, including Scrub Pine and Bed Cedar, as well as Loblolly 
Pine. The latter occurs in pure stands in southern St. Mary's 
County, for example, at St. Georges Island, and readily reseeds 
an area which has been cut over. In other localities it occurs mixed 
with the other species, and frequently it is found as scattered indi- 
viduals, especially towards the northern part of the district. The 
relative abimdance of the two species is about two of Scrub Pine 
to one of Loblolly, although this ratio does not hold for the extreme 
southern part of the district, which lies near the region where the 
latter is dominant. A careful investigation was made of its dis- 
tribution. It is found in all except the extreme northern parts of 
the district,* and seems able to live in a great variety of habitats, 
being better fitted than the Scrub Pine to endure the effects of salt 
soil and atmosphere, and the strong winds which are met in posi- 
tions bordering the larger rivers and estuaries. This is illustrated 
by the flora of St. Georges Island, already i-eferred to. Here we 
find no Scrub Pine (although this species occurs on the adjacent 
mainland), but in places some Spanish Oak and Sweet Gum are 
present. Although it is relatively more abundant near the coast, 
the Loblolh' is by no means lacking in the interior, for it occurs 
at the extreme inner limit of the district, as at College Park and 
Laurel, Prince George's County. Although it is able to endure mari- 
time conditions, it is apparently not so xerophytic a species as the 

*The northern limit of the species is stated by Sargent to be Cape May, 
New Jersey. 



kScrnl) Pine, ns may be soeu from a cousidoration of the following 


Piiuis virginiana 

Piiuis taeila 

Juniperus virginiana.... 

(.Jnercn>i allni 

(Juercns prinns 

Quercus minor 

Qnorcns phellof* 

Quercus velutina* 

(Juercns palustrifj 

(Quercus niarj'Iandica . . . . 

(■iuercus digitata 

Castanea ilentata. 

Betula nigra 

Fagns americana 

Hicoria spp 

Li(iniciambar styracifina. . 
Liriodendron tnliiifera. . . . 

Acer rubrum 

Nyssa .sylvatica 

Diospyros virginiana 

Platanns oecidentalis . . . . 

Ilex diiaca 

Cornns florida 

Sassafras sassafras 

•Includes t^>uercus rubra. 





























Xeropliytic ; pioneer. 
Marginal ; southern. 
Marginal and xeropliytic. 

Moderately xerojihytic. 

Prefers lnw ground. 




Moderately xeroj)hylie. 

On drained .soil ; calciphobe. 

In swamps and low ground. 


Prefers moist situations. 
On mesophytic slopes. 
Mesophytic; moisture loving 
Mcsopliytic'; moisture loving 

Mesophytic ; river banks. 


This table includes the trees occui-ring most frequently in the 
region, and represents the result of a large number of obsei-vations. 
The consideration of an example will make clear the method of 
estimation employed. In the column "Upland loam" it will be seen 
that the Wliite Oak is marked 100 ; this means that it occurs in all 
(i.e. 100%) of the forest tracts situated on loam on the uplands 
of the district (as far as they were examined) ; Scrub Pine is 
marked 88, indicating that it was found in 88% of the tracts ex- 
amined; similarly the Buttonwood was found in only 9% of the 
"Upland loam" forests which were visited. The table represents 
merely an approximation to the relative abundance of the various 
species, but even as such is highly instructive. For instance, it will 
be seen that while the Loblolly Pine occurs in 76% of the forests 
on "Meadow," it occurs on only 35% of the forests on "Upland 
sand," while for the Scrub Pine the numbers are respectively 86 
and 100. It is fair to infer, therefore, as stated above, that the 
Loblolly Pine is the less xerophytic species, and will thrive under 
poorer drainage conditions. 

Pine-Oah Association. — As was stated above, pines of an age of 
forty to fifty years are usually accompanied by oaks, in proportions 
varying greatly according to circ^imstances. The most common oak 
in the upland formations is undoubtedly the White Oak. Three 
other oaks are also -wddely distributed and numerous as to individ- 
uals, the Black Oak, the Spanish Oak, and the Post Oak. In the 
third rank is the Black Jack Oak, which is most abundant in the 
most xerophytic tracts of the area, such as the Susquehanna clay 
near Bowie, Prince George's County. Forests consisting largely 
of these oaks and one or both of the pines are to be found every- 
where through the district, and are by far the commonest sort of 
forest. As will be subsequently discussed, the Pine-Oak associa- 
tion is believed to represent a sort of adolescent stage in the develop- 
ment of the forests, being preceded by the Pine association and fol- 
lowed by one in which pines are absent. The struggle for su- 
premacy between the oaks and pines is apparent in many places. 
Other oaks than those mentioned may appear in this association, 
biit they are characteristic rather of later stages of forest develop- 


nient. The same may be said of Sweet Giim, Black Gum, Chest- 
nut and Hickory. Forming a second zone underneath the tall trees 
are often to be seen the Dogwood, the Holly, the Laurel, and in the 
more open spaces the Eed Cedar, the Persimmon, the Sassafras and 
Sumac. A third zone is usually formed by ericaceous shrubs such 
as Gaylussacia resinosa, Vacciniiim sp.. Pier is mariana. Azalea nudi- 
flora. The herbaceous vegetation is of a somewhat xerophytic type, 
and includes: 

Li/copodiiDn, ohscurinn 
Lycopodium compJanaium 
Pteris aquilina 
Dryopteris achrosticJioides 
Cypripedium acaide 
Peramium pubescens 
Hypoxis hirsuta 
Sarothra gentianoides 
Baptisia tinctoria 
Cracca virginiana 
Meihomia sp. 
Epigaea repens 
Cliimaphila maculuta 
Chimaphila umhellata 
Mitchella repens 
Gerardia purpurea 
Melampyrum lineare 
Cunila originoides 
Sericocarpus asleroides 
Chrysopsis mariana 
Aster ericoides 
Coreopsis vcrticilhila. 

Oah-IIicTcory Association. — Forests in which oaks and hickories 
predominate occur in the more mesophytic areas of the niDlands, 
especially on the soil known as Collington sandy loam, in the "For- 
est of Prince George." Pines, oaks and hickories sometimes all 
occur together, but this seems to represent a temporary condition, for 



I'lU. 1. VIEW SHUWi.Nu jiEl'liOl>LCIU).\ »l l,u!:LuL.LV I'l.Nt, .ST. Ai.\i;V'.S lOU.MV. 




in the dense shade produced by the hardwoods the pines do not thrive. 
The xerophytic oaks such as the Black Jack, Spanish Oak and Post 
Oak, are largely replaced by White Oak and Black Oak, which here 
take the lead, accompanied by some Red Oak and several species 
of Hickory (Hicoria ovata, Hicoria alba and Hicoria glabra). The 
Tulip-tree is a frequent member of this association, especially on the 
sloping sides of depressions, where also thrives the Beech. Less im- 
portant constituents are the Persimmon, the Yellow Locust and the 
Sweet Gum. While species of oak and hickory and the Tulip-tree 
frequently form the bulk of a forest, another constituent may form 
so large a proportion that it almost gives rise to what might be called 
a distinct association; this is the Chestnut. It prefers well-drained 
sandy slopes, where it commonly replaces the Tulip-tree of nioister 
slopes. On account of the demand for its timber it is frequently 
seen as coppice. As an example of a rather xerophytic type of such 
a forest, the following enumeration is given, referring to a ten- 
acre tract at Leonardtown, St. Mary's County. The tract bore some 
evidence of being a part of the original growth, for the trees were 
of great age; on the stump of an oak recently felled were counted 
106 rings. The soil was Leonardtown loam, and the general level 
of the tract was about 80 feet above tide water. The plants seen 
with their relative abundance was as follows: 

Quercus minor 


Quercus digitata 


Quercus velutina 


Quercus alba 


Castanea dentata 


Hicoria sp. 


Other trees 


In more mesophytic woods a smaller proportion of the first two 
oaks and a larger proportion of hickory is the nile. LTnderneath 
the oaks, etc., a second zone is usually present, which in the higher 
areas consists of Dogwood, sometimes as rather large trees, Red 
Cedar, Sassafras, Holly, Laurel and Sumac (Rhus copallina, Rhus 
hirta, Rhus glabra). The humus content of the soil in these woods 


is generally liig'li, so that the most mesophytio forms of herbaceous 
vegetation are found. 

Maple-Gum Association. — This title is meant to include the highly 
mesophytic assemiblage found in depressions or valleys of the up- 
lands. A glance at Table 1 will show that in such places neither 
oaks nor hickories prevail but that their dominant place is taken 
by the Sweet Gum and the Eed Maple, with the Tulip-Tree as the 
next most important constituent. Equally characteristic though not 
present in such large numbers are the Beech, the Swamp Oak, the 
Black Gum and the Buttonwood and in the moister places, the 
River Birch and the Sweet Birch. The White Oak and Black Oak 
by no means disappear, and the Willow Oak is found in many 
cases. The Tulip-Tree, the Beech and the oaks are the trees on 
the tension line between the depressions and the higher jiarts of the 
area ; Sweet Gum also occurs on fairly high ground, but not in large 
numbers, while Maple, Buttonwood and Birch fail to spread up- 
ward along the slopes to any extent. Certain other trees of a highly 
mesojjhytic type find the necessary moisture and shelter in such 
places; e. g., the Bed Mulberry, the Elm, the Black Walnut, and 
the White Ash. The lower zone of this association is quite typical, 
inchiding : 

Cornus fiorida 
Sassafras sassafras 
Ilex opaca 
Aralia spinosa 
Asimina triloba 
Magnolia virginiana 
Cercis canadensis 
Carpinus caroliniana 
Alnus rugosa 
Sambucus canadensis 
Pieris mariana 
Cletkra alnifolia 
Corylus americana 
Benzoin ienzoin. 


The herbaceous vegetation includes a large number of shade and 
moisture-loving species. 

Lowland Foeests. — This division includes the gro^vth on the 
low-lying tracts bordering the larger bodies of water, also the flood 
plains of streams. It does not present the same variety as the tirst 
division, for the conditions are not so diversified. At the same 
time the vegetation is more luxuriant, on account of the better sup- 
ply of moisture. Two associations may be distinguished. 

Oum-Pine Association. — On the soil areas marked "MeadoV 
on the soil maps, namely the low flat areas bordering on the larger 
bodies of water, is found a characteristic assemblage of ti'ees. The 
areas are poorly drained, and as was stated in the section on soils, 
the material is a fine gTay silty loam. An extended area of this 
kind occurs in the peninsula between the Potomac and Wicomico 
rivers in southern Charles County, also at the south-east extremity 
of St. Mary's County. On these areas the dominant tree is the 
Sweet Gum which occurs in all sizes and overruns the roadsides 
like a weed. A glance at Table 1 will show that it is in this asso- 
ciation that the Loblolly Pine reaches its maximum development. 
In some places in fact it is the dominant tree, as was mentioned 
when considering the Pine Association, but generally it is outnum- 
bered by the hardwoods. The Scrub Pine is frequently found 
mixed with the Loblolly and the hardwoods and there is the same 
struggle for supremacy between hardwoods and conifers as was seen 
on the uplands. One other conifer, the Red Cedar, is especially 
common in the regions near the water. A highly characteristic tree 
is the Willow Oak, which though often outnumbered by White Oak 
and Black Oak, reaches its best development here. Other trees of 
conspicuous occurrence are the Spanish Oak, Black Gum, the Pci-- 
simmon and the Maple. Quite as conspicuous, — by their rarity. — 
are the Tulip-Tree, the Hickories and the Chestnut. This may be 
accounted for by the poor drainage of such areas and by a possible 
chemical factor ; the chestnut having long had a reputation for avoid- 
ing calcareous soils, which would account for its greater abundance 
on sandy hillsides. Characteristic members of a lower zone are : 
tlie Holly, which is especially abundant in this association, the Sass- 
afras, Dog-wood, Sumac and Sweet Peppei--bush. 



Oak-Gum Association. — On the necks of land stretcliiug south- 
east from Baltimore and Harford counties occur tree assemblages 
to which the above name is given. These "necks" resemble in a 
general way the peninsulas stretching in a similar direction from 
Charles and St. Mary's counties, but the difference in vegetation 
of the two regions seems sufficiently striking to necessitate separating 
them. To begin with, this association shows a greater number of 
oaks than does any other. White Oak is dominant though Sweet 
Gum is almost equally abundant, while Chestnut Oak, Willow Oak, 
Black Oak and Swamp Oak are more numerous here than they 
are in any other situation. In marked distinction to the "Meadow," 
Chestnut is frequent, even on low ground, while Hickories, Maple 
and Black Gum also occur plentifully. On the other hand there is 
but little Pine, Cedar or Holly. An examination of the soil map 
shows that the areas in question do not consist of Meadow, but of 
Sassafras loam, and the mechanical analysis of the two differ to a 
certain extent, as the following comparison shows: 

Mechanical Analysis.* 

St. Mary's Co. 


0, 35-0. Im/rap.l-0.05m/ml0. 05-0. 005ra/n 

0.005-0.0001 m/ra 

*From Reports of U. S. Bureau of Soils for 1900 and IflOl. 

The most noticeable difference in the two soils is the relative 
amounts of medium and coarse sand. The greater proportion of 
these in the Sassafras loam ensures better drainage, which may 
accoimt for the greater abundance of Chestnut, Hickory and Tulip- 

River Swamps. — correspond in general to the flood plain 
of the rivers, and accordingly have a soil derived from the periodic 
deposit of sediment by the river. They vary greatly as to water 
content, not only among each other but in the same swamp at dif- 
ferent times of J'car, and in different parts of the swamp, hence con- 


siderable variety is seen in their vegetation. The most extensive 
tract which was visited is the celebrated Zekiah swamp in Charles 
County, which occupies the valley of the Wicomico Kiver for a dis- 
tance of fully ten miles, and has a width of one-half to one mile. 
At its southern end it merges into a fresh marsh, as may be seen 
at Allen Fresh. At some seasons of the year the swamp is largely 
flooded, but at the time visited (July 1st and 10th) it might be 
considered a low-lying forest traversed by several branches of the 
Kiver. Owing to its frequent inundation the soil is a soft rich 
alluvial material, and the arborescent covering is so dense that not 
only is the soil constantly moist, but herbaceous vegetation is sparse. 
On the fallen trunks grow a great variety of mosses and slime- 
moulds, as well as fleshy fungi. The composition of the forest 
varies somewhat in different parts, probably owing to relative mois- 
tm-e. In one section, near the junction of Clark Run, with the main 
stream, where the level is only moderately low (in fact part has 
at one time been under cultivation), the dominant tree is Sweet 
Gum, associated with much Black Gum, Eed Maple, Willow Oak, 
Swamp Oak, Beech, Holly, and other species in smaller numbers. 
Half a mile farther north the leading species is the River Birch, 
\vhile Sweet Gum, Willow Oak, the Hornbeam, and Holly take sec- 
ond rank. A more extended examination was made of tlie region 
at the point where the county bridge crosses the swamp. Here the 
general level is low, with standing water in many places. Many 
large trees are to be seen here, left, no doubt, because of the great 
difKculty in getting out timber. These are generally Swamp Oak, 
although other species are common as e. g., Hornbeam, Sweet Gum, 
]\laple, Birch, Black Gum and Holly; while Ash, Elm, Willow Oak, 
Black Oak, Overcup Oak and Paw Paw are less common. Along 
the water courses Alders, Willows, the Button Bush and the Winter- 
berry are frequent, and on the road are specimens of Buttonwood, 
a tree which is uncommon in the body of the swamp. 

Besides the Zekiah .swamp there are others of smaller area in the 
district, as along the Patuxent between Arme Arundel and Prince 
George's counties. Here, as in the previous case, the dominant 
trees are Sweet Gum, River Birch and Swamp Oak, but here, the 
Buttonwood becomes more plentiful, and the Box-elder is a eon- 


spicuous element. The shrubs common in this association are 
Vaccinium corymbosum, Samhucus canadensis, Clethra alnifoUa and 
Pieris mariana. The ■woody vegetation of the wetter places is mostly 
shrubby, including Alnus rvgosa, Salix nigra, Cephalanthus occi- 
dentalis, Vaccinium corymbosum, Rosa Carolina, Ilex verlicillata. 
A striking feature of such associations is the large number and 
luxuriance of the climbers.* These include various species of 
Smilax and Vitis, Ehus radicans, Partlienocissus quinquefolia, etc. 
In some places the tangle formed by Smilax is almost impenetrable, 
while the other climbers ascend far into the crown of the trees. The 
herbaceous vegetation, includes the following: 

Onoclea sensibilis 
Alism a flaniago-a qua I lea 
Arisaema tripliyllum 
Peltandra virginica 
Saururus cernuus 
Asclepias incarnala 
Pentliorurti sedoides 
Polygonum arifolium 
Triadenum virgintcuin. 

While in the drier parts is iunnd a lypieal flood-plain flora includ- 
ing, during July and August : 

Woodivardia areola ta 
Botrycliiuni ternatum 
Boehmeria cylindrica 

♦Following the classification of Schenk (Beitriige zur Biologic und Anatomie 
der Lianen) these may be arranged thus: 

1. Clambering by hooked prickles — Polyuonum arifolium. Polygonum sagit- 
tatum. Galium. 

2. Climbing by aerial roots — Rhus radicans, Tecoma radicans. 

3. Twining — Dioscorea viNosa. Mcnlsiiermum canadense, Celastrus scan- 
dens, Clitoria mariana. Galactia. voUibilis, Falcata comosa, Apios apios. 
Strophostyles helvola. Strophosiyles vmhellata, Yincetoxicum caroKnensis. 
Lonicera japonica, Willughhacya scaiidcns. Convolvulus septum, Convolvulus 
arvensis, Ipomoea pxirpurea, Ipomoea hedcracea. 

4. Climbing by tendrils, consisting of 

(a) Modified leaves: Smilax rotundifoUa, Yicia sativa. 

(b) Modified shoots: Vitis sp. Partlienocissus quinquefolia. Micram- 

pelis lobata. 


Adicea pumila 
Polygonum virginianum 
Thalidrum polygamum 
Impatiens hiflora 
Ehexia mariana 
Hypericum maculatuui 
Sanicula marylandica 
Cicuta maculata 
Deringa canadensis 
Steironema ciliatum 
Phlox paniculata 
Sabbatia angularis 
Lycopus virginicus 
Teucrium canadcnse . 
Verbena Jiastata 
Asclepias incamata 
Guscuta gronovii 
Mimulus ringens 
Lobelia cardinalis 
Heliopsis heliantlioidcs 
Rudbecl'ia laciniala 
Eupatorium perfoliatum 
Eupatorium piuyureiim 
Lactuca villosa. 

No doubt this list would have been more satisfactory if collec- 
tions could have been made earlier in the season, for the vernal 
plants of flood plains are very characteristic. 

Cypress sivamps. — The northern limit of The Bald Cypress 
{Taxodium distichum) is stated by Sargent to be southern Dela- 
ware, so that Southern Maryland is just within the range of this 
species. Only two examples of these swamps are known to the 
writer, one in Wicomico County on the Eastern Shore, and the 
other in Calvert County in the valley of Battle Creek. Only the 
outskirts of the latter swamp were visited, but Curran (I.e.) re- 
cords the occurrence of trees having a diameter of 60 inches, though 


the average is 10 inches, indicating that most of the timber is sec- 
ond growth. The characteristic "knees"* of the cypress are fairly- 
displayed in this swamp, although one misses the hanging bunches 
of Spanish moss, Tillandsia, which help to give the weird effect to 
typical examples of these swamps in the southern states. Other 
trees, especially Black Gimi, usually accompany the Cypress but are 
present in small proportion. Very little midergrowth occurs, owing 
partly to the dense shade and partly to the inundated condition of 
such swamps. 

Succession. — The general principle of succession has already 
been stated. It is desirable to consider at this point whether the 
associations already described conform to the principle. Begin- 
ning with the pine association, it was found by inquiry that cer- 
tain tracts now covered with pine (or pines with a sprinkling of 
oaks) were in a high state of cultivation forty years ago, but that 
after the Civil War were neglected on account of the difficulty of 
securing labor. There is abundant reason for believing that in such 
areas Scrub Pine is the pioneer invader, and the features of this 
tree which fit it for such a role have been pointed out. But in spite 
of its hardiness the Scrub Pine is a short-lived tree, so that sooner 
or later openings appear in the originally pure stand. Besides old 
age, the woodman's axe, lightning strokes and severe storms aid in 
making gaps. Meanwhile seeds of hardwoods have been dropped 
among the pines by the agency of wind, birds and squirrels, the 
mode varying with the seed in question. Although oaks have a seed 
which is apparently not easily distributed, the trees generally oc- 
cur in such numbers that a large number of acorns are produced. 
Moreover oaks as a rule will grow in a soil not well supplied with 
humus. Hence in the openings in the pine woods oak seedlings 
spring up, and owing to their having greater tolerance than have 
pines, are able to grow, even though slowly, in such a position, while 
the pines on account of their intolerance are unable under such con- 
ditions to reseed the spaces left by a tree falling. As these openings 

*See Kearney, T. H. Report on a Botanical Survey of the Dismal Swamp 
Region. Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb., vol. v, 1901. Also Coulter, S. M., An 
ecological comparison of some typical swamp areas. Rep. Missouri Bot. 
Garden, vol. xv, 1904. 





enlarge and become more numerous, the young or dwarfed oaks 
which have been biding their time now begin more rapid gi-owth, 
so that before many years there is a mixed pine and oak growth. 

As the hiunus content of the soil increases, the existence of cer- 
tain other species is made possible, for example, hickories find a 
suitable habitat, and less xerophytic species of oak are able to grow, 
hence we find many forests in the oak-hickory stage. 

In the account of the Upland Forests a fourth association, namely 
the Maple-Gum, was described. Since a Maple-Beech association 
is known to succeed the Oak-Hickory in regions further north (vide 
infra), observations were made on the origin of the Maple-Gum 
formation. Although the Red Maple occurs to a certain extent in 
the border region between the uplands proper and the depressions 
in which is foimd the assemblage named "Maple-Gum association," 
the latter essentially belongs to the valleys, where according to the 
■v\Titer's observations it immediately succeeds the pines as do the oaks 
in higher situations. A good illustration of this occurs near Bowie, 
Prince George's County. On this piece of rather low ground the 
pines have begun to die out, and there is a plentiful undergrowth 
of maple and sweet gum. Owing to the great degree of tolerance 
possessed by the Bed Maple, it is entirely probable that the seedlings 
will live imtil further breaks occur in the pines, when a forest of 
maple and gum will spring up. Owing to the exceedingly meso- 
phytic conditions in the places where they occur, other trees such 
as the Buttonwood, Tulip-tree, Beech and Black Gum find the neces- 
sary shelter, so that this association comes to include a greater 
variety of trees than any other. 

The succession of the lowlands, on the other hand, seems to be 
from pine to a mixture of gum and oaks, with Sweet Gum as the 
pioneer. After this tree has crowded out most of the pines with 
the aid of such xerophytic oaks as the Spanish Oak, the more meso- 
phytic oaks siich as the White, Black, AVillow and Swamp Oaks, 
together with Maple and Black Gum, make their appearance. Hence 
the series has probably been: pine, pine-gimi, gum-oak. Most of 
the coastal forests show a large admixture of pine, but it has been 
pointed out that on the Sassafras loam there are but few pines, 
with large numbers of various species of oaks, and even hickories 


and Chestnut. It is probable that the latter areas are slightly older 
geologically than the "meadow," and they appear to have progressed 
a step in the evolution of a lowland forest. 

The succession as just detailed proceeds upon the assumption that 
the area was clear at the beginning, and that adult pines were 
present in the neighborhood to furnish seed. Neither of these as- 
sumptions is necessarily true for a given area, though in most cases 
they are true. If a tract does not enter iipon these chapters of its 
history in the condition of an abandoned field but as a partially 
cleared wood-lot, the point at wliich the succession begins will of 
course vary according to the kinds of trees which were present on 
the tract when the cutting was done. In this connection one fre- 
quently hears the saying "If you cut off the pines, oaks make their 
appearance, and if you cut off oaks, pines spring up." If this state- 
ment were taken to indicate that the succession might take place 
in either direction, it would be incorrect, but it states a partial 
truth. It has already been shown that pines are in an untouched 
tract replaced by oaks in the course of time; this change may be 
hastened by the agency of man, for in a pine forest old enough to 
be cut for timber there is sure to be an undergrowth of oak which 
is then given a chance to develop. Hence the first part of the 
statement is readily explained. The second part, to the effect that 
pines succeed oaks, seems to be true only in case the whole of a 
forest cover is removed, and in such a way as to seriously damage 
the seedlings and saplings of oak, hickory, etc., and thus admit 
enough light for the growth of the pine seedlings, which soon over- 
lop the oak seedlings on account of the rapid growth of the former, 
and thiis achieve a temporary victory. If many seedlings of oak 
are left by the woodman, competition ensues between the oaks and 
pines. If selective cutting has been practised, the oak and hickory 
seedlings at once shoot up, and pine seedlings do not obtain the 
necessary light, for they are extremely intolerant. Thus an oak 
forest may be followed by another of the same kind. 

Let us next suppose that no mature pines are present in the 
neighborhood — a condition which rarely occurs. In such a case 
the history of the tract depends on its level. If the tract is mod- 
erately low, seeds of Sweet Gum and Maple are apt to be so^\m on 


it, on account of the easy distribution of these by wind. But ]\raple 
seedlings cannot endure strong insolation, so that Sweet Gum and 
the more slowly distributed trees generally make their appearance. 
On high ground no tracts were observed which were devoid of pine, 
but it is probable that in such a case reforestation would be slow, 
and that oaks would form the prevailing growth, beginning with the 
•most xerophytic species such as Spanish Oak and Post Oak. 

It remains to be considered what is to be regarded as the climax 
forest formation of the region. It has been shown by Cowles* that 
extreme conditions such as xerophytic or the opposite tend to be- 
come more and more mesophytic. Extreme conditions are the sign 
of a young topography, while the mesophytic condition denotes that 
processes such as base-levelling have gone on for an extended period, 
leading to a comparatively stable condition of the flora which may 
be styled the climax flora for that region. Thus in Washington 
and Oregon a mesophytic coniferous forest prevails, while in the 
north-eastern states Maple-Beech forests are found in the most 
mesophytic situations. The same author offers good evidence for 
the view that the Maple-Beech formation succeeds the Oak-Hickory 
formation. It is proper to inquire, therefore, whether the Oak- 
Hickory formation of our District gives evidence of being replaced 
by some other, for instance, one containing Maple or Beech. My 
observations indicate that this is improbable for three reasons. (1) 
The maple in the district under study is Acer ruhrum, while that 
in the northern Maple-Beech forests is Acer saccharum. Thfe former 
is a tree of low ground, and only rarely spi'eads up the slopes into 
the oak stands. (2) If on the uplands maple and beech were suc- 
ceeding the oaks, there should be found areas with a pronounced 
undergrowth of Acer ruhrum and Fagus americanaj such areas have 
not been observed. If the uplands should ever become sufficiently 
mesophytic to support these that time will be far into the future. 
(3) Observations as to the nature of the primeval forest of this 
region do not indicate that this consisted of a Maple-Beech com- 
bination. The oldest tracts of upland forest found in the district 

*Cowles, H. C. The plant societies of Chicago and vicinity. Botanical 
Gazette, vol. xxxi, 1901; pp. 73-108, 145-182. 


consist of White Oak, Black Oak, Chestnut, Hickory and Beech, 
although these do not necessarily represent the composition of the 
primeval forest. It is of interest to note that Harshberger* finds 
in a tract of unaltered forest in south-eastern Pennsylvania not a 
Maple-Beech combination but a mixture of Tulip-tree, Chestnut, 
oaks, Beech and Hickory. The most mesophytic tracts of any ex- 
tent, namely, on the Collington Sandy loam of the "Forest of Prince 
George," show a combination of White Oak, Black Oak, hickories 
and Tulip-tree, with Chestnut on the higher parts of slopes, and with 
seedlings of the same species. Hence such a combination, and not 
a Maple-Beech formation is to be considered the climax forest of the 

Eefoeestatioht. — The process of natural reforestation has been 
described in the preceding paragraphs. That this is taking place 
over wide areas is hardly to be regretted, for mucb of the land in 
question has been largely drained of its humus by the long-continued 
growing of tobacco, sometimes on soil none too well adapted for 
this purpose. In time the soil will regain itself and may be cleared 
and again cultivated to advantage. In parts of the area the land 
might well be permanently retained in forest, for much of it is 
well suited to the growth of White Oak and other hardwoods, 
which are increasing in value by leaps and bounds. To this end 
some of the elementary principles of forestry should be regarded 
by the owners of tracts of woodland. Though forest succession is 
necessarily slow, a good deal can be accomplished in one lifetime, 
owing to the rapid growth of the pines. These will generally plant 
themselves over an area spontaneously, and in course of time as 
they mature they should be removed, probably by clean cutting, so 
as to admit light to the oak seedlings which it is taken for granted 
will appear beneath the pines. In order to ensure their appearing, 
planting of acorns might be resorted to with advantage. In the 
ease of an Oak-Hickory forest, selective cutting should be employed, 
removing defective and deformed trees, also those of inferior species 
such as the Black Jack Oak and Spanish Oak, as well as the mature 
trees of desirable species. It is a good plan to cut from only a 

*Bull. Torrey Club, vol. xxxi. 1904. p. 141. 


small area each year so that the woodman may complete the cir- 
cuit of his forest in say ten years, and then cut again from the 
area first cut over. Among the advantages of this plan is the smal- 
ler damage done to seedlings by hauling the timber. Where Chest- 
nut or the Tulip Tree are the important trees, the method of cop- 
picing is desirable. The treatment of the Chestnut is the subject 
of a recent bulletin of the Department of Agriculture.* 


The term "marsh" is here used to include those hydrophytic areas 
where grasses or other herbaceous vegetation dominate, as do ti'ees 
in Avhat have been called "swamps." Two well-marked associations 
exist, depending on the salt content of the water, so that fresh and 
salt marshes may be considered separately, though transition or 
tension areas are easily to be found. 

Fresh Marshes. 

Fresh marshes occur along the shores of slow-running rivers and 
of ponds which are provided with an outlet. In case the banks are 
gently sloping, a well-marked zonation may be seen. Beginning 
with the zone which occufiies the deepest water, there may be dis- 
tinguished : 

Potamogeton zone. — Several species of Potamogeton, especially 
Potamogeton natans, inhabit water 5 to 10 feet deep, which may 
flow Avith fair rapidity without destroying the plants. In quiet 
water such as ponds the Potamogeton is frequently accompanied by 
Brasenia purpurea and such free-swimming plants as Utricularia. 
Lemna and Spirodela. Other plants do not invade this zone on ac- 
count of their inability to bring the leaf-blades to the surface of the 
water. This zone is often absent, owing, perhaps, to the too sudden 
descent of the river-bottom. Occurring in similar situations, though 
not with suflicient frequency to be listed separately, is Vallisneria 
spiralis, which was observed in inlets from the Gunpowder River. 

•Bureau of Forestry, Bull. 53. 


Nymphaea zone. — In slightly shallower water (2 to 5 feet) there 
frequently occurs an almost pure growth of the yellow water-lily. 
Plate XIII, Fig. 1, illustrates a pond near Upper Marlborough, 
Prince George's County, in which four "islands" of Nxjmpliaea are 
visible. The localization of these in limited areas must be due to 
variations in depth of the water, for in shallow ponds Nymphaea 
generally covers the whole area. The most striking feature of this 
photograph is the group in the foreground, which may be styled an 
atoll for it is plainly ring-shaped, probably owiug to the cause already 
mentioned, — that is, greater depth of water in the middle of the 
group. On Eomney Creek, Harford County, Castalia odorata was 
obsei-ved in the outer, deep zone together with PoJygniinni $p. and 
Spirodela polyrhiza. 

Pontederia zone. — In still shallower water (1 to 2 feet) Pon- 
tedcria cordata is of very frequent occurrence as a marginal plant, 
and it is successful as a pioneer along the edges of watercourses 
which are silting up. On account of its system of rhizomes and 
numerous roots it is able to hold its place in a moderate current. 
Good examples may be seen along the Anacostia River, near Wash- 
ington. Associated with this is frequently found Sagitiaria lati- 
folia or Sagittaria land folia. 

Zizania zone. — This zone is usiially much broader than any of the 
preceding, and forms areas many acres in extent along such rivers 
as the Patapsco, the Patuxent (as far down as White's Landing; 
vide Scofield*) and the Gunpowder. It follows Pontederia on mud 
flats, hence is usually found a little farther back from the margin 
of a stream, though it is inundated constantly, to a depth varying 
with the condition of the tide. On account of the height of this 
grass it shades out most of its competitors, but on the margin of 
the stream it is mixed with Pontederia, and in very shallow water 
it is accompanied by Bidens laevis. Polygonum sagittatum and 
Sagitiaria. This zone is tenanted by numerous birds who use the 
seed of Zizania as food. 

*Scofield, C. S. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. 
Bull. 72. 


Typha zone. — There is some reason to believe that Typha lati- 
folia follows Zizania on mud flats, but in many localities it must 
be regarded as a pioneer. It is well adapted to fill this role on 
account of the easy distribution of its seeds. Like Zizania it often 
covers extensive areas. After Typha has occupied an area for a few 
years it is apt to be invaded by Asclepias incarnata, Hibiscus 
mosclieutos, Polygonum arifoliuin, Polygonum sagittaium, Impa- 
tiens biflora. Convolvulus sepium. In such situations Typlia may 
be partially replaced by groups of Scirpus lacustris, Scirpus validus, 
Peltandra virginica, Orontium aquaticum and Iris versicolor. As 
still drier conditions come to prevail, competition is more and more 
severe and the following plants may enter into the struggle: 

Ceplialanthus occidenialis 
Triadenum virginicum 
Saururus cernuus 
Aescliynomene virginica 
Eupatorium perfolialum 
Epilobium coloratum 
Cuscuta sp. 
Ambrosia trifida 
Micrampelis lobata 
Helenium aufumnale. 

Alder zone. — Ceplialanthus occidenialis is often a pioneer shrub 
in such situations, but usually the Alder (^Alnus rugosa) follows 
closely and becomes dominant. Many of the plants in the preceding 
list persist in this zone, for the shade of the Alder is not dense. 
Other shrubs generally accompany the Alder, e. g., Rosa Carolina, 
Ilex veHicillaia. 

Maple zone. — On considerably drier ground beyond the Alder 
flourishes the Red Maple, with which may be associated Black Wil- 
low, Buttonwood and Ash. 

In any given locality several of these zones may be lacking, es- 
pecially the first two. Very seldom is Ponlederia absent, but the 
conditions may not be favorable for Zizania {vide Scofield, 1. c). 
Typha is not so exacting in its requirements, and is imiversally jjres- 



ent. A jjlaiit which niay occur in considerable niiniLers on the drier 
part of a margin, for example, behind the Typha, is Phragniites 
phragmites ; father large groups of which were seen on the Patapsco 
River near Baltimore. (Plate XIV., Fig. 2.) The zone in the 
foreground consists of Ambrosia trifida. The extent of such marshes 
depends on several factors, (1) steepness of slope of the river bank, 
and breadth of the flood-plain; in the case of most of the rivers 
of our district there is not a well-developed flood plain, but a com- 
l>aratively narrow channel with gently sloping banks, hence the 
area available for a marsh is limited, and the tree zone is soon 
reached. (2) Rapidity of descent of the river channel, or in other 
words rapidity of flow of the river: the j^art of a river which flows 
through this district necessarily has ■ a gentle slope, for the Pa- 
tuxent is at Laurel less than 200 feet above sea-level, moreover 
tidewater backs up the rivers for a great distance, thus periodic- 
ally destroying the flow in the lower reaches. These conditions 
are favorable for the deposit of sediment, which is the necessary 
concomitant of marsh formation. (3) Nature and quantity of the 
sediment brought down by the river, which depends partly on the 
last factor, biit also on the nature of the country through which 
the river flows in its upper course. If sediment is very fine it may 
be carried to the mouth of a river instead of deposited along its 
channel. In most cases a mixed condition prevails, and the sedi- 
ment is sorted out as it flows along. Marshes of the type here con- 
sidered are partly the result and partly the cause of the silting up 
of rivers. After a storm much sediment is carried down a river, 
and as the water of the river resumes its normal level some of the 
sediment is deposited along the river's course, especially along the 
margin, where the current is slow. The water is thereby made 
shallow enough to permit the growth of such plants as Pontederia 
and Sagittaria; continued growth of these plants not only holds 
the sediment in place but helps to accumulate more. So the river 
becomes shallower and narrower, and as a consequence the navigable 
portion is restricted. The gradual raising of the level of the marsh 
is effected partly by the detritus deposited on the vegetation by 
spring freshets, and partly by the accumulation of dead plant re- 



lid. 1 vnw siKiwixc Tin: tkat i;c»; at clkmuiime, a.n-m; aiiu.ndel county. 

ru;. 2. — VIEW .siiowixo marsh with salt meadow gkass behind whuh is sjiooth 



mains. As the level rises, the line of shrubs and of trees advances 
steadily toward the stream. 

Salt Marslics. 

The requisite for a salt marsh is a shallow body of salt or brack- 
ish water which is not too much disturbed by littoral or fluvial 
currents or by wave action. Hence these associations occur at the 
mouths of streams and in embayments along a great part of the 
coast line of the district imder consideration, i. e., along Chesa- 
peake Bay, the Potomac and the Patiixent rivers. Areas of this 
kind were studied at Leonardtown, Chaptico and St. George's Island 
in St. Mary's County, Parkers Creek and various places along the 
Patuxent in Calvert County, West Kiver and Patapsco River in 
Anne Arundel County, Bush River and Gunpowder River in Har- 
ford County. Since all the rivers of the region are tidal, the influ- 
ence of the salt is felt for more or less distances up the rivers. Ac- 
cordingly halophytic vegetation extends along the edges of the 
streams to a distance which depends on the width and slope of the 
channel and the distance from the mouth of the Bay. 

The vegetation of the salt marshes is altogether distinctive, for 
only a limited nimiber of species have adapted themselves to the 
unusual conditions which here prevail, viz: (1) a relatively high 
osmotic pressure of the water in the substratum, (2) a periodic 
rise and fall in the level of the water, (3) a soft and unstable sub- 
stratum, and frequently (4) the deposit of sediment coming by 
means of river or shore currents. Among the plants Avhich have 
acquired the ability to live amid such conditions are preeminently 
certain grasses of the genus Spartina, in which the following fea- 
tures are noteworthy: (1) their extensive system of stout rhizomes 
which securely hold the plant in the yielding substratum; (2) the 
well-developed papery sheaths of the leaves, which prevent free 
access of salt water; (3) the power of rolling up possessed by the 
leaves, tending to enclose the stomata and so check transpiration. 

The last features and some others are shown in the photomi- 
crographs on Plate XV of the leaf of Spartina stricfa vai\ 
maritima. Fig. 1 represents a transverse section from the central 


region of the blade, magnified 12 times. It may be observed that 
the leaf is partly rolled np, with the upper surface inward. A 
small piece of the leaf is more highly magnified in Fig. 2 (x40), 
and it may now be seen that the upper surface of the leaf is deeply 
grooved by a series of depressions running lengthwise on the upper 
face. Vascular bundles of two ranks are present, situated in the 
areas marked out by the grooves. The internal striTcture can, how- 
ever, be better made out in Fig. 3 (xSO). Each bundle is encircled 
by a row of large cells which in the fresh state are seen to be either 
colorless or else scantily supplied with chloroplastids on the side 
away from the vascular bundle. These cells appear to function 
largely as water reservoirs. To the right and left of these storage 
cells are small cells richly provided with chloroplastids and sep- 
arated by intercelMar spaces — the spongy tissue of the leaf. This 
layer is well shown in Fig. 5. A band of mechanical tissue may 
be seen at each end of the group of storage cells, immediately be- 
neath the upper and lower epidermis of the leaf. Thus in each 
of the units into which the leaf is ' divided there is a division of 
labor among the conducting, storage, assimilatory and mechanical 
tissues. At the foot of the grooves may be seen in several of the 
figures a group of rather large cells whose outline is irregular owing 
to collapse of the walls. These are the "bulliform cells," first de- 
scribed by Duval- Jouve,* and figured for many grasses, e. g., by 
Holm;'^ to their shrinkage and collapse is due the rolling up of 
the leaf when the water supply is scanty compared with transpira- 
tion. Beneath each group of "bulliform cells" there may be seen 
in a fresh specimen a large cavity bounded laterally by the green 
cells ; in the preserved material these cavities almost entirely col- 
lapse, but indications of them are visible in several of the figures. 
The "bulliform cells" are rather small in the species under consid- 
eration, but their action is doubtless supijlemented by the collapse 
of the cavities just described. The grooves next claim our atten- 
tion. It will be noticed that their depth is a little less than half 
the thickness of the leaf, and in the curled leaf they are exceed- 

*Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot, vol. vi, pt. 1, 1875, pp. 294-371. 

tHolm, T. A study of some anatomical characters of North American 
Gramineae. Botan. Gaz., vol. xvi, 1891, p. 166. 


ingly narrow, having the form of slit-like grooves. Fig. i shows u 
stoma opening into a groove; it is slightly depressed below the sur- 
face of the epidermis, and communicates as iisual with a cavity 
formed by an intercellular space in the spongy tissue. Stomata 
occur only in the grooves, but maj occiir at quite variable depths 
in a groove. No stomata are found on the lower surface of the leaf. 
The guard cells and the ordinary epidermal cells lining the groove 
are provided with peg-like projections, which serve to retain a quan- 
tity of air in the groove during the periods of siibmergence of the 
plant that are brought about by the tides. This adaptation is of 
prime importance to the plant, and is entirely effectual, as may be 
determined by mounting a section of the fresh leaf in water. As 
may be seen from Fig. 5, the vascular bundles are of the ordinary 
closed collateral type, with a heavy sheath around the phloem. 

A detailed account of the adaptations of halophytic plants may 
be found in Kearney's admirable Report on a Botanical Survey of 
the Dismal Swamp Region, already cited. The following ecological 
grouping may be adopted : 

Spartina stricta association. — On account of the ability of Spar- 
tina stricta var. maritima to live in water of a depth of one foot 
or more, it is a pioneer, and in places where it occurs it is con- 
stantly extending the outer line of the marsh. Moreover it will 
bear a greater amount of salt than will most of the other plants 
of a marsh, and possesses all of the characters mentioned in the pre- 
ceding paragraph. The general appearance of the species is shown 
in Plate XVI., Fig. 2, and its activity as a pioneer in Plate XVIT., 
Fig. 1, which represents the mouth of Mouldy Run, near Leonard - 
town (St. Mary's County). Here the Spartina is acting in conjunc- 
tion with the sediment which is brought down by the stream, so that 
a delta is in process of formation. The writer was informed that 
thirty years ago this spot was clear water. Towards the outer 
edge of such a formation Spartina is the only plant, but as more 
silt collects other plants make their appearance, for example Acnida 
cannabina, a decidedly hemp-like plant, the lavender clusters of 
Limonium carolinianum, Pluchea campTiorata with its strong- 
smelling foliage and purjjle flowers, and Solidago sempervirens. All 


of these are sjjecies which will bear a large j)roportion of salt in 
the substratum, and the contrast between halophytic and mesophytic 
species belonging to the same genus (e. g. Solidago) is striking. 

The absence of Salicornia from this and other associations of this 
region is worthy of note, since in many maritime estuaries it is ex- 
tremely common. Perhaps the explanation lies in the moderate per- 
centage of salt present in the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac, 
which is 1.638 as compared with 3.631 for the Atlantic Ocean, 
and this explanation is borne oiit by the observation that Sali- 
comia occurs in the marshes at Ocean City. It is certain that 
Salicornia can grow in water which is even more salt than the sea, 
as in places where sea water is exposed to evaporation. Probably 
the competition of other plants has driven it out of the less salt 

Spartina polystacliya association. — This sjDecies is found in moi-e 
or less pure stands as a zone bordering most of the tidal streams near 
their mouths. It prefers less salt than the preceding species, and 
grows with its roots and the lower part of its stems between tide. 
Its tall robust habit, and the j^rominent clusters of spikes are highly 
distinctive, and are shown in Plate XVII., Pig. 2, from the 
border of Mcintosh Pun, St. Mary's County, on which stream it 
stretches for about half a mile, replacing Spartina stricta at a short 
distance from the mouth of the stream. The growth here is so 
dense that other plants are excluded, but frequently Scirpus robus- 
tiis, an extremely coarse looking sedge, is present in small numbers. 
When this association occurs somewhat farther iip a stream, in 
places where a smaller proportion of salt is present, several other 
plants may accompany the Spartina as in the marsh on Chaptico 
Creek, St. Mary's County, represented in Plate XVIIL, Fig. 1. 
In this figure a conspiciTOus plant of Hibiscus moscheutos may be 
seen, to the left of which are several specimens of Asclepias incarnata 
and Strophostyles umbcllata; these together with the Spartina grow 
on a point between the main stream and a tributary. 

Scirpus olneyi association. — In much the same habitat as the pre- 
ceding occixrs the sedge known locally as "three-square grass." 
Though it frequently grows on the border of a stream and thus fills 


the role of a pioneer as do the species of Spartina, it persists after 
the marsh has become somewhat drier, hence forming wide areas 
toward the land side of a marsh. It is more apt to grow in mixed 
association than are the species of Spartina, and may be accompanied 
by Scirpus robustus, Cyperus strigosus, Acnida cannahina, Atriplex 
hastata, Lytlirum lineare, Solidago sempervirens and Pluchea cam- 
pliorata. The last named plant imparts a purple hue to this asso- 
ciation in late summer. 

Distichlis association. — As sediment and vegetable matter accumu- 
late, the level of the marsh rises, and the species of Spartina either 
do not find a suitable footing, or are crowded outward {i. e. toward 
the stream) by other grasses, chief among which is Distichlis spi- 
cata. This is a much finer textured grass and has a lower habit 
of groAvth. It grows in close mats, sometimes to the exclusion of 
other plants, as at the mouth of Parkers Creek, Calvert County, 
where Distichlis with a little Spartina patens occupies the fore- 
ground, while Spartina striata occupies a deeper region farther back. 
Owing to the more mesophytic positions in which the Distichlis 
grows, it is generally accompanied by a variety of dicotyledonous 
plants such as Lythrum lineare, Ptilimnium capillaceum, Poly- 
gonum sagittatum, Sahhatia stellaris, Gerardia maritima, Solidago 
sempervirens, Pluchea camphorata, Aster tenuifolius. Hence it is 
apt to present a brighter and less monotonous appearance than the 
associations already described. This may be seen on Chaptico 
Creek, St. Mary's County. 

Iva-Baccharis-Panicum association. — The two shrubby Compositae 
Iva frutescens and Baccharis halimifolia with much Panicum vir- 
gatum and a variety of other plants frequently occupy a higher 
and drier position than the preceding, on the landward margin of 
a marsh. Iva can ap)parently endure a moderately high proportion 
of salt, for it sometimes occurs as scattered individuals in the other 
associations, quite near the water, while Baccharis may persist after 
the tract has become dry and meadow-like. In the more open parts 
of this association may be found Sabbatia stellaris, Pluchea cam- 
phorata, Strophostyles umbellata, Gerardia purpurea, while Wil- 
li/ ghbaea scandens clambers over the shrubs and adorns them with 


its clusters of whitish flowers. Occurring frequently on the shrubs 
is a Cuscida, w-hich appears to find the conditions altogether suitable, 
judging by its luxuriance. 

The phanerogamic representatives of the parasites which are 
found in this district may be briefly considered here. Of the genus 
Cuscuta at least two species occur, Cuscida gronovii on various 
jflants found in river valleys and low grounds generally, and the 
species referred to above, Cuscuta polygonorum usually growing on 
Iva and Baccliaris near salt water. Phoradendron flavescens, the 
mistletoe, occurs in the "meadow" districts, e. g. southeast of West 
River, Anne Arvmdel County, and appears to prefer Black Gum as 
a host. Leptamnium virginianum,, Beech Drops, occurs on the roots 
of Fagus in many parts of the region. This plant belongs to the 
class of root-parasites, as has long been suspected and recently es- 
tablished by Cooke and Schiveley.* The genus Melampyrum con- 
tains some root-parasites, as the researches of Heinricher have 
shown. Melampyrum lineare occurs plentifully in dry woods in 
our region, but of the specimens dug up none were found to be 
attached to other plants, though the writer is informed that farther 
north the plant behaves as a root-parasite. This species is prob- 
ably able to live an independent existence. The species of Gerardia 
are said to be more or less root-parasitic, but the point has not been 
investigated in this connection. Comandra umhellata, reported from 
the vicinity of Baltimore, was not collected by the writer. Related 
to parasites are those plants which owe their nutrition to symbiotic 
fungi. Among these, Monotropa unifiora and Hypopitys hypopitys 
are distributed throughout the area, while the species of Corallorhiza 
are not so common ( Corallorhiza multiflora was collected near Bowie, 
Prince George's County). 

Typlia association. — In less salt situations than any of the pre- 
ceding, though by no means in the drier parts of a marsh, generally 
occur more or less extensive groups of Typlia angustifolia or in some 
cases Typlia latifolia. In cases where the groups occur near the 
mouth of a stream, the smaller proportion of salt is to be accounted 

♦Observations on the structure and development of Epiphegus inrginiana. 
Trans, and Proe. Bot. Soc. of Penna., vol. i, 1904, pp. 352-398. 


for by seepage from the banks, or by the presence of a bar separating 
this part of the marsh from tide-water. In the hitter case a prac- 
tically fresh marsh may exist very near salt water as may be ob- 
served at Cove Point on Chesapeake Bay. As the area becomes 
drier it is invaded by a variety of dicotyledonons plants, conspicuons 
among Avhich are the two malvaceous sjjecies Hibiscus mosclteutos 
and Kosteletzl-ya virginica. In a marsh of this kind on Bush River 
Xeck, Harford County, it was observed that the Gerardia viaritima 
of the marshes farther down the Bay was replaced by Gerardia 
purpurea, and Sahbatia stellaris was replaced by Sabbatia dode- 

J uncus rocmerianus occurs in considerable masses in several 
places, e. g. on St. Georges Island, southern St. Mary's County 
(also at Ocean City), but hardly warrants being placed as a distinct 
association, though Kearney (op. cit.) found it abundant in the 
Dismal Swamp region. Spartina patens also forms somewhat ex- 
tensive mat-like groups in a similar habitat to and mixed with 
Distichlisj as Avas observed on Fishing Creek, Calvert County; it 
also occurs in a somewhat different habitat, namely, on the strand, 
Avhere it usually grows taller. This larger plant is by some consid- 
ered a distinct species, — Spartina juncea. Another plant found in 
very dry situations and also on the border of tidal streams is 
Stropliostyles umbellata. 

It may be gathered from the foregoing that the distribution of 
these associations depends: (1) on the amount of salt in the sub- 
stratum, (2) on the water-content of the substratum. Hence a 
zonation may be observed (1) as one proceeds up a tidal stream, 
and (2) in the direction of the bank. In the latter case a distinct 
zonation occurs only when the formation of the marsh has been 
uniform and gradual. The zones are arranged as follows, tliough 
in no one place are all of them likely to be present: 

I. Spartina stricta association 

or Spartina polystachya assoc. 1 Marginal zones de- 

or Scirpus olneyi association I termined by salt Con- 

or Typha association tent, etc. 

II. ScirjDns olneyi association 


III. Distichlis association 
IV. Iva-Baccharis-Panicum association 
V. Shrubs and trops : IMyrica, Rosa, Baccliaris, Junijierus, Finns 
taeda, etc. 

In jDlacos where littoral currents are marked, a sand-bar is built 
up around the edge of the marsh, and on it are apt to be found 
Spartina patens, DisticJdis, with scattered plants of Iva and Soli- 
dago sempervirens, and a fringe of Spartina stricta var. maritima 
in the water at the edge, while in the depressed area behind the 
bar Scirpus olneyi, Spartina pohjainclnja, or Typha may j^redom- 
inate, according to conditions. 

Transition areas. — In travelling up a tidal stream to regions 
where saline influences are less and less felt, an interesting succes- 
sion of plants may be seen, one association replacing another until 
all traces of halophytic vegetation have disappeared. The degree 
of saltness which a species will endure varies within wide limits, 
some species being found only where the proportion of salt is about 
that of the open sea (3.5%), e. g. Salicornia sp., Limonium caro- 
linianum, Tissa marina, so that their presence indicates to the eye 
the nature of the substratum. Other plants will endure only a min- 
ute amount of salt, for instance, Scofield (loc. cit.) finds that the 
limit for growth of Zizania aquatica is 0.374% of salt, while speci- 
mens are only occasional after a concentration of 0.175% is reached. 
Between these extremes lie most of the plants found in the salt 
marshes of the region under consideration. From a study of a num- 
ber of streams and marshes the following list has been made, approx- 
imately arranged in descending order of salt resisting capacity: 

Salicornia herhacea 
Limonium carolinianum 
Spartina stricta var. maritima 
Spartina polystacliya 
Aster tenuifolius 
Atriplex hastata 
Solidago sempervirens 
Acnida eannahina 





mary"s county. 


Scirpus olneyi 
Scirpus robustus 
Pluchea cavipliorata 
Spartina patens 
Distichlis spicata 
Juncus roemerianus 
Lythrum lineare 
Oerardia purpurea 
Sabbatia stellaris 
Ptilimnium capillacetim 
Lippia lanceolata 
Kosteletzkya virginica 
Iva frutescens 
Hibiscus moscheutos 
Pontederia cordata 
Baccliaris lialimifolia 
Panicum virgatum 
Asclepias incamata 
Typha angustifolia 
Polygonum hydropiper 
Panicum walteri 
Zizania aquatica 
Lobelia cardinaUs 
Eupaiorium coelestinum 
Alnus rugosa 
Myrica carolinensis 
Rosa Carolina 
Sagiitaria latifolia 
Saururus cernuus 
Bidens bechii. 

A few species might well be styled "facultative halophytes," for 
they are found in both salt and fresh stations, for instance, Hibiscus 
and Asclepias incamata. It has been sho-wn by the writer* that the 
leaves of such plants have a different structure in the two habitats. 

♦Chrysler, M. A. Anatomical notes on certain strand plants. 
Gazette, vol. xxxvii, 1904, pp. 461-464. 


L'crlaiiififioi). — 111 many places M'liere the marshes arc of consid- 
erable extent, all or part of the plant-covering is mowed off yearly, 
constituting the so-called marsh hay. That this crop varies greatly 
in value is sufficiently evident when the variety of plants enumerated 
in the foregoing pages is considered. Some of the species are use- 
ful only for bedding, as Scirpus olneyi, others are useful for thatch- 
ing, as Spartina polystachya, while a few, namely, the finer textured 
grasses such as Distichlis and Spariina patens are fed to cattle. 
The coarser grasses and sedges are quite inferior for this purpose, 
though cattle will eat Spai-tina polystachya while it is young, and 
in fact wander of their own accord down into the marshes to graze, 
probably in order to satisfy their need for sodium salts. The value 
of marsh hay for feeding purposes is questioned by many residents ; 
Mr. J. Key of Leonardtown showed the writer some cattle Avhich 
had grazed partly on the uplands and partly in the marsh, and they 
were in excellent condition. It is a common practice in Southern 
Maryland to burn off the surface of the marshes in the autumn; 
it is claimed that this treatment improves the qiiality of the marsh 
hay. The improvement seems to result from the replacing of a 
growth of Scirpus olneyi by Spartuia polystachya in the succeeding 
year. This practice is not to be commended, for it destroys the 
organic matter Avhich has been built np by the plants. 

From what has been said as to the superior value of Distichlis over 
Spartina and Scirpus as a fodder plant, it appears that any method 
whereby the first grass may be made to replace the others will increase 
the value of the marsh land. It has been mentioned earlier that 
Distichlis forms a zone behind Spartina, that is, in a drier situation. 
This fact suggests that Distichlis may be made to grow on a tract of 
marsh if this is drained. Experience proves the truth of this as- 
sumption; Mr. Key has extended simple ditches through one of his 
marshes and has in a few years seen the disappearance of the coarse 
grasses and the coming in of the finer textured ones ; in other words 
the marsh is fast being reclaimed. Some tracts of marsh undoubt- 
edly lie too low for drainage by this simple means, being submerged 
much of the time, but there are large tracts in the region which 
might easily be turned into good hay-producing land, and this is 
a matter of some importance in a section where hay is so scarce. 


Tlie method of diking, so much in vogne along the Bay of Fundy, 
conld be used with good effect in the low marshes, but in most cases 
all that is needed are simple ditches extended farther inland and 
dug deeper year by year until the system is just above low-tide mark. 
A desirable feature of such a system is a one-way gate or valve at 
the lower end of the ditch, for the purpose of preventing the run- 
ning back of tide water into the ditches. Such a gate is very easy 
of construction. 


Peat Bogs are characteristic of those parts of the continent which 
sliow abundant signs of recent glacial action, nevertheless an 
interesting example of a depression containing Sphagnum and a 
society of peat bog plants occurs near Glenburnie, Anne Arundel 
County. This area is of small extent (less than an acre) and is 
not a typical bog inasmuch as it is not undrained but rather slowly 
drained into a nearby stream. It derives its water from springs on 
the adjacent banks. Plate XVI, Fig. 1, illustrates the general fea- 
tures of this society, and shows a few of the plants, several of wliich 
have not been found elsewhere in the state. Associated with tlie 
Sphagnum is the characteristic bog plant Sarracenia purpurea, whicli 
may be made out in the illustration, also the equally characteristic 
Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera intermedia, Lycopodium inun- 
datum, Eriocaulon decangulare, Xyris caroliniana, Rhexia virginicd, 
Utricularia vulgaris, Eriophorum virginicum, and the common shruli 
of northern peat bogs Chamaedaphne calycidata. At the extreme 
left of the illustration may be seen part of a shallow j)ond ; in this 
were found Castalia odorata and Brasenia purjmrea. In this jjond 
a thrifty colony of Marsilea quadrifolia, a native of the old world, 
has also been established. The margin of the bog is formed by 
VIcthra, Alnus, Decodon and a few specimens of Azalea nudiflora. 
Magnolia virginiana, Rhus vernix, with several interesting plants of 
lierbaceous habit: Iris vema, Lilium canadense, Hahenaria blephari- 
gloifis, Carex foUicidata, Woodivardia areolata, Osmunda cinna- 
moniea, and Osmunda regalis. The shnib zone is followed by one 
in which Eed Maple, Black Gum and Loblolly Pine prevail.* 

*For several ot the determinations I am indebted to a paper Ijy Campbell 
E. Waters, reported in Science N. S., vol. xxii, 1905, p. 15. 


Although not of the same extent as those on the Atlantic coast, 
typical instances of strand associations occur at numerous places 
along the Chesapeake and Potomac, as at Rock Point, Charles 
County, Piney Point, St. Mary's Coimty, Bay Eidge, Anne Arun- 
del County and Chesapeake Beach, Calvert County. In these de- 
cidedly xorophytic situations plants are not numerous in either spe- 
cies or individuals, and show many adaptations to the severe condi- 
tions, a full account of which may be found in Kearney's Dismal 
Swamp paper. Usually a distinct zonation may be observed, for 
the conditions differ considerably at different distances from the 

The outer beach is usually devoid of vegetation. Algae cannot 
gain a foothold in the space between tides on account of the shifting 
nature of the sandy bottom, while the area just above high tide is 
exposed to alternate washing by waves and drying by the sun. 

Zone 1. — The middle beach. Beyond the reach of the waves of 
summer though not those of winter are a few annuals whose tap 
roots enable them to gain a footing, and which can endure a certain 
amount of salt. Among these Cakile edentula with its fleshy leaves 
and rocket-like fruits is widely distributed biit not numerous in 
individuals ; Salsola kali also a fleshy-leaved plant, is more com- 
mon ; Euphorbia polygonifolia owes its persistence to its prostrate 
habit as well as to its relatively long tap-root. Besides these outliers, 
specimens of the conspicuous yellow horned poppy, Glaucium glau- 
civm, were collected at Piney Point, Solomons, etc. 

Zone 2. — Behind the area exposed to winter waves is one in which 
a few perennials as well as annuals are able to establish themselves. 
Grasses such as Spartina patens and Aminopliila arenaria form small 
clumps, while Capriola dactylon, — one of the few introduced plants 
found on the strand, — sometimes occupies rather large areas. Its 
habit of creeping and taking root at the nodes, together with its 
power of withstanding drought, eminently fit it for capturing such 
an area. Another grass of this zone, fortunately not occurring in 
extended groups, is Cenchrus tnhuloides. Plants of prostrate or 


Straggling habit found in this zone are Strophostylcs umhcllata, 
Diodia teres. Polygonum niaritimum and Atriplex hastata. In some 
cases Onagra biennis, Melilotus alba and Xantliium canadcnse vent- 
ure out into this zone. 

Zone 3. — On higher ground, frequently very gravelly, a some- 
what different assemblage is found, though this zone is not always 
clearly marked off from the preceding. Where gravel is abundant, 
Chondrilla juncea is the dominant plant of this area, but LcpUlon 
canadense and Capriola dactylon are frequent, and Xantliium cana- 
dense, Diodia teres, Echiiim vulgare and Opuntia opuntia make up 
an assemblage notable for their prickly character. Euphorbia ipe- 
cacuanhae was found on the sand at Cove Point, Calvert County, 
and Panicum amarum at Turkey Point, Anne Arundel County, 
in similar position to the preceding. As a little humus accumulates, 
Phytolacca decandra, Saponaria officinalis, Plantago lanceolata make 
their appearance, while Asparagus officinalis escapes from cultivation 
and even seems to be able to grow in soil containing a fair proportion 
of salt. 

An inner beach consisting of movable or stationary dunes was not 
observed bordering on the comparatively very quiet waters of the 
Chesapeake and Potomac, but at Turkey Point some small dunes, 
4 to 10 feet in diameter, were seen, and they presented the unusual 
feature of being held together by Spnrtina patens rather than by 
Ammophila arenaria, which is the sand binder of the dunes at Ocean 

The marginal trees of areas bordering on salt water may properly 
be mentioned here. Red Cedar comes as near to the shore as any 
of the trees invading the zone occupied by Baccharis, Myrica and 
Eosa. Both Red Cedar and Persimmon occur as much stunted 
individuals on the middle beach. Yellow Locust also occurs in ex- 
posed situations, as may be well seen on Poole's Island, off Gun- 
powder ISTeck, Harford County, Avhere it replaces the pines. It is 
a common tree of bluffs which overlook the Bay, as at Chesapeake 
Beach. In similar situations the Hackberry may occur, also either 
of the pines, especially the Loblolly in the southern part of the dis- 
trict. Other trees of less frequent occurrence near salt water are: 
Sweet Gum, Ash, Buttonwood and American Elm. The unfavorable 

188 TiiK i'l.ANT i.ii'E ()i- .mai;yla.\d 

factor in this habitat is salt winds rather than salt soil. The con- 
ditions in this district are however nowhere severe, as is shown by 
the absence of trees deformed by the action of strong winds. It 
is necessary in sneh sitnations to distingnish between trees which 
are pioneers and those which are relicts, for on an eroding shore 
the latter sort may be in the majority if they are rugged enough to 
withstand the increased rigor of the conditions. This is trne for 
example of Spanish Oak and Chestnut Oak. On a peninsula nearly 
surrounded by marsh in south-eastern Anne Arundel County were 
found small poles of the Spanish, Post and Black Oaks, Scrub Pine 
and Sassafras, all of which with the possible exception of the pines 
are to be regarded as relicts. 

The vegetation of islands is sometimes of much interest and sig- 
nificance. On account of the dynamic conditions already mentioned, 
the islands of this district have in most cases formed part of the 
mainland at no very remote date. This is true for instance of 
Pooles Island, off the tip of Gunpowder Xeck. The most notable 
feature of the vegetation of this island is the total absence of pines. 
As already mentioned Yellow Locust is the dominant tree on the 
inner strand ; farther in are Sweet Gum and scattered specimens of 
Willows, Persimmon, Huckleberry, Sassafras, Swamp, Black and 
Chestnut Oaks, Tulip-Tree, Hickory, Walnut and Black Gum. The 
only conifer found on the island is the Red Cedar. In accord with 
the position of the island well up toward the head of the Bay, the 
marsh vegetation is not of a pronounced halophytic character, for 
instance, Spartina polystacliya occurs rather than Spartina strida, 
and such salt lovers as Solidago sempervirens and Plucliea cam- 
phoraia are associated with Hibiscus and Typha. Spry Island, near 
this, is a small low tract covered with grasses and sedges such as 
Scirpus americanus, Panicum virgatum, Spartina polysfachya, with 
some Hibiscus and Iva. No trees are present. 

St. George's Island, near the mouth of St. Mary's River in southern 
St. Mary's County, presents several points of contrast to the fore- 
going, in that the dominant tree is Loblolly Pine, which occurs in 
pure stands and also mixed with Sweet Gum or with Spanish Oak. 
Part of the island is cleared and devoted to agricultural purposes, 
while a large part is occupied by a marsh in which Disticlilis spicafa 


aud JuiicKs rociiicriainis iH'eviiil. The abundance of Loblolly Pine 
here is partly due to proximity to its center of distribution. 

Of a still different type are the rather precipitous small islands 
in Khode Kiver, Anne Arundel County. On these the arboreal 
growth is abundant and varied with oaks dominating. Besides the 
more common oaks (Quercus velutiiia, Quercus digitata and Quercus 
alba) Quercus viichauxii is found here. This species occurs also 
on the adjacent mainland. Other trees found on the higher parts 
of these islands are: hickories, Ash, Eed Maple, Dogwood, Huckle- 
berry, Sweet Gum, Beech, Scrub Pine, with thickets of Smilax. 
These islands seem to be fragments of the mainland cut off by the 
wave action which is much in evidence in this vicinity. Hence one 
is not surprised to find vegetation similar to that on the mainland 
but lacking in a few species which find the exposed conditions too 


This title is used in a broad sense, to include the vegetation of all 
ni-cas which have been frequently disturbed by man. 

Roadsides. — In many parts of the district these are given scant 
attention, and hence are Avell supplied with trees of quick-growing 
habit, the kinds depending on the nature of the adjacent forests. 
In localities where the roads are better cared for, certain trees are 
left on account of tlieir value for fruit or shade and may reach a 
great size. Owing to the ease with which Scrub Pine distributes its 
.seed, and the capability it possesses of enduring insolation, it readily 
establishes itself along roadsides. The Eed Cedar has been planted 
by birds so extensively along fences that in some localities living 
fence posts have come to replace the old decayed ones. This tree 
occurs in two rather distinct forms, one a tall spindle shaped tree, 
almost as slender as a Lombardy poplar, the other a much broader 
rounder tree. The two forms occur in different sections of the state, 
but just what determines the difference in form remains to be found 
out. Taxonomists do not recognize any varietal difference ; possibly 
it is merely a difference in age, the round form being older. The 
next commonest tree of roadsides, especially towards the coast, is 


the Yellow Locust, although it is jjlentiful also in the interior. Iso- 
lated specimens of Persimmon, sometimes of large size, are fre- 
quent on roadsides and in fields. Some very large and old trees of 
Crab Cherry and of Eed Mulberry occur along roadside fences. 
Other trees of the roadside are Sweet Cmm, Spanish Oak and Hack- 
berry. But it is the shrubs and vines which in Southern Maryland 
give character to the roadsides. For long distances the roads are 
literally lined by a dense gro^vth of Rhus copaUina or Bhus glabra, 
Rubus villosus, Rosa sp.. with young plants of Sassafras, Persim- 
mon and Sweet Gum. Over these and over the fences climb large 
numbers of plants of Vitis, Rhus, Smilax and Tecoma, sometimes 
completely hiding some of the shrubs and even trees. Even where 
vegetation is not so abundant it is usual to see every fence post dec- 
orated by one or more vines of Rhus, Smilax or Parthenocissus. 
Lonicera japonica grows luxuriantly but is not apt to climb as high 
as the other lianes mentioned; it frequently covers banks and has 
indeed become a troublesome weed. Another plant characteristic 
of thickets and edges of woods is Hercules Club {Aralia spinosa) a 
species of arboreal habit and decidedly tropical appearance, which 
is rather common except in the northern part of the district. On 
dry sandy roadsides are to be found tlie (Uiicksaw Plum and the 

Since arboreal growth is so general along roadsides, the herbaceous 
vegetation is to a considerable extent similar to that of the adjoining 
forests. Where the trees and shrubs are cleared out, a more 
-xerophytic assemblage makes its appearance. Most of the plants of 
such situations are indigenous, and onlj' in the streets of villages 
are introduced species able to drive out the native ones. A con- 
venient classification is on the basis of water content of the soil. 

1. Xerophytic: Three ferns are common, Pleris aquilina. Dry- 
ojiteris acrostichoides and Aspleniuiit. platyneuron, the last two 
preferring shady banks. In the eaidier part of the season Cassia 
nictiians, Baptisia tinclorla, Lespedeza virginica, Lepidium vir- 
ginicum and Polygonum aviculare are prominent, and are largely 
replaced later by composites such as Aster ericoides, Sericocarpus 
asieroides, *Chrysan{hcmum Icucanthcmum, *Anthemis cotula, 

jijveyland weather service. 





*CJioiicIriUa juncea. In the region about three miles west of Annap- 
olis *Cijtisus scopariuSj the Scotch broom, has established itself along 
the highway and railroad, and seems to be spreading. This shrub 
though ornamental is apt to become a pest, as is the case on Naushon 
Island, Mass., where it has captured large tracts of exposed hill- 
side, occupying them to the exclusion of other more desirable plants 
such as pasture grasses. Prompt steps should therefore be taken 
to eradicate the plant from Anne Arundel County. 

2. Meso-xerophytic: Among the plants of early summer Cassia 
chamaecJirista, Oxalis spp., *MeUlotus alba, *TrifoUum pratense, 
*Saponaria ofpcinalis, Potentilla canadensis, and especially *Dauciis 
carota are prevalent; later Lespedeza stuvei, *Lespedeza striata, 
Euphorbia corollata, *Plantago major, *Plantago lanceolata, *Rumex 
crispus, Phytolacca decandra, Solarium carolinianum, *Verbascum 
thapsus, Asclepias cornuii, Apocynum cannabinum and Lobelia in- 
flata make their appearance, followed by ^Clinopodium nepeta, 
Solidago serotina and others, Eidhamia gramini folia, Ambrosia 
artemisiaefolia, Achillea millefolium, Chrysopsis mariana, * Arctium 
lappa and Carduus lanceolatus. 

3. Meso-hydrophytic : In early summer ^'Allium vineale, Com- 
melina nudifiora and Prunella vulgaris in open places, with *Poly- 
gonum persicaria in ditches, are common. A little later Verbena 
hastata. Verbena urticifoUa, *Nepeta cataria, *Glechoma hederacea, 
Koellia flexuosa, Mimulus ringens, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Eupa- 
torium purpureum, Eupatorium coelestinum, Vemonia noveboracense, 
Bidens beckii and Ambrosia trifida make a more conspicuous cover- 
ing to the moist places. 

Ruderal vegetation. The plants of rubbish heaps and of dour- 
yards are included under this head. Although corresponding rather 
closely to the plants of village streets, a few should be specially men- 
tioned here. All are widely distributed, and of them are in- 
troduced species. Polygonum aviculare and Plantago major are 
common in paths; Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, Xanthium spinosum, 
Amaranthus retroflexus, AmarantJius spinosus occupy corners of 

♦Indicates Introduced species. 


yards, wliilc Dulara iatula and Xaidhium canadense are apt to j^re- 
fer rubbish i^iles. 

Weeds. — The majority of the noxious weeds foiind in fields while 
lender cultivation are of foreign origin. The Bermuda grass, *Cap- 
riola dactylon, is especially common in the drier parts of Southern 
Maryland. On the truck farms of Anne Arundel County *Echium 
vulgare, *AmarantJius retroflexiis, ^Clietiopodium album, *Fortu- 
laca oleracea, with the grasses * Syntherisma sanguinalis , ^Ixophoriis 
glaiicus, ^Panicum crus-galli, Cenclirus trihtdoides are more or less 
plentiful. !N"ear Baltimore a field badly infested by "Brassica 
nrvensis was seen. *Planiago lanceolata, SoJaniim carolinense, 
"Daucus caroia, Anibrosia artemisiaefolia are only too common 
throughout the region. If a field is allowed to rest from cultivation 
for a year, native species begin to gain the ascendency. In the 
earlier jjart of the season a society is apt to appear in which no 
one species prevails; it may inelinlc ^'Allium rineale, ^'Bumex ace- 
tosella, *Trifolium arvensc, Diodia teres, *PIanfago lanceolata. 
Cassia cliamaeclirista, and many others. A little later '''Daucus caroia 
may become dominant, and still later a field may be practically cov- 
ered by Ambrosia artemisiaefolia. The history of such a field in 
succeeding years may show great variation. Even in a pasture as 
is pointed out by DeVries* the same grasses do not grow year after 
year, but the sorts which are dominant depend on climatic features 
such as rainfall and temperature at the time of year which may be 
critical for any particular species. In the southern part of our 
district, fields which had lain idle for one or more years were found 
to be occupied by Leptilon canadense, others with Monarda punctata. 
while still others were largely covered by Onagra biennis or by 
Euthamia graminifolia. Other plants common in such areas are 
^Allium vineale, "Trifolium arvense, Stropliostyles umbellata, 
Stropliostyles helvola, *Daucus caroia, Lepidium virginicum, Oxalis 
stricta, *Planiago lanceolata, ^Verbascum thapsus, *Echium vulgare, 
Erigeron ramosus. Ambrosia artemisiaefolia, Achillea millefolium. 
In case a neglected field is very sandy, the dominant plants are apt 
to be *ChondviUa juncca, Eupliorbia corollata, Diodia teres, Cen- 

*DeVries, H. Species and Varieties, their origin by Mutation, p. 103. 


rlinis frihuluides, Moiiarda punciafa and Lespcdeza sp. If a field 
lies fallow for a longer time, say, three or four years, woody plants 
become evident, for example, trailing vines such as Ruhus cana- 
densis, *Lonicera japonica, Tecoma radicans and Smilax sp., shrubs 
such as Buhus rillosus and Rhus copallina, trees such as Finns 
virginiana or Piniis faeda, Rohinia pseudacacla and Diospyros vir- 
(jininna. Just what trees make their appearance depends largely on 
the species found in the immediate vicinity. As in the case of her- 
baceous plants, invasion is most rapid in the case of those species 
whose seeds are easily carried by the wind. 

Burned areas may be briefly considered as a supplement to the 
foregoing. The first plants which appear are necessarily of xero- 
phytic habit, since the humus of the soil is generally destroyed by 
the fire, and danger from exposure to strong insolation, etc., is great. 
Readiness ' of distribution by wind also is a determining factor. 
Among the pioneers are: Diodia teres. Ambrosia arteinisiaefolia, 
Chamaenerion angustifoUum (fireweed). Cassia nictitans, "^Lespe- 
deza striata. Coreopsis verticillata. Another class sure to be repre- 
sented in the year following devastation includes plants whose sub- 
terranean parts escape destruction: Pteris aquilina, *Bumex ace- 
toscIJa. Baptisia tindoria, Lupinus perennis, Sericocarpus asteroides. 
Shriibs are almost sure to make their appearance in a few years, as 
for example, Vaccinium sp., Pieris mariana, Clethra alnifolia and 
Azalea nudiflora. The arboreal vegetation sometimes escapes with 
slight damage, so that pines and oaks are frequently found standing. 
Young growth of the same species may spring up, but the Scrub 
Oak and Black Jack are apt to appear also. Fortunately forest 
fires are of rare occurrence in the region, so that only a few areas 
were foinid for the study of this topic. Hence the results are frag- 


The l)elief is widespread that the fertility of a soil may be judged 
from an inspection of the natural vegetation growing upon it. That 
the method is of limited application is seen from the fact that in 
Southern Maryland a tract covered with pine indicates in general 


not a barren tract but one which has recently been released from 
cultivation. Thus in any but a virgin forest, the historical factor 
as it may be called must be considered. In other words, it is neces- 
sary to ascertain how long the area has remained undisturbed. But 
conversely, the rapidity with which succession proceeds on any given 
tract depends on the character of the soil ; soils markedly deficient 
in humus acquire but slowly the humus requisite for the support 
of a mesophytic type of vegetation. One of the objects constantly 
kept to the front in the progress of this Survey was the establishing 
of a relation between the various types of soil and the vegetation 
upon them. Yet a perusal of this chapter will show that the forests 
have not been grouped in accordance with the thirteen or more types 
of soil found in the region, for there is satisfactory evidence for 
believing that on the same tract several types of forest may follow 
one another, and further that these same forest types may occur on 
soils as different from one another as clay and sand. In spite of 
the variety of soils, the water content seems to be the most potent 
edaphic factor ; the differences in the vegetation supported by a light 
and heavy soil, when both are placed in similar conditions as re- 
gards drainage, are trifling compared with the differences between 
upland and lowland vegetation. 

One matter which has rendered the study of this problem difficult 
is the old enemy of two variable factors. It may be seen from an 
inspection of the soil maps* that any particular kind of soil is apt 
to occupy a fixed topographic position. For example, in St. Mary's 
County the Leonardtown Loam uniformly occupies high ground and 
is usually drained by a layer of Susquehanna Gravel underlying it, 
while Sassafras Sandy loam just as regularly occupies low ground, 
so that we cannot be sure that if Leonardtown Loam occurred at a 
low level it would not have the same vegetation as the Sassafras 
Sandy loam. But it has been possible to pick out areas of a num- 
ber of soils occupying situations which are at any rate similar, 
even if not identical. A comparison of the vegetation of these areas 
has not revealed differences of a very striking nature. The really 

*U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Soils, Reports for 1900 and 


well marked plant formations are uplands, lowlands (meadow), fresh 
marsh and swamp, and salt marsh. In determining this classifica- 
tion there is apparently (1) a physical factor — difference in level, 
bringing about a difference in water content, and (2) a chemical 
factor — the proportion of salt in the substratnm. 

Whether the minor differences in plant covering shown by areas 
at about the same level are to be attribiited to differences in the 
chemical nature of the soils is the subject of a long standing dispute 
which has waged with more or less acrimony since the time of Thur- 
man (1849). The present writer has come to the conclusion that 
the district under consideration is not well adapted to throw light 
on this vexed question. One reason for this is that the soils of the 
district have been so often worked over by the action of rivers, waves, 
etc., that they no longer show marked chemical differences. The 
period which has elapsed since the soil particles were parts of a solid 
rock mass is so long that the more easily soluble constituents have 
been washed out, leaving the soils similar, except in the size of 
the particles. Only in a region where the soil is of a residual na- 
ture, i. e., overlies the rock from which it has been derived by 
weathering, can we expect to find peculiarities in chemical composi- 
tion. Thus the layer of soil overlying limestone is more or less 
impregnated with calcium salts. An exceedingly favorable locality 
for the examination of the effect of the chemical factor has recently 
been studied by Fernald,* who has compared the vegetation of 
areas overlying potassic rocks (gneiss), calcareous rocks (limestone) 
and magnesic rocks (serpentine) as found on Mt. Albert, Gaspe, 
Quebec. This writer finds that while some species are indifferent, 
a number are characteristic of one or another of the three sorts of 
soil, and to a certain degree irrespective of drainage. In our dis- 
trict the only soil which is of a residual nature is the Collington 
Sandy Loam, which has been derived by weathering from the glau- 
conite or greensaud upon which it rests. Even in this case the soil 
has largely lost the potash which is a characteristic element of glau- 
conite." It may be said, however, that the Collington Sandy Loam 

♦Fernald, M. L. The soil preferences of certain alpine and subalpine plants. 
Rhodora, vol. ix, 1907, pp. 149-193. 

tSee Soil Survey Report for 1901, p. 186. 

106 TiiK ri.AXT i.iFK OF >:ai; VI,.V.\ I) 

siippfirts the most inesopliytic vegetation of any of the nphuul soils, 
and its merits are attested by the presence of nurseries and by the 
large areas under cultivation. 

The nature of the forest growth now found on some tracts in this 
district seems to be due not only to the fact that it represents an 
early stage in the process of succession, but to the fact that the tracts 
have been used for so long a time for the growing of tobacco that the 
supply of certain soil constituents, as for example, lime, has become 
exhausted. The importance of the preservation of a balance among 
the various soil solutes has been shown by Osterhouf" who finds that 
magnesium and potassium salts used separately are poisonous to 
plants, but when mixed together the poisonous eifects disappear. 
Apart from the p)ractical suggestion that these soils nuiy be imi^roved 
by application of lime and of green manure, the inference to be 
drawn from these facts is that we are here dealing with complex 
conditions, hence the following statements nuist be made with reserve. 

Susquehanna chiij-s. On this hard and impervious soil the vegeta- 
tion is scanty and of a xerophytic character, except where a cover- 
ing of humus has been accumulated. The Black Jack Oak is espe- 
cially characteristic, with much Scrub Pine, also in smaller luuu- 
bers oaks of other species. Chestnut, Hickory and Dogwood are 
hardly represented. Plate XXXVI., Fig. 2, gives a fair idea of 
the clay country near Bowie, Prince George's County, on the line 
of the Pennsylvania Kailroad. The trees shown are Scrub Pine and 
lilack Jack Oak. 

Leonardtown Loam. This is known in some localities as "White 
Oak Land." It undoubtedly supports mnch of this s^jecies, but is 
characterized just as trxily by Post Oak and Spanish Oak and by 
Scrub Pine and Sweet Gum. Black Oak, Hickory and Dog-wood 
occur commonly; Black Jack Oak is fmnid with Scrub Pine in 
xerophytic situations, while Loblolly Pine is common locally. 

CoUiiigtoii Sandy Loam. This soil shows the most mesophytic 
vegetation of the region ; White, Black and Eed Oaks, Hickory and 
on the slopes. Beech and Tulip Tree, foi-m the leading plant cov- 

*Osterhout, W. J. The antagonistic action of magnesium and potassium 
Botan. Gaz., vol. xlv, 1908, pp. 117-124. 


eriiig. Absence of pines except on xerophytic bluffs, of Black Jack 
Oak, and scarcity of Sweet Gum and Spanish Oak, also characterize 
tliis soil. 

Sassafras Loam. Highly characteristic are White Oak, Sweet 
Gum, and Red ]\Iaple, while the Black, Swamp, Chestnut and Wil- 
low Oaks are plentiful. Black Gum usually accompanies the Sweet 
Gum and IMaple. 

Windsor and Norfolk Sand. Scrub Pine is more apt to occur as 
a lasting stand on the sand than on the heavy loam. Chestnut and 
Cliinquapin are especially characteristic. The White, Post and 
Spanish Oaks and Yellow Locust occur frequently ; the Tulip Ti-ec 
is especially apt to occur on moist slopes. 

Susquehanna Gravel. Under the highly xerophytic conditions 
caused by this soil only Scrub Pine and Spanish Oak occur with 

Meadow. By far the commonest tree is the Sweet Gum, although 
near the coast in the southern part of the state, the Loblolly Pine 
is very abundant. The Willow Oak is highly characteristic of this 
region, while the White Oak is common though not characteristic. 
The position of the streams is marked by an exclusive growth of 
Alder, River Birch, Willows and Maple. Chestnut and the Tulip 
Tree rarely occur, while Hickory is by no means common. 






As contrasted with the Coastal Zone the Lower Midland District 
is very uniform throughout in its physical conditions, and it is the 
least diversified in its vegetation of any of the ecological districts 
of the state. Whereas the topography of the Coastal Zone is such 
as to present a number of types of Marshes and Swamps, to say 
nothing of the sharp contrast in soils, the Lower Midland has been 
eroded with such uniformity that differences of topography are re- 
sponsible for only minor distinctions of habitat. By far the most 
important differential factors in determining the local distribiition 
and association of plant life in this District are those concerned in 
the character of the soils. In the Introduction attention has already 
been called to the types of soil which overlie the various geological 
formations of the Piedmont Plateau, and to the fact that the chem- 
ical as well as the physical characteristics of these soils play an 
important role in relation to plant life. The influence of the topog- 
raphy is not inconsiderable, but operates in a similar manner on 
each of the major soil types. On the tojilaud* the influence of the 
soil character is most marked, while on the lower slopes the factors 
determined by the topography exercise a predominant influence or 
even offset completely that of the soil character. 

The two northernmost counties, Cecil and Harford, have been 
mapped by the Bureau of soils in cooperation with the Maryland 

*Topland is a word here used (and perhaps invented) to indicate that level 
or nearly level part of the surface of a maturely dissected topography which 
lies at or near the highest elevation, in contradistinction to the middle and 
lower slopes of the valleys. 


Geological Survey, where one of the most striking characteristics of 
the district has been brought out, namely the close correspondence 
between the distribution of the soils and that of the geological 
formations. The several outcrops lie parallel to the general length 
of the district, so that it is possible, in terms of the conditions in 
the above-named counties to interpret the soils of the other counties 
in the technical nomenclature used upon the Soil maps. 

The soils which cover the greatest area are the Cecil loam and 
the Cecil mica loam, derived from granite, gneiss and diorite of 
Archean or Paleozoic age. While distinct from the standpoint of 
the soil physicist, these two types, which differ only in the pres- 
ence of mica fragments in the latter, are identical so far as their 
texture bears any relation to the amount and availability of soil 
water. The vegetation of the loams is that which is most typical 
of the Lower Midland District, not only because these soils are the 
most extensive in area, but because of the variety and richness of 
the arboreal and herbaceous flora, favored by the optimum soil con- 
ditions which they present. Second in extent are the areas of Cecil 
clay, derived from the weathering of gabbro, of which the largest 
lie directly west of Baltimore and in Harford County. There is 
not a very great difference between the Clay and loam vegetation, 
the former differing from the latter chiefly in the rarity and ab- 
sence of certain plants which are more abundant on sands and other 
lighter soils. Relatively small areas are underlaid by serpentine, 
which either weathers to the Conowingo clay or presents the thin- 
soiled areas known as Serpentine Barrens. These occur in every 
county along a narrow line extending from a point where the Sus- 
quehanna enters the state to the banks of the Potomac just above the 
Great Falls. Their vegetation is well known as being very distinct, 
both through the abundance of species not common elsewhere and 
the absence of a large part of the flora of the surrounding soils. 
In Baltimore County there is an area in which marble forms the 
underlying rock, extending from Towson to Cockeysville, with irreg- 
ular arms to the east and west. This interesting area is entirely 
under cultivation wherever it is not covered by Cretaceous or 
Pleistocene deposits, and the natural vegetation of its agriculturally 
rich clay soil is therefore unknown. Tlie cretaceous deposits which 


occur in irregTilar and scattered areas along the edge of the District 
that is bounded by the "Fall-line" are usually in the form of homo- 
geneous beds of gravel, or in some localities are lacking in boulders 
and pebbles, possessing a fine clay texture, — the Susquehanna clay 
of the Soil Survey. The vegetation of the Susquehanna gravel and 
the Susquehanna clay is almost as marked as that of the Serpentine 
Barrens, particularly on the hills. It is notable that the Lower 
Midland District contains no outcroppings of shale or sandstone, 
which are the two commonest underlying rocks throughout the Upper 
ilidland District and the Moimtain Zone. 

The dominant natural vegetation of the Lower Midland District 
is a deciduous forest, in which, on the loam soils, the characteristic 
trees are the Chestnut, the Elack Oak, the White Oak, the Chestnut 
Oak, the Scarlet Oak, the Mockernut Hickory, and the Pignut Hick- 
ory. In all of the deeper loam soils, particularly on lower slopes, 
there are numerous tree species in addition to the above, among 
which the Tulip Tree, the Beech, the Ked Maple, the Bitternut 
Hickory, the Black Walnut and the Black Gum are prominent. In 
the Flood Plains there are additional species, as the Swamp Oak, 
the Eiver Birch, the White Ash, the White Willow and the Horn- 
beam. The coniferous trees are but five in number, — the Hem- 
lock, the White Pine, the Pitch Pine, the Scrub Pine and the Red 
Cedar, of which the last two are the only common species. Pure 
stands of Scrub Pine are frequently to be met with on upper slopes, 
but are usually young, and seem merely to represent the earliest 
stage in the reforestation of areas formerly occupied by deciduous 
forest. On many very steep rocky slopes, however, the Scrub Pine 
is to be found on what is apparently a natural habitat for it. The 
Pitch Pine is occasional in its occurrence throughout the District, 
but is seldom abundant except on the gravel and clay areas of the 
Cretaceous dejsosits. The Hemlock and White Pine are confined 
to rocky ravine slopes, where they were much more abundant in 
the virgin condition of the country. The Bed Cedar, although now 
widespread, is found naturally only on the Serpentine Barrens and 
very steep rocky slopes. 

The Cecil clay forests are somewhat different in composition from 
those of the loams, although the same species are involved in their 


niakc-iip. The Chestnut Oak is very rare and the White Oak, the 
Tulip Tree and the Swamp Oak are much more abundant on the 
topland here than they are on the loam. The Serpentine Barrens 
are occupied almost solely by an open stand of Black Jack Oak, 
Post Oak and Ked Cedar, although some of the commoner trees of 
the loams and clay occur on the deeper areas of Conowingo clay. 
The gravel and clay soils of the Cretaceous deposits are character- 
ized by a forest of Chestnut and Chestnut Oak, with an accompani- 
ment of xerophilous shrubs and herbs. 

A comparison of the soil-covered slopes along Deer Creek in Har- 
ford Coimty, on the loam soils in the vicinity of Glenville and on 
the Clay in the vicinity of Kalmia showed the topography to out- 
weigh the soil as a factor in determining the make-up of the vegeta- 
tion. Even on the Serpentine Barrens the topography plays an im- 
portant part in bringing the vegetation of the lower slopes to a 
character more nearly approaching that of the lower slopes of the 
other soil types than that of the thin-soiled topland of the Barrens. 
On the gravel the influence of topography is considerable, but not 
so great as on the Serpentine ; the lower slopes of Gravel hills are 
not closely related in flora to the lower slopes on the other soil 

The fact that the vegetation of the soil-covered slopes, as well as 
of rook outcrops and flood plains is identical on the loams and on 
Cecil clay will make it unnecessary to treat these features separately 
for the clay. 

Vkgetatiox ok the T.oAir. 


There is no i-emaining virgin forest in the Lower Midland District 
and the bulk of the woodland is in small tracts scattered through a 
highly cultivated farming country. The steepness of many hillsides 
is responsible for their having been left in timber, and the Serpen- 
tine Barrens and Gravel hills have not been cultivated on account 
of the poverty of their soils. On a few old estates there are bodies 
of timber that have been undisturbed for half a century, a lapse 
of time which has enabled the trees to attain to a splendid size but 


has been far too brief to allow the natural operation of succession 
to bring the forest to a composition differing from that which existed 
when the groves were first left undisturbed. The selection of the 
most valuable trees for cutting, or the desire to leave particular 
species for shade or other purposes, determined the composition of 
the groves from which these old stands have grown. There are in- 
deed no tracts of forest in the district in which the process of human 
selection has not been going on, usually in very recent years, so 
that the forest composition of to-day presents a bewildering variety, 
out of which it is difficult, even by extended comparisons, to recon- 
struct the composition of the original forests of the area. The com- 
monest tree of the Lower Midland to-day is the Chestnut, but it is 
altogether likely that its ability to send up suckers from stumps, 
together with the very rapid growth of the suckers as compared with 
the slow groAvth of oak seedlings, or even oak suckers, is responsible 
for its predominance. In like manner the Yellow Locust has be- 
come a frequent tree merely through its readiness of reproduction. 

In spite of these considerations the attempt was made to find what 
combination of trees represents the make-up of the oldest stands of 
the district at the present time, for the variety of the different tracts 
may be but little greater than would have been found in separated 
tracts of the virgin forest. In selecting areas for exact determina- 
tions of composition it was not the oldest that were taken, but those 
stands of trees from 30 to 60 years of age in which competition be- 
tween the different species might be thought to have taken place to 
at least some extent. 

ISTear Glenville, in Harford County, is a tract which has what 
comes near being the average composition of all the tracts carefully 
examined. In it the Chestnut is the predominant tree, the Hickories 
and Oaks forming nearly all the remaining percentage, the Chestnut 
Oak being absent. Its make-up is as follows : 

Chestnut 35^0 

White Oak 20% 

Mockernut Hickory 15% 

Black Oak 10% 

Pignut Hickory 10% 

Bitternut Hickory 3% 

Black Walnut 3% 

Tulip Tree 2% 

Beech 1% 

Miscellaneous 1% 


Near Principio, in Cecil County, a tract was examined in which 
the Chestnut was uncommon, and the bulk of the stand was made 
up of Oaks, with the Chestnut Oak in the lead. The j^ercentages 
were as follows: 

Chestnut Oak 35% 

Black Oak 20% 

Scarlet Oak 18% 

White Oak 10% 

Swamp Oak 6% 

Chestnut 6% 

Mockernut Hickory 4% 

A recapitulation of the percentages of sj)ecies in six of the most 
typical stands examined on Cecil loam and Cecil mica loam in Cecil 
and Harford counties is as follows: 

Chestnut 24% 

Black Oak 18% 

White Oak 15% 

Mockernut Hickory 10% 

Chestnut Oak 9% 

Pignut Hickory 6% 

Scarlet Oak 6% 

Tulip Tree 5% 

Swamp Oak 2% 

Beech 2% 

Miscellaneous 3% 

The predominance of the Chestnut is, as stated before, no doubt 
unnatural, although it must always have been an important tree in 
the forest make-up. The White Oak and the Mockernut Hickory 
are the species which typify the deepest soils and the finest timber 
tracts of to-day (as at Glenville). The Chestnut Oak and Scarlet 
(3ak are species more capable of enduring adverse soil conditions, 
as witness the abimdance of the former on rocky slopes and the 
gravel hills, and of the latter on the stony hills of the Upper Mid- 
land District. 

The Tulip Tree is not an infrequent component of the topland 
forest, and also the Beech, although both these species are much 
more abundant on the soil-covered slopes. Red Maple and Swamp 
Oak, although occasional in topland forest are most frequent on 
flood plains, the latter being particularly characteristic of poorly 
aerated and acid soils here as well as elsewhere in the state. 


A few trees which are quite abundant in open situations some- 
times enter into the make-up of the forest, as the Yellow Locust, the 
Sassafras, the Red Cedar, the Persimmon, the Wild Black Cherry 
and the Hackberry. The Red Oak and the Shagbark Hickory are 
infrequent trees, both of which are much more abundant in the Up- 
per Midland District and the Mountain Zone. Tlie stands of pine 
which occur being young and dense are very poor in shrubby and 
herbaceous undergrowth. The seedlings of the Black and Scarlet 
Oaks are common, and the Dogwood, together with the Squawberry 
and a scattered groMh of xerophilous grasses and such composites 
and leguminous plants as are common in the pine forests of the 
Coastal Zone make up the total of a vegetation which is in striking 
contrast with that of the nearby deciduous forests. 

The undergrowth in the Loam topland is made up to a great 
extent of young seedling trees rather than of shrubs, — in strong con- 
trast to the conditions in the Coastal Zone. The Dogwood is the com- 
monest of the shrubs and smaller trees, often being extremely abun- 
dant. Other common species are Viburnum dentatum., Yaccinium 
stamineum, Gaylussacia resinosa, Viburnum acerifollum, Rhus 
liirta, Viburnum prunifolium, Vaccinium pennsylvanicum. 

The herbaceous vegetation of the forests on the loams is extremely 
rich and varied, probably embracing one third of the herbaceous 
flora of the state. Many species are common and widespread, others 
are confined to deep shade, others to open forests and still others to 
rocky soils. Many others are infrequent or rare in no relation to 
physical conditions. In the same places in the forest there are like- 
wise differences in the aspect of the herbaceous vegetation during 
the different months of the growing season. In the last week of 
March and the early part of April the following are in bloom and 
conspicuous: liepatica hepatica, Sanguinaria canadensis, Carex 
pemisylvanica, Clayionia virginica, Viola labradorica, Juncoides 
cainpestre and Alsinc media. One or two weeks later follow : Eplgaea 
repens, Asarum canadense, Syndesmon tlialictroldes, Carex nigro- 
marginata, Aquilegia canadensis, Potentilla canadensis, Antcnnaria 
nco-dioica, Mitella dipJiylla, Viola blanda and others. After the last 
weeks of May there is a period in which relatively few species are 


found ill bloom, the spring flora having passed its climax, and the 
summer and fall species being still in the course of their vegetative 
activity. The following species are those which are most abundant 
and characteristic : 

Poteniilla canadensis 
Aster divaricatus 
Geum canadense 
Galium lanceolatum 
Brachyelyirum erectum 
Phegopteris hexagonoptera 
Vagnera racemosa 
Anychia dichotoma 
Eragrostis eragroslis 
Solidago patula 
Alsine pubera 
Houstonia purpurea 
Hieracium venosum 
Alsine media 
Oxalis acctosella 
Polygala mariana 
Meibomia grandifiora 
Silene stellata 
Viola cucullata 
Uvularia perfoliaia 
Salvia lyrata 
Dioscorea villosa 
Heuchera americana 
Aster puniceus 
Porteranthus trifoliaius 
Dasystoma laevigata 
Chimapliila umbcllata 
Agrostis perennans 
Aster cordifolius 
Aster paniculatus 
Botrychium virginianum 
Pedicularis canadensis 



-VIEW SIIOWI.NG .SCnUG PINK A_\|i 1:1 \' K .1 \c K 





Zizia cordata 
Hydrocotyle americana 
Hypopitys hypopUys 
Gentiana andrewsii 
Gunila origanoides 
Gerardia purpurea 
Lobelia inflata 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Peramium puhescens 
Mitchella repens 
Cracca virginiana 
CorallorMza corallorhiza 
Chimaphila maculaia 
Pyrola rotundifolia 
Aralia nudicaulis 
Elymus canadesis 
Monotropa uniflora 
Solidago flexicaulis 
Collinsonia canadensis. 


The Soil-Covered lower Slopes of the mature topography of the 
Lower Midland District are rich in tree species. It is in this 
habitat that all of the forms reach their best development, — the 
Oaks and the Tulip Tree have been seen in several parks and 
private estates attaining to a height of 125 to 140 feet, a marked 
contrast to the size reached by the largest trees of the Serpentine 

The predominant species are the Tulip Tree, the Beech, the Red 
Maple, the Bitternut Hickory, the White Ash, the Black Walnut 
and the Black Gum. Trees of the topland, such as the Black Oak, 
Chestnut and White Oak are by no means absent, . but it is only 
the last which is common. The above-named trees vary in their 
relative abundance, the Tulip, Beech and White Oak together 
forming from 40% to 60% of the stand and the others above men- 
tioned varying from 35% to 40%. Other species which are infre- 


qiient include the Butternut, the Sweet Birch, the Sugar Maple, 
the Linden, the Bed Oak and the Shagbark Hickory, all of Avhich 
are much more abundant or even characteristic in the Upper Mid- 
land District and the Moimtain Zone. The slopes on which these 
subordinate species are most abundant are those along the larger 
streams of the district, as Deer Creek, the Gunpowder and the 
Patapsco. A rare tree found only on the slopes is the Umbrella 
Tree (Magnolia tripeiala) the very large leaves of which make it 
the most striking of the smaller forest trees. 

The most frequent and characteristic of the shrubs which are 
found on the slopes but not on the topland are Hamainelis vir- 
r/iniana and Hydrangea arhorescens, the latter of which is more 
abimdant in the Upper Midland District. Very many of the her- 
baceous plants found in the deepest shade or in the soils of highest 
humus content in the topland are also characteristic of the slopes. 
The most general in occurrence of these are : 

Carex stricta 
Aquilegia canadensis 
Arisaema triphyUum 
Asarum canadense 
Dryopteris marginalis 
Adiantum pedatum 
Asclepias quadrifolia 
Juncoides campestre 
Collinsonia canadensis 
Scirpus planifolius 
Bracliyelytrinn erect ii in 
Salvia lyrata 
Washingtonia loiigisiylis 
Hydrofliyllum virginicu in 
Galium tinctorium 
Carex costellata 
Mitella diphylla 
Solidago fiexicaidis. 



The steeper slopes on which the soil is thin or confined to pock- 
ets in the rocks bear a markedly different vegetation from the 
gentler and soil-covered slopes. The trees may he pnre stands of 
Chestnut Oak or stands of Chestnut Oak with a smaller percent- 
age of Chestnut, or again, where the slopes are precipitovis, the 
Scrub Pine may be more abundant than either. On the rocky 
slopes of the Gunpowder and other large streams the Hemlock is 
not infrequent, and the White Oak and the Black Oak may be 
present with these trees. The Juneberry (Amelanchier canadensis) 
is a small tree common on all rocky slopes, and most conspicuous at 
its flowering time in the last weeks of April. Thickets of Kalmia 
latifolia often cover the slopes which afford sufficient soil, with 
Vacciniiim stamineum in less abundance. The herbaceous vegeta- 
tion is poor in species in comparison with any of the other hab- 
itats of the district excepting the gravel, and is indeed similar 
to that found on the gravel hills. Among the commoner species 
may be mentioned : 

Mitcliella repens 
Epigaea repens 
Deschampsia flexuosa 
Polypodium vulgare 
Carex pennsylvanica 
Peramium pubescens 
Heuchera americana 
Porteranthus trifoliatus 
Solidago rugosa 
Chimaphila maculafa 
Asplenium platyneuron 
Antennaria planfaginifoHa 
Potentilla canadensis 
Houstonia coendea 
Solidago concolor. 

Outcrops of rock and rocky slopes which are kept constantly 
moist by the seepage of underground water seem to have been 


the favorite habitat of the Hemlock and the Butternut, as well as 
a number of herbaceous plants which were doubtless much more 
common in the virgin forests than they are now, but are still 
abimdant in the Upper Midland District. Among these may be 
mentioned : Saxifraga pennsylvanica, Panax trifolium, Hieracium 
paniculatum, Capnoides sempervirens, Parietaria pennsylvanica, 
Traidrciieria carolincnsis, Asplcnlum trichomanes, Sedum terna- 


The Flood Plain areas of the Lower Midland District are dis- 
tributed along all of the constant streams, varying in breadth 
with the size of the stream from a few feet to as much as half a 
mile at some localities along the Potomac. Their rich alluvial 
soils maintain a high percentage of moisture and have the gi'ound 
water level within a few feet of the surface, but the surface layers 
of the soil are seldom continuously saturated, as is the case with 
many of the Flood Plains of the Wicomico terrace on the Eastern 
Shore. The invmdation of the Flood Plains is frequent during 
the spring and summer, but is always of very short duration on 
all but the largest rivers. 

The Flood Plains were all originally heavily wooded with a for- 
est rich in tree species. The Tulip Tree, Ked Maple, Swamp Oak, 
Black Gami and Slippery Elm, and White Elm are the most 
common forms and together make up 80% of the stand in most 
of the Flood Plains examined. Other characteristic species are 
the Kiver Birch, the Hornbeam, the White Ash, the Bitternut Hick- 
ory and the Green Ash. The Box Elder is abundant in the Flood 
Plains about the head of the Elk River and along the Potomac, 
but has not been noted in the other parts of the Lower Midland 
District, although it occurs in the Western Shore District of the 
Coastal Zone. Other infrequent species are the Willow Oak, which 
only occurs along the Potomac as far as Seneca Creek ; the Shingle 
Oak, which is not infrequent in Montgomery County in the vicin- 
ity of Gaithersburg and the Great Falls, but is known elsewhere 
in the state only from Zekiali Swamp, in Charles County; and 
the Swamp White Oak, which also occurs in the Upper Midland 


District. The Paw-Paw, the AVahoo, the BU\dderniit and the Red 
Mulberry are infreqiient along the Potomac and the Patapsco. 

Along the banks of streams the Buttonwood and the White Wil- 
low are the most familiar trees. The shrubby willows are par- 
ticiilarly abundant along stony shores and on the most low-lying 
parts of the flood plains of the larger streams ; of them the Black 
Willow is the most common except along the Potomac, where Ward's 
Willow is equally abundant. 

The herbaceous flora of the Flood Plains shows a much closer 
afiinity with that of the moist soil-covered slopes than with the 
sandy Flood Plains of the gravel soils of the Lower Midland or 
the Flood Plains of the Coastal Zone. The numerous species, 
sporadic in their occurrence, comprise characteristically the fol- 
lowing : 

Spaihyema foetida 
Homalocenchrus virginicus 
Adicea pumila 
Thalictrwn dioicum 
Cardamine purpurea 
Clirijsosplenium, a-mericanum 
Ruhus liispidus 
Deringa canadensis 
Chelone glabra 
Gratiola virginiana 
Banunculus scelerafus 
Onoclea sensibilis 
Lobelia puberula 
Veronica americana 
Carex hipuUna 
Carex hullata 
Viola sagittaia 
Urticastrinn divaricatum 
Boelimeria cylindrica 
Carex liirta 
Cyperus strigosus 
Elymus virginicus 
Veratrum viride 


Anthoxanthum odoratum 

Viola lanceolafa 

Carex stricta 

C alamagrostis cinnoides 

Heracleum lanatum 

Lobelia cardinalis 

Aster puniceus 

Carex rosea var. radiala 

Carex rulpinoidea. 

Vegetation of the Cecil Clay. 


The differences which distinguish the vegetation of the Cecil 
Clay and that of the Loams are not great as respects the arboreal 
flora; indeed, in view of the great variability of the forests on the 
loams due to human agency, it is with hesitation that any but the 
most general differences observed in the field are held to be sig- 
nificant. As indicated in the Introduction the soils derived from 
gabbro are peculiar in their chemical character owing to the pres- 
ence of small amounts of magnesium and the absence of lime, the 
same features in less degree which characterize the serpentine soils. 
The peculiarities of the gabbro soil would indicate, however, that 
the magnesium salts do not exert a toxic effect, as the number of 
species absent from them is small, and none of the plants show 
peculiarities of structure or dwarfing of size. The distinctions 
which may be observed between the gabbro clay and the loams are 
all readily accounted for by the physical character of the clay. 
The tree species which are predominant are such as are more 
abundant in moist and poorly drained soils, the herbaceous species 
which are absent are those that occur most abundantly in sandy 
or other light soils. The differences which the Cecil Clay areas 
present are, then, similar in a close degree to those described for 
the Elkton Clay on the Eastern Shore. 

The Cecil Clay of Harford County bears topland forest in which 
the Chestnut and Mockernut Hickory stand in about the same 
relation to the make-up as on the Loams, while the Black Oak is 


less abundant than on the Loams, and the Chestnut Oak and Scarlet 
Oak are nearly absent. The Tulip Tree, on the other hand, is 
quite as abundant as on the Soil-covered Slopes of the Loam soils, 
and the White Oak is only slightly less so. The Swamp Oak is 
more abundant than on the Loam slopes, and the Black Walnut, 
Linden and Ked Bud are infrequent. The herbaceous species whicli 
are rare or absent on the gabbro clay are such as the species of 
Meibomia, Lespedeza, Lecliea and Heliantliemum, Mitchella 
repens, Epigaca repens and other of the commoner psammophilous 

Vegetatiox of the Serten'tine Barrens. 

The Serpentine Barrens of the Lower Midland District have 
been examined at Conowingo in Cecil Coimty, Dublin in Harford 
County, the Bare Hills and Soldier's Delight in Baltimore Coimty, 
and near Gaithersburg in Montgomery County. The principal 
features of the Barrens are extremely uniform in all of the areas, 
and like the Gravel they are most pronounced in the character, 
of their vegetation on the topland and in the driest situations, for 
some of the deepest Conowingo clay in Cecil County bears a group- 
ing of forest trees and other vegetation not very unlike that on 
Loam Slopes. The fact that the serpentine weathers readily cause 
the rock outcrops to be covered with fragments (See Plate XX, 
Fig. 2) and the failure in formation of a soil is possibly connected 
not only with the ready drainage afforded by the topography, but 
with the chemical character of the rock fragments as well. That 
the peciiliarities of the Serpentine areas are not due solely to the 
physical conditions is attested by the difference between their veg- 
etation and that of the shale exposures of the Upper Midland Dis- 
trict, where the physical conditions are almost identical. That the 
physical conditions are partly responsible, however, for the peculi- 
arities noted is shown by the normal character of the vegetation of 
the deep areas of Conowingo clay, where, on the other hand, it is 
altogether likely that much of the harmful excess of magnesium 
has been leached out of the soil. 

Some of the Barrens are of the same iDliysiogiiomy as other 
forests in the Midland Zone, but those in the Soldier's Delight 


area of Baltimore County have an ojien park-like stand of trees 
(See Plate XX, Fig. 1). The age of the trees and the absence 
of seedlings indicates that this is not an early stage in reforesta- 
tion ultimately giving rise to a more densely closed stand of trees. 
The Black Jack Oak and the Post Oak are often the sole trees 
of the thinnest soil, or they may he accomijanied by the Red Cedar. 
The predominance of these two Oaks on the Barrens is one of their 
most interesting features, for neither of the trees is very common 
on other soils, although they occur on the sands of the Eastern 
Shore and on rocky slopes in the Upper Midland District. Infre- 
quent trees on tlie thinnest soils are the Sassafras, the White Oak 
and the Black Oak, while near Gaithersburg the Scrub Pine re- 
places the Cedar. The scattered shrubs are Vaccinium staminewn, 
Gaylussacia resinosa, Kahnia lafifolia and Salix tristis. The most 
interesting members of the herbaceous flora are the two species 
which have not been found off the Serpentine Barrens in the 
state, — Talinum teretifolium, a small plant with a rosette of terete 
succulent leaves, and Cerasfium arve^ise,* the stems of which have 
internodcs so shortened that the leaves are imbricate in arrangement. 
In other respects the flora of the thin Serpentine soils is like 
that of other open xerophilous situations. The areas are not suf- 
ficiently extensive, nor are the observations which have been made 
sufficiently full, to give an authoritative list of the species wliicii 
are absent. Among tliose wliicli are characteristic of the Bar- 
rens are: 

Andropogoii virginicus 
Lecliea minor 
Danthonia sericea 
Cerastium arvense 
H ell ant] I e mum ma jus 
Hieracium scdbrum 
Aster ericoides 
Polygala verticiUafa 
Potenfilla canadensis 

*In Maryland Cemstimn arvense ia confined to the Serpentine Barrens while 
Cenwtium nrrense var. oblongifoUum is ubiquitous, the reverse relation to that 
commonly reported. 




FIG. 2. — VIEW SHOWING THE THIN S(ill. lONKKlNC ON Tin; liM-i.\\p 'H ] lib ^Liil'l 


Panicum depauperafinn 
Linum medium 
An tennaria plan tag in i folia 
Solidago virgafa 
Veronica officinalis 
Kneiffia fruticosa 
Houstonia coeridea 
Senecio balsamitae 
TaJinum terefifoliinn. 

The contrast between the thin Serpentine soils jnst described 
and the deeper Conowingo clay has been noted near Conowingo, 
Cecil County. At a locality where a cut in the county road shows 
the soil to have a depth of five feet, there is a forest stand made 
up of Chestnut, Black Oak and White Oak, together forming 80% 
of the stand, in which the Black Jack and Post Oaks fall in abun- 
dance so as to make together only 5% of the total. The Pignut Hick- 
ory, the Sassafras and the Black Gum are present in small num- 
bers. ]^ot only the arboreal but the shi-ubby and herbaceous floras 
as well here partake of the character of Loam topland. 

Vegetation of the Susqueiiaxna Gravel. 

The Gravel soils of the type which has been designated as Sus- 
quehanna gravel by the Soil Survey, are deposits mainly of Cre- 
taceous but partly of Pleistocene age, which are sometimes of con- 
siderable depth. They are irregularly distributed along the south- 
eastern edge of the Lower Midland District, occurring in a belt of 
country about ten miles in width just within the "Fall-line." The 
farthest areas from the "Fall-line" are shallow deposits overlying 
granite and gneiss and are confined to the topland or level hilltops. 
Ifearer the "Fall-line" more extensive areas occur, which are more 
varied in their topography, comprising abrupt isolated hills, such 
as Foy's Hill and Egg Hill in Cecil County, as well as level ai-eas 
and ravine bottoms. The topography is much younger and more 
irregular than that in the Piedmont Plateau proper. The Neck 
lying lietween the Elk and North-East rivers, while technically a 


part of the Coastal Plain, belongs to this series of "Fall-line" 
Gravel hills, and is identical with them in its vegetation. 

On the summits and higher slopes of the isolated hills in the 
Gravel region the vegetation is almost as marked in character as 
on the Serpentine Barrens. On the lower slopes and in the ravines 
these features are largely obliterated by an approach to the flora 
and groupings of the Loam areas of the Coastal Zone. In the 
ravine bottoms the sandy elements of the gravel often form con- 
siderable deposits and some of the plants characteristic of the sandy 
swamps of the Eastern Shore may sometimes be found. 

The typical Gravel forest is made up of Chestnut and Chestnut 
Oak, regardless of the age or stage of reforestation. The two are 
usually pretty equally represented and together form from 60% 
to 90% of the stand. On the summits of hills and well-drained 
slopes the percentage is higher, on lower slopes and in level areas 
it is lower. The commonest associated trees in the drier situations 
are the Black Jack Oak, the Scaidet Oak, the Black Oak and the 
Red Maple. The Scrub Pine occurs sporadically in groves or small 
groups, and the Pitch Pine has been observed in a few places, 
where it has reseeded abandoned areas. 

There have been very fcAV attempts to cultivate any part of the 
Gravel areas of Cecil and Harford counties. There has been a 
continuous cutting of the small timber for use in making charcoal, 
which has prevented any improveiuent of the physical condition 
of the soil through the return of a mature forest stand. The ex- 
tensive "Barrens" of Cecil County are traversed by the main line 
of the Pennsylvania Railroad, which indeed follows the course of 
the Cretaceous gravels and clays from Elkton to Washington, 
thereby presenting to the traveler the least promising and least 
improved section of the state. 

The Laurel (Kalmia latifoha) forms continuous thickets in many 
of the Gravel forests and is in all places the predominant shrub. 
On the summit of Egg Hill, in Cecil County, occurs the Rhodo- 
dendron (Rhododendron maximum), which is not known from any 
other station in the state east of the Blue Ridge. The occurrence 
of this shrub here in a situation in which the soil conditions are 
so radically different from those of its usual habitat is a striking 


exception to the conditions usiially governing the occurrence of 
plants outside their normal range. Other shrubs characteristic in 
the drier Gravel forests are Vaccinium stamineum, Vaccinium penn- 
sylvanicum, Gaylussacia resinosa, Salix tristis and Castanea pumila, 
while in the lower and moister forests there is a richer assemblage 
of the forms found in the Loam forests of the Coastal Plain, in- 
cluding Cletlira alnifolia, here at the limit of its range, Vaccinium 
corymhosum, Pieris mariana, also at the limit of its range, Xolisma 
Ugiistrina, Azalea nudiflora. Viburnum acerifolium and Viburnum 
dentatum. In the saturated gravel about the bases of the hills 
Hamamelis virginiana is not infrequent. 

The herbaceous species which characterize the Gravel hills are 
of a xerophilous character, and the same forms not only occur 
throughout the Chestnut-Chestnut Oak forest in this District, but 
in the Eidge forest of the Mountain Zone and on gravel hills of 
morainic oi'igin in neighboring states to the north. The common- 
est species are: 

Melampyrum lineare 

Cunila origanoides 

Dasystoma pedicularia 

Andropogon virginicus 

Baptisia tinctoria 

Nabalus albus 

Lacinaria graminifolia var. j)i]osa 

Chrysopsis mariana 

Mitchella repens 

Linum medium 

Lobelia iuflafa 

Hieracium scabrum 

Angelica villosa 

Lechea viinor 

Euphorbia corollafa 

Gerardia purpurea 

Polygala nuttallii 

Kneiffia fruticosa 

Smilax rotundifolia. 

218 the plant life of makyland 


The Lower Midland District is geologically old, wliich is to say 
that it has undergone but little recent change of elevation due to 
crustal movements, and has been altered in its surface features only 
by the prolonged erosion to which it has been subjected. The soil 
conditions were doubtless somewhat similar to those of the present 
day throughout Mesozoie time, excepting for the more recent Cre- 
taceous and Pleistocene deposits which constitute the Gravel soils 
of the "Fall-line" border of the District. The climatic conditions 
miderwent profound oscillations during late Pliocene and early 
Pleistocene time, owing to the successive epochs of glaciation to 
the northward, and this gave occasion for the northward migration 
of southern forms alternately with the pushing southward of north- 
ern forms. We thus see that while the topographic conditions gov- 
erning the local distribution of vegetation have been only slowly 
changing through long periods of geological time the character of 
the flora has been changed several times in a fashion which has 
resulted in an admixture of northern and southern species. The 
more recent Coastal Plain has been seen to have been a highway 
along which southern species have migrated northward. Very many 
of these have not spread beyond the '"Fall-line," apparently on ac- 
count of unsuitable soil conditions, a few others show by their 
abundance on the Coastal Plain and their occurrence in favorable 
habitats on the Lower Midland District that they are migrating 
into this District from the favorable highway. 

The fact of the dependence of the nature and distribution of 
vegetation upon the character of the topography causes a young and 
diversified topography to present a greater differentiation of veg- 
etation than does a mature one. We have such a diiference well 
exemplified in the Coastal Zone, where both Upland and shore-line 
changes are going on with relative rapidity, and in the Lower Mid- 
land, where the topography is well matured. In theory the climax 
of topographic development is the reaching of base level, but in 
so far as vegetation is concerned, the reaching of maturity is a 
climax which is so nearly stable as to present uniform conditions 


over a period of time in which crustal movenients or climatic 
changes may have opportunity to offset the influence of topography. 

In the entire Midland District the topland presents differences 
of vegetation which are due to the character of the imderlying 
rock. These differences were doubtless more pronounced in younger 
states of the topography than they are now, but they are such that 
they will always manifest themselves even if the region were to 
undergo complete planation. 

The Topland vegetation of a particiilar soil type is that wliieli 
must be looked upon as the climax, for it is the type which has 
resulted from the maturing of the toiiography. The Rocky Slopes 
are but a trifling percentage of the total area of the District, and 
are due to secondary lateral cutting by the larger streams, i. e., a fea- 
ture due to a regression in the topographic development of the Dis- 
trict. The Eocky Slopes, however, are destined to pass through the 
Soil-covered Slope stage ultimately to that of the Topland. The 
Flood Plains are likewise destined to silt up until their vegetation 
approaches in character that of the Topland. 






The Upper Midland District may be regarded as consisting of 
four natural belts crossing the state from north to south. Three 
of these belts are hilly or mountainous, these are the Parr's Eidgc 
belt, the Blue Ridge, including Catoctin Mountain, and the group 
of ridges westward from North Mountain. The foiirth belt lies 
partly between the first and second of those named but mainly 
between the Blue Ridge and North Mountain. The parts of this 
belt are the valleys of the Monocacy and of the Antietam Creek re- 
spectively. To the west of North Mountain there are no wide val- 
leys of the same character as these, those present being narrow 
with steep sides slojiing to the stream bed at the bottom. 

Pake's Ridge Akea. 

The Parr's Ridge area consists of a series of ridges of moderate 
height, approximately parallel to the axis of the main elevation, 
which lies to the west of the central line of the area. The relation 
of the several elements of the topography may best be seen near 
the town of Westminster, as the main ridge is there well developed 
and the subordinate ones distinct on accoiint of the valleys of the 
streams which lie between them. The narrow valley of Little Pipe 
Creek, about a mile west of the town, cuts through the main axis 
of Parr's Ridge and broadens on each side into wide valleys. The 
streams at this point are tributary to the Monocacy River through 
the Pipe Creek valley. 


The soils of the Parr's Eidge area are largely of the igneous 
series and develop good farm land where suitably located. The 
natural cover of the region was a mixed deciduous forest, which 
is still present on the higher ground, and less conveniently situ- 
ated parts of the ridge. The deeper soils are covered with the typical 
climax forest, of Oaks, Maple and a large percentage of Beech, 
accompanied by the herbaceous plants which are common to soils 
rich in humus and by the woody plants which find the same condi- 
tions favorable to their development. There are a few outcrops of 
limestone, but the extent of these is not sufficient to make a dif- 
ference in the vegetation of the area. 

HiTls. — The Chestnut is the predominating tree of the rich hill- 
sides, with the Chestnut Oak the next in order of abundance. These 
two trees are associated also on the stone or boulder-strewn slopes, 
if there is opportimity in the spaces between the rocks for the ac- 
cumulation of leaves and of other refuse of the forest to produce 
the hixmus in which the tree reaches its best development. In those 
cases in which the soil is comparatively free from rocks, the humus 
is often several inches deep, and gives the conditions suited to the 
development of the species of Hickory (Hicoria alba, Hicoria gla- 
bra) and of Beech. As undershrubs grow the Huckleberries (Gay- 
hissacia frondosa, Gaylussacia resinosa) the Blueberry with the 
Laurel and Arbutus, while amid thick clumps of decaying leaves 
grows Monotropa uniflora. 

Considering the more open and dry spots in such a forest area, 
the margins of the opening have Baptisia tinctoria as one of the 
consi>icuous plants. This is also a roadside annual, being found 
along the roads in woodland regions with slight choice as to the 
character of the soil, but reaching its best development iipon the 
sandy or well drained soils of hillsides. It and Pteris aquiUna are 
conspicuous features of the burned-over areas. 

In the more moist locations the Red Maple (Acer rubruvi), the 
Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) together with Spathyema foetida, 
Osmunda cinnamomca and Osmunda claytoniana are found in 
association. About the margins of such moist areas the orchids 
are to be expected and in this vicinity Ovcliis spectabilis, Pogonia 
verticilata and Peramium pubescens are seen in the region of shade 



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and moist humus. Of the fern species Onodea sensihUis is found 
in the open moist places, extending into the open meadow areas. 
Dicksonia punctilohula is found in the places in the forest where 
shade is moderate and moisture and humus conditions favorable. 
In the drier localities Dryopteris marginalis and Dryopteris acros- 
ticJioides are common, and in spots still less moist, like the out- 
cropping rocks, Polypodium vulgare occurs. 

The general conditions of soil moisture and humus content are 
not quite so favorable as obtain farther from the Pennsylvania line 
and away from the deeper valleys of the district just discussed. 
An intermediate series of habitats occurs in the vicinity of the 
Little Pipe Creek cut through Parr's Eidge. The most notice- 
able single variation is the difference in the abundance of the 
Tulip Tree, which here forms about 20% of the forest cover, while 
it is inconspicuous or scarce in the region to the north of West- 

The Oaks constitute the major portion of the woodland growili 
and include the Chestnut Oak, the White Oak, the Black Oak, antl 
have as associated trees the Mockernut Hickoiy, the Butternut, and 
the Chestnut. The smaller woody plants here include the Dog-wood 
in considerable abundance, Witch Hazel and Spice-bush. A hillside 
covered with this type of forest is shown in Plate XXII, Fig. 1. 
The herbaceous plants are not greatly different from those noted on 
the northern slope, but such plants as Orchis spectabilis there found 
in some frequency are rare or absent here. Other plants of the deep 
forest which were observed at this locality are: 

Polygonafum hifloniin 
A risaema triphyllum 
Vagnera racemosa 
Uvularia perfoliata 
Sanguinaria canadensis 
Hepatica hepatica 
Aralia nudicaidis 
Porterantlius trifoliatus 
TJrticastrum divaricatum 
Cuhelium concolor. 


Roadsides.- — In the UiD2Jer Midland District one of the most 
ahnndant plants of the roadside, margins of woods and similar 
habitats, is Anemone virginiana. Along the roads in open locations 
are Lactuca scariola, Medicago lupulina, Spccidaria perfoUata and 
Cimicifuga racemosa. Upon the elevated banks along the roads the 
Chinquapin is a rather frequent shrnb and the Locust tree is com- 
uioii. The latter seems to have a great tolerance for lime in the 
soils that it occupies, for it has been seen in a number of instances 
growing within the burn-pit of abandoned lime-kilns. The Sumac 
(Rhus copallina) is frequent, as are also Eupatorium perfoliatum, 
Eupatoriuin purpureum and Euphorbia corollata. 

The actual proportion of Chestnut present in the forest of these 
slopes is probably not less than half, for the trees in flower seem 
to cover nearly two-thirds of the visible canopy, but as they then 
hide the less conspicuous trees, the former proportion is the more 
likely. This refers of course only to trees of full size. 

Valleys. — In the deeper valleys of the streams which drain the 
rolling ground, there are frequently small areas of swampy land, 
some of these are due to natural conditions, while others are arti- 
ficial in origin. In either case the floral conditions are quite sim- 
ilar, and while the succession of forms may be quite different, the 
species present are likely to be very much the same in swampy areas 
of any considerable age. In a swamp at the head of a small mill 
pond south of Westminster, the following plants were noted: 

Orontium aquaticum 

Sagittaria latifolia 

Sparganium androcladum 

Alisrna plantago-aquatica 

Campanida americana 

Ilydrocotyle amei-icaua 

Impatiens hiflora 

Selaginella apus 

8phag7ium sp. 

Osmunda cinnamomea 

Eupatorium perfoliatum 

Potomageton nuttalUi 

Alnus rugosa 

Polygonum sagittal um. 


The gi-oiind slopes rapidly from the low area, and in a short dis- 
tance becomes so dry that the Bear Oak and the Chinquapin find 
suitable habitats, and other species of oak, such as the White Oak, 
the Swamp Oak, Post Oak, the Black Oak and the Chestnut Oak 
also grow close to the wet ground, but on the drier hillside. The 
only specimen of the Scrub-Chestnut Oak (Qvercus prinoides) seen 
in this section of the state was found along the road at the top of the 
slope of the valley where this swamp was located. The condi- 
tions were very dry, the habitat was fully exposed to the south 
winds and full sun ; being the elevated bank of a sandy and rocky 

To the east of the Ridge, the same series of lower ridges or long 
hills occur, and among them are similar localities with moist soil 
in which the plant growth is slightly different from that of the 
areas already mentioned. Osmunda regalis is among the plants not 
previously noted, and the presence of the Elder {Sanihucus cana- 
densis) is a conspicuous feature of the low ground vegetation. 
Thalictrum dioicum is in good bloom in early July, and Seii- 
cocarpus linifolius is also in flower. One of the species of Milk- 
weed, Asclepias pulchra, is common in the moist situations, and in 
the thickets the two Haws (Viburnum dentatum and Viburnum 
prunifolium) are associated with the Choke-berry (Aronia arbuti- 
folia). Under the branches of the thicket shrubs Spathyema foetida 
and Orontium aquaticum are occasional, and in the more exposed 
spots with abundant moisture, Aletris farlnosa, Sagiffaria JatifoJia, 
Ehexia mariana, and Poly gala viridescens occur. 

The sides of the ridges are often steep and therefore well drained 
or even very dry especially if there has been recent cutting of tim- 
ber. The conditions then are extremely hard upon vegetation, since 
fire follows in so large a number of instances that it seems almost 
the usual sequence. 

Under the unfavorable conditions of sudden increase of strong 
sunlight, greater circulation of drying winds, and the severe me- 
chanical injury due to careless felling of the trees, only the most 
hardy of the original plants can survive, and these have to combat 
under a disadvantage, the hardy invaders from roadsides, or other 
waste places, where the conditions are even more severe. 


Cut Over Areas. — Under these changes of environment, the 
plants which become conspicuous are Baptisia tinctoria, Pteris 
aquilina and species of Solidagoj the tall composites such as Eupa- 
toriiim purpureum, and Vemonia novehoracensis. In areas which 
have been cut over at some time more remote, but which have not 
been able to reestablish the former conditions of wooded slopes, the 
Bear Oak and the Chinquapin are to be expected, and are commonly 
found together with Comptonia peregrina in full sunlight exposures. 
Lespedeza hirta often occurs with these, and also the white-flowered 
Euphorbia corollata. There is often a low growth of prostrate or 
trailing plants in places not too greatly exposed to the heat and 
dryness, and in these places Veronica officinalis, Dasystoma virgin- 
ica and Dasystoma pedicularia are to be expected. Mosses and 
lichens abound in these localities, but they are of the cosmopolitan 
forms in all instances where the sj^ecies were noted. Dioscorea vil- 
losa occurs commonly in open woodland, either in fairly moist, or 
in quite dry situations, and Cimicifuga racemosa is found in a sim- 
ilar variety of habitats. In certain localities along the roadside, 
the Beaked Hazel forms the roadside shrubbery, and less frequently 
in this vicinity, it is supplanted by the common Hazelnut. Where 
there is a small stream in woodland situations, the Witch Hazel and 
the Spice-bush are usually present. Cassia nictitans, and Cassia 
chamaechrista' occur at frequent intervals in the taller vegetation of 
the dryer situations. 

Drainage. — The high groimd of Parr's Kidge extends toward the 
southwest, gradually decreasing in elevation, but there is an increase 
in the number of subordinate ridges in tlie vicinity of Mount Airy, 
beyond which point the central ridge becomes lost as an axial eleva- 
tion. Numerous low hills replace the ridges of the more northern 
parts, and the intervening valleys are correspondingly less deeply 
cut, and the sides are less steep. Between the Little Pipe Creek 
region which has just been discussed, and the vicinity of Mount 
Airy, the streams belong to two drainage systems; the area is in 
the nature of a divide, with the Patapseo drainage on the east and 
the Monocacy on the west through the Avearing down of the elevated 
land into subordinate hills. The two systems apju'oaeh in the vicin- 
ity of Mount Airy. 


The vegetation along the divide does not materially differ from 
that in similar situations already described, except as shown by the 
increase in abimdance of Eed Cedar or Hickory and Scrub Pine. 
The Pitch Pine is seen occasionally and the Bear Oak and Chinqua- 
pin are common along the roadside. Kalmia latifolia and Epigea 
repens were absent along the ridge from Westminster to Mount 
Airy in places apparently siiited to their growth. 

In the immediate neighborhood of ilount Aii-y, the following 
plants were noted, some of which have not been recorded along the 
upper portions of the Ridge region : 

Diospyros virginiana 
Quercus platanoides 
Lobelia inflata 
Gaylusaccia frondosa 
Acer saccharinum 
AgastacJie scropliulaviae folia 
Xolisma ligustrina 
Alnus rugosa 
Polygala verticillata 
Cimila origanoides 
Mesadenia atripUc i folia 
Prunella vulgaris. 

In habitats which were more moist the following species were 
recorded : 

Fraxinus americana 
Kalmia latifolia 
Acer saccharum 
Liriodendron tulipifera 
Lobelia cardinalis 
Melilotus alba 
Quercus velutina 
Platanus occidentalis 
Epigaea repens 
Acer ruhrinii 
Carpinus caroUniana 


Lobelia syphilitica 
Vevbesina alternifolia 
Quercus acuminaia. 

The soil in the hills into which the Eidge becomes divided is 
favorable for farming operations, and is more extensively used for 
this purpose than is the more rugged, steeper region to the north 
of this point. For tliis reason there is less of natural vegetation 
to be noted, except as such may take the form of roadside weeds, 
or meadow plants. The influence of the hauling of farm produce 
ajDpears in the distribution of some of the more conspicuous weeds 
of the fence corners and roads. Dipsacus sylvestris is so distrib- 
uted in some abundance along the main lines of tiirnpike travel, 
and is to be found westward from Moimt Airy scattered through- 
out the Midland zone in very similar localities. Lactuca scariola 
is another plant which follows the path of the farmer, and to a 
luore serious degree Planiago rugelli and Planlago lanceolata which 
do damage as weeds infesting clover fields. Tiiese are especially 
troublesome after the fields have stood several years without plow- 
ing, as in wheat-clover-timothy years of the farm rotation. 

The waste places abound in species of Solidago and Aster. Along 
the roads, Trichostema dichotoma and Bidens bipinnata occur. The 
Black Locust is a common tree along the fence lines, from the 
immediate vicinity of Mount Airy along the pike toward Fred- 
erick, and indeed through the entire region of agricultural activity. 
This is partly due to the custom of using the living trees as posts 
in the fence line, and the accompanying economy of space for 
tree growth, and partly to the difficulty of keeping the margins of 
the fields in clean cultivation. The Locust, largely self-sowiu 
occupies otherwise unoccupied ground, and at the same time serves 
as part of the necessary fencing, and also provides material for 
later service in the form of cut posts. 

Upper Monocacy Valley. 

A difference in the general view of the region in the vicinity of 
the National Pike, and the region to the north, near the Western 
Marvland Eailroad, is due to the absence in the former of the 


frequent woodlots of a few acres extent, that afford the owners the 
needed fuel, and are a source of some revenue in the sale of nuts. 
These patches of woodland are of frequent occurrence in the lapper 
part of the region in question, and consist to a large degree of nut 
trees, together with several species of oak, and an occasional beech, 
although often too dry and thin soiled for the noi'mal development 
of the latter tree. In those woodland areas the forest floor is 
usually covered by a grassy growth of species of Poa, Muhlen- 
bergia, and Panicum, with such plants of similar habitat as Viola 
pedata and Carcx platyphylla. Under favorable conditions of 
moisture and shade there are often large patches of ferns, of nearly 
pure stands of single species, but these are not so frequent as is 
the case in the more damp, and heavier humus soil region in thi' 
section farther west. The fern which occurs in most abundance 
in the majority of cases is Dicksonia punctilohiiJa, and in a smaller 
nimiber of cases, Dryopteris novehoracensis. In the open wet mead- 
ows other ferns take the place of these species, but no rarities or 
unusiial forms were discovered in this type of habitat. 

The Sour Gum, which is so common a member of the woorlland 
vegetation in the Lower Zone of the State, is not common here, but 
occurs occasionally, and often in the same locality with the Tuli]i 
Poplar, though not in the majority of cases. Along the edges of 
the woods, Stylosantlies hiflora is frequent, with Cassia iiictitans, 
Meihomia nudiflora, and Dasystoma laevigata just within the 
border, and scattered throtigh the more open places. 

Bottoms. — In the shady moist ground along the bottom lands 
such plants as the Erytlironium americanum, C'laytonia virginica, 
Podophyllum peltatum, and Spathyema foetida are found in asso- 
ciation with the Eed Maple, Moose wood, and the Hornbeam in the 
lower parts of the adjacent woods, and the Red Bud and Dogwood 
on the slopes of the hillsides. In the deep soil of these woods, 
where there is considerable light, Bicuculla cucuUaria forms con- 
siderable patches, and Hepatica hepattca is common. Medeola vir- 
giniana, Arisaema triphyllum, and Trillium cermtum are to be 
foimd in the deeper woods. 

The Chicken Grape {Vitis cordifolia) is a frequent vine of the 
forest margin in damjD locations, especially in the region between 


the railroad and the State line. Near Silver Kun a few Elms 
were noted, and an occasional Buttonwood ; the Hazelnut was present 
in some abundance in the roadside thickets, and the Choke Cherry 
(Prunus serotina) in the edges of the drier woods, or more open 
thickets. Among other trees and woody plants seen in the same 
vicinity the following may be noted : 

Quercus macrocarpa 
Sassafras sassafras 
Nyssa biflora 
Hicoria ovata 
Gleditsia iriacantlios 
Quercus palustris 
Quercus coccinia 
Quercus prinus 
Quercus velutina 
Quercus alba. 

In the list of herbaceous plants of the same region there are to 
be noted the following species: 

Ludwigia alternifolia 
Onagra biennis 
Oxalis stricta 
Lespedeza procumbens 
Plantago rugelii 
Anthemis cotula 
Solidago lanceolata 
Saponaria officinalis 
Abutilon abutilon 
Bidens hipinnata 
Cichorium intybus 
Meibomia nudiflora 
Trichostema dicltotominn 
Medicago lupulina 
Apocynum cannabinum 
Datura stramonium 
Solanum nigru7n 
Lechea villosa. 






The plants whicli occur in the region a little further to the west, 
as in the neighborhood of Emmittsburg do not differ to any con- 
spicuous degree iintil one reaches the wooded slopes of the hills. 
The more level ground has been cultivated for a long period, and 
the common weeds are abundant; the woods have been culled in a 
series of commercial cuttings, taking at one time the merchantable 
trees of Hickory, White Oak, or Black Walnut, and at a later time 
removing such of the remaining species as may seem to the owner 
to be most mai'ketable. In consequence the woodlots are not at 
all uniform in species, in those localities which are easily reached 
by roads or saw mills. In the more remote places there is a greater 
uniformity in the forest stand, but the commercial interests of the 
individual owner have had a considerable influence even in these 
cases which can not be estimated in the study of the present stand, 
except to a slight degree by making a large series of comparisons 
of separate wooded areas. This has not been practicable, and the 
species present have been recorded with no attempt to allow for the 
influence of wood cutting. 

Woodlots. — The groves, or isolated "n-xjodlots upon the separate 
farms, do not differ materially from the similar pieces of wood- 
land which were described just above, being composed chiefly of 
Oaks and Chestnuts, with a scattering of Hickory. As the higher 
ground is approached in the lower slopes of the Blue Eidge, a more 
marked difference becomes apparent, and the character of the for- 
est stand becomes quite changed from the type about the West- 
minster section of Parr's Eidge. 

Emmittsburg lies at the northern end of the Frederick Valley 
and is surrounded by farm lands, which extend furthest on the east- 
ern and southern sides. On the west the farming land is less broad 
becaiTse of the near approach of the Blue Eidge and its foot hills. 

Blue Eidge Area. 

The Blue Eidge area, like Parr's Eidge, consists of a central axis 
of considerable elevation with flanking ridges of lesser height more 
or less parallel with the main ridge. These are dissected into 
rounded hills by the water courses draining the area. In detail 


these often show valleys o£ considerable steepness and have a dif- 
ferent tj^ie of forest and herbaeeons covering' from the more gentle 
slopes. The top of the main ridge, or of the two arms into which 
it divides southward, consists of massive sandstone and forms a 
plateau. Here the conditions are quite different from the lower 

THE c;extlek slopes. 

The number of Beech trees in tlie forest composition increases 
as the better forest conditions of the hills is reached, and the pro- 
portion of tlio White Walnut or Butternut is considerably greater 
than eastward. The Hemlock now becomes a pirominent feature 
of the forest landscape, and in places composes nearly or quite one- 
fourth of the standing timber. Some of the finest specimens of this 
tree occur in deep narrow valleys of the mountain brooks, but even 
these are being cut down in many cases. If too inaccessible for 
heavy teams to remove the logs for timber, tlie liark is stripped and 
the log allowed to lie unused in the woods. The Butternut is also 
rapidly being thinned out of the areas where it occurs, since trees 
as small as six inches in diameter are now felled for the excelsior 
factories. The Ash is another tree which is in somewhat greater 
abundance than previously notcil, but does not form a large jiro- 
portion of the stand at any point observed. 

The White Pine is jiresent in the hilly woods to a slight per cent., 
and occasional Eed Cedars occur along the roads. In the moist 
si)il by the side of the streams, tlie Sweet Birch occurs in some 
abundance; on the slopes of the streams now the Basswood, Sugar 
Maple, Mulberry and, on the higher portions, the Beaked Hazel 
is found. Other jilants which occur in the region about Sabillas- 
ville, which have not been mentioned in the discussion, are: 

Dioscorea villosa 
Vagnera racemosa 
Uvularia sessilifolia 
Monarda fistulosa 
Ilabenaria clavaia 
SmUax rotundifolia 


Unifolium canadense 
Spatliyema foetida 
Hahenaria ciliaris 
Lobelia syphilitica. 

Among the fern species observed were such common ones as PoJij- 
podiuni vulgare, Adiantum pedatum, Dryopteris marginalis, Dryop- 
ff'ris achrosiichoides, Asplenium platyneuron, Osmunda regalis, 
Osmunda cinnamomea, Osmunda claytonia; Phegopteris pliegopteris, 
Onaclca scnsibilis, and Botrycliium virginianum ; less frequent were 
Woodsia ohtusa, and Dryopteris crisfata. 

The herbaceous vegetation inchides the following species: 

Echium vulgare 
Hypericum densiflorum 
Medeola virginiana. 
Eitpatorium perfoliatum 
Medicago lupulina 
Lespedeza Tiirta 
Parsonsia petiolata 
Phytolacca decandra 
Cimcifuga racemosa 
Porteranthus trifoliatiis. 


Tliui-inoiit. — Tliunnont is situated in close proximity to the 
steeper hills of the Kidge region, and there the streams have cut 
valleys that are steep-sided and rugged in many cases, affording 
dense shade in the bottom, with usually a considerable degree of 
moisture, both from the actual stream water, and from the tendency 
of the damp air or foggy atmosphere to follow these drainage 
courses in their movements to or from different levels. The pres- 
ence of tlie Showy Easpberry (Biihits odoratvs) is here noted for 
the first time in going west, in the deep soil accumulated among 
rocks, on the slopes of ravines or along roads, where the light is 
stronger than in the deep woods. The Black Haw (Viburnum 
acerifolium) is found in these along with the Purple species 


(Viburnum frunifoUum). Other woody i^lants or trees are Hy- 
drangea arhorescens, Rihes cynoshati, Asimina triloba, Carpinus 
caroliniana, Juglans nigra aud Juglans cinerea, in somewhat larger 
numbers than at previous places of record, and Acer nigrum is 
recorded for the first time in this area. 

It will be convenient in following the geography of the region, 
to pass southward along Catoctin Mountain as it divides from the 
Blue Ridge proper. The upper portions of the mountain are 
formed of resistant sandstone and the resulting soil is of a poor 
character, supi)orting a typical xerophytic vegetation, the slopes 
from the crest to the east are often steep and rugged, the top being 
to a large degree level. 

The characteristic vegetation of the Mountain includes a large 
proportion of the Bear Oak, Laurel and Sweet Fern. With these 
in less conspicuous abundance are the following: 

Baptism tiucforia 
Dasystoma pedicularia 
Lespedeza striata 
Pteris aquilina 
Gaylussacia frondosa 
Potentilla monspeliensis 
SoUdago bicolor 
Lobelia inflata- 
SoUdago juncea 
Epigea repens 
Dioscorea villosa 
Cracca virginiana 
Apocynum androsaemifohum. 

In hollows where water accumulates, or some spring reaches the 
surface, there are small patches of Sphagnum, and associated plants. 
In one such sjjot Limodorum tuberosum was found, entirely removed 
from what normally constitutes its habitat; but the decomposed 
sandstone, with the pocket of moist sphagnum made the contrast 
between a low-ground sandy bog and the present sjjot less striking 
than appears at first. 


Catoctin. — On the eastern sloiie of the Catoctin, near Catoctin 
Furnace, there are the same type of deep ravines, and narrow 
stream valleys that were noted at Thurmont. The vegetation is 
quite similar. Hemlock, Beech and Chestnut being the predomi- 
nating trees in typical localities, and the following occurring in the 
deeper soil about the heads of the small streams : 

Osmunda claytonia 
Porteranthus trifoliatiis 
Mitchella repens 
Cypripedium acaule 
Chelone glabra 
Gaylusaccia frondosa 
Rubiis odoratus 
Ruhus occidentalis 
Chionanthus virginica 
Popidus grandidentata 
Aralia nudicaulis 
Unifolium canadense 
Habenaria clavellata 
Habenaria lacera 
GauUlieria procumbens 
Gaylusaccia resinosa 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Betula lenta 
Nyssa biflora 
Hydrangea arhorescens. 

The crest of the Mountain divides into lesser ridges, one of 
which runs from the axial line southeastward toward Frederick, 
affording means of ascent for the road to Smithsburg. Upon the 
lower slopes of this ridge the greater abundance of Tulip trees and 
Chestnuts is noted. Beech, Paw-paw and additional species of 
Oaks, which include beside Quercus alba and Quercus rubra, both 
Quercus coccinea and Quercus velutina. In the small streams at 
the side of the road, Callitriche heteropliylla occurs in some abun- 
dance. The slopes of the hill become gradually more dry as the 
flat summit is reached, but the conditions remain fair well toward 


the top, except where fire has aided the dry sandstone soil in pro- 
ducing an arid type of covering. The higher slopes have been sub- 
ject to forest fires at repeated intervals, and most of the stands of 
timber are marred by the fire-killed trees in various degrees of 

A natviral passage-way over the main ridge is found at Braddock 
Heights and the forest in that region is slightly different from 
those areas previously mentioned. The following species were 
noted in the fresh cover at this point: Quercus macrocarpa, Celtls 
occidentalis, Acer ruhrum, Diospyros virginica, and for the first 
time in tlie mountain area Quercus marylandica. The elevation of 
the mountain at this point begins to diminish quite rapidly, and 
near Jefferson has become very much reduced, allowing the plants 
from the lower ground to come into the area of the Catoctin ridges. 
The Elm appears to be a ti'ee of this character, being found so far 
along the high grounds only where they are raj^idly merging into 
the more level areas. 

Foint of Bocks. — Catoctin Mountain is cut through at Point of 
Rocks by the Potomac Kiver, practically terminating there, although 
it continues into Virginia as a hill with decreasing elevation. At 
Point of Kocks, the igneous rocks are exposed, and constitute the 
"bastard granite" at that point. The rocks above the canal near 
the tunnel have clumps of Woodsia obtusa, Aquilegia canadensis, 
Heuchera americana and Saxifraga virginiensis, and at the base 
Vincetoxicum hirsutum is occasional. Upon the top of the tunnel 
hill the following species were noted : 

Ulmus americana, 
Uhnus fulva 
Cornus florida 
Quercus rubra 
Bohinia pseudaccacia 
Pinus virginiuna 
Quercus alba 
Quercus velutina 
Cercis canadensis. 

and many of tlie plants already mentioned in the discussion. 


Sugar Loaf Mountain. — This is an isolated portion of the same 
general elevated land surface as that forming Catoetin, and is sit- 
uated several miles eastward from Point of Rocks, and slopes on 
all sides to the general surface of the cultivated region of the 
Monocacy Valley. The upper portions, as in Catoetin Mountain, 
are composed of sandstone, and the debris from the higher parts 
have become distributed over much of the slope, resulting in a con- 
siderable amount of sandy soil. The soils at the base, and in the 
vicinity of Sugar Loaf are of the decomposed igneous type, and 
form compact loams or clay-loam soils, which support a heavy 
growth of herbaceous and woody plants. 

Along the northern base of the Mountain a small stream, Thurs- 
ton Creek, flows westward into the Monocacy, and its banks are 
covered to a large extent with good forest. Small areas of floodplain 
soils along the course of the Creek or at points where its side 
branches join the main stream, afford habitats for the growth of 
plants requiring deep, moist soil, with much shade. In such places 
the usual grouping of Benzoin, Hamamelis, Viburnum acerifolium, 
Fraxinus, Carpinits, Cercis, Fagus and Cornus occurs, while species 
of Salix occupy the more boggy places of poor drainage along the 
stream. The Box Elder was here recorded, associated Avith the But- 
tonwood, the Elm and the Sweet Birch ; an occasional Hemlock, and 
a considerable abimdance of the Tulip Tree make up the bulk of 
the tree growth outside of the oak species and the beech and chest- 
nut. Of the Oaks, the Black Oak, the Chestnut Oak, and the 
Overcup Oak were observed at different stations along the water- 
shed of the stream. The single station recorded for Clitorla 
mariana in the Upper Midland District is located along this stream. 
The herbaceous vegetation includes Impatiens aurea, Sanguinarla 
canadensis, Vagnera racemosa, Asarum canadense, Arabis cana- 
densis, Impatiens biflora and Hypopotis liypopitis. 

Among the species of ferns noted, the folloM'ing may be men- 
tioned: Woodsia obtusa, Dryopteris spinulosa, Onoclea sensibilis, 
Asplenium platyneuron, Adiantum pedatum, Dryopteris marginalis 
and Dryopteris tlielypteris. 

The higher and drier slopes of the north side of Sugar Loaf grad- 
ually rise from the region of the Creek valley southward from the 


foi-d at Park Mills, l^ear the ford, which is flanked by steep slop- 
ing banks, the Black Jack Oak is growing in a considerable 
thicket near the road, with the Hazel JSTiit and Chinquapin as the 
border shrubs. The Paw Paw and the Persimmon are not infre- 
quent in the moist cool localities of the deep forest. The Scrub Pine, 
White Pine and Table Mountain Pine are found upon the slopes 
of the mountain, and the Pitch Pine on the ground just east of the 
base, near Thurston. 

Bog Pochets. — One of the chief interests in a rapid survey of 
the slopes and upper portions of Sugar Loaf, is the frequent oc- 
currence in the upper area, of springs or small feeders to the brooks, 
these running often in shallow beds in the sandstone rock, and there 
accumulating a soil largely consisting of sand and vegetable remains. 
In this the peat moss (Sphagnum) becomes established, which 
assists in the further development of soil material. Along the 
road, well toward the top of the slope, such a peat pocket was ex- 
amined, and the following plants noted, which may be compared 
with the flora of the Sandy Upland Swamps of the Eastern Shore 
District of the Coastal Zone : 

Ilahernaria davellata 
Hahernaria psycodes 
Drosera rotundifoUa 
Lobelia cardinalis 
Medeola virginiatia 
Pogonia verticillata 
Lobelia syphilitica 
Dryoptcris novcboraccnsis 

The margins in some cases change abruptly into tlie dry sand- 
stone soil, in other instances thei-e is a low area transitional between 
the wet sphagnimi and the surrounding dry ground. The plants of 
the transition area include such as may be present in either of the 
two adjacent habitats which are able to maintain themselves to- 
gether where neither has much advantage over the other. In the 
intermediate zone about the bog pockets, the following plants have 



fa xa 


been observed, in varying proportions according to the local varia- 
tions of the habitat : 

Elms vernix 
Xolisvia ligustrina 
Kalmia latifolia 
Carex platyphylla 
Ludwigia alternifo lia 
Carpinus caroliniana 
Unifolium canadense 
Epigea repens 
Ascyrum hypericoides 
WiUoughhaea scandens 
Ilex verticillata 
Viburnum dentatum 
Chionanthus virginica 
Panicum capillare 
Eupatorium verhenae folium 
Acer ruhrum 
Trillium erectum 
Cypripedium acaule 
Campanula aparinoides 
Apocynum cannaiinum. 

Upon the higher parts of Sugar Loaf, the proportion of Chinqua- 
pin increases to a considerable extent ranging from the high ground 
well toward the base on the south slope. In the uncultivated spots 
to the south, including parts of the lower slope of the Mountain, 
the following were noted: 

Junlpcnis rirginiana 
Quercus minor 
Q uercits digitata 
Liriodcndron hdlpifera 
Bhiis copallina 
Acerates viridi flora 
Quercus palustris 
Quercus velutina 


Juglans nigra 
Rhus radicans 
Vitis labrusca 
Apocynuni cannahbium. 


Botween (Jatoctin Mountain and tlic Blue Ridge lies the Middle- 
town Valley, in the shape of a broad triangle with its base at the 
south. At the south it has but a slight elevation, gradually rising 
toward the upper end where it is closed by the convergence of the 
two ridges. The flat top of the united axes becomes the plateau 
near Key Rock at Pen Mar, at the head of the Valley. 

It is under high cultivation, and needs but little mention hei'e, 
as the uncultivated plants consist for the most part of the common 
weeds, or of plants similar to those of the adjacent parts of the 
Midland Zone. Along the banks of Catoctin Creek, which drains 
the valley, the plant growth is quite similar to that along the 
Monocacy to the east of the Catoctin Mountain as shown by the 
following list: 

Ulmus fulva 
Bohinia pseudacacia 
Nyssa hiflora 
Smilax ro tun d ifo I ia 
Diantliera americana 
JJlmus americana 
Acer negundo 
Fraxinus americaiui 
Smilax lierhacea 
IJrticasirum divaricaiuin. 

The Box Elder is restricted to the ground along the floodplains 
of the streams, and often forms a very considerable proportion of 
the tree growth along the canal and river banks, from tidewater 
at Georgetown to Hancock and extends up the side valleys of the 
tributaries from the Potomac, as in this, case, along the Monocacy 
and the Catoctin valleys. In the low ground, such as meadow 


l^asture lands, Muscari hotnjoides occurs sparingly, and such other 
vernal herbs as Bicuculla cucuUaria, Ohelidoniiim inajus, Asarum 
canadense, and Eri/thniiiiinii amcricanum are scattered in the woods. 


Forming the western boundary of the Middletown Valley, the 
Blue Ridge extends from Weverton to the Pennsylvania line near 
Pen Mar. This, forms a larger and more rugged elevation at Wever- 
ton where the Potomac has cut across it than does the Catoctin 
ridge at Point of Eocks. 

At Weverton a small stream, Israel Creek, flows into the Potomac, 
and in the deep shade of the bluffs along the lower part of its course 
some species not previously noted were found. Near the river at 
the side of the railroad is a high ledge of rock, upon which some 
plants were found which were not seen elsewhere. These include 
the following: Asplenium pinnatifidum, Asplenium platyneiiron, 
Eupatorium altissimum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polymnia cana- 
densis, Ulnius fulva, together with rank-growing weeds which occvipy 
the talus from the, shale and sandstone cliffs. The Yellow Locust, 
the Chestnut Oak and the Sugar Maple are the jDrincipal clift" 
talus trees, with the Ped Bud as under-shrub. Jmpatiens hifiora, 
and Arisaema triphyllum are present among the more succulent her- 
baceous growth. 

Along the cliff-like banks of the stream, there are a few spots of 
deep soil deposited by the water in sheltered places. In these many 
of the trees are located, and some of the ranker of the herbaceous 
types. Thus the Black Gum, Buttonwood and Box Elder are 
associated with the shrubs Benzoin benzoin, HamameUs virginiana 
and Vibunium accrifolium. In the broader places where the stream 
runs somewhat parallel to the direction of the shale in which it 
is now flowing, there is a small floodplain developed, on whicii 
there is a fine stand of trees, mainly of the same species as already 
mentioned. But in addition to these, the chief components of the 
woods, [there are a few individuals of the Hemlock, the Sweet Birch, 
the White Ash, the Butternut, the River Birch, the Black, Chest- 
nut and White Oaks, and the Tulip Tree is also present in well 
developed trees. 


Along the cliffs themselves, there are alternating bands of more 
or less poor soil formed by the varying proportions of iindecomposed 
rock and hnmus. Upon the poorer exposures such plants as Sedum 
ternatum occur, with Saxifriga virginiensis, Veronica officinalis, 
Mitcliella repens, with Dryopteris achrostichoides, Botrychium vir- 
ginianum, and Adiantum pedatum as the soil ferns, Polypodium 
vulgare, and Camptosorpus rhizophyllus as the rock-inhabiting 
forms. Celastrus scandens was here noted, and the following 
species not common elsewhere were recorded : 

Adicea pumila 
Circaea lutetiana 
Hypopitis hypopitis 
WasJmigtonia claytoni 
Parietaria pennsylvanica 
Homalocenchrus virginicus 
Anychia canadensis 
Lippia lanceolata. 

In the area more closely adjacent to the Potomac, there were in 
addition to those just mentioned: Mollugo verticillata, Eupliorbia 
nutans, Scirpus americana, Cephalanthus occidentalis and Asclepias 
pulchra. In the shallows of the river, where the earth was exposed 
at low-water periods, or was just below the surface imder the or- 
dinary conditions, the Water Willow (Diantliera americana) grows 
in considerable abiuidance. 

Elk Ridge. 

While considering the conditions along the Potomac, it will be 
simplest to include the next point of botanical interest, and then 
to follow the forest along the Blue Eidge to the upper end at Pen 
Mar. A ridge somewhat separated from the main elevation crosses 
the Potomac just east of Harpers Ferry, and forms . the gorge 
through which the combined flow of the Shenandoah and the Poto- 
mac passes eastward. Elk Ridge is the Maryland termination of 
the Blue Ridge mountain in Virginia which extends for a few- 
miles northward from the river, much as the Catoctin ridge ends 


at some distance from the Potomac on the Virginia side. The eleva- 
tion which forms the Blue Eidge of Maryland and Pennsylvania 
runs from Weverton to Pen Mar and thence onward into the latter 
state. A considerable valley which is drained by Israel Creek, 
mentioned just above, separates the two ridges at the river. The 
valley at its mouth is narrow and steep, but a short distance back 
from the river the south end of the Hagerstown Valley meets the 
smaller valley of Israel Ci'eek, which thus widens its area of farm- 
ing land. 

The plants to be found upon Elk Kidge differ to some extent upon 
the east and west slopes, but how far the difference is due to natural 
variations of soil, and how much is artificial and due to the sec- 
ondary conditions of difficulty or ease in exploiting the forest of 
the steeper and of the gentler slopes, cannot easily be determined. 
The rock exposures on the west slope are steeper and more broken 
than on the east slope, in those portions of the ridge which have 
been seen. This is clearly shown at the river section of the Ridge, 
where the upper Potomac gives to the west face a steepness absent 
from the other side. The crest is of sandstone as in the case of the 
ridge at Weverton, the valley between the two ridges is of igneous 
rock, and the slope toward the Potomac on the west side is largely 
shale, and is carved by small tributaries into recurring hills and 
valleys running from the river toward the crest. 

The forest cover of the Elk Eidge area is of the oak-chestnut type, 
and includes among the oak species the following: Quercus prinus, 
velutina, rubra, marylandica, alba, minor, acuminata, palustris. 

The Chestnut is common, and the Black Walnut, the Black Gum, 
the Moekernut Hickory, the Wild Black Cherry, the Tulip Tree, 
the Elm and the Yellow Locust reaching the size of large trees. 
Among the species of pine there were noted the Scrub Pine, the 
Pitch Pine and the Table Mountain Pine ; the presence of White 
Pine was not noted. 

Along the shale outcrops of the west face there are a number of 
small shallow ravines in which the moisture conditions are better 
than in other places, and in such there is often an abundant develop- 
ment of the Paw Paw. Along the road following the west side of 
the ridge this is noticeable. Near the river are the usual riverside 



trees, like the Eiver Birch, Honey Locust, Mulberry and Box 
Elder. On the upper and drier parts of the Ridge, Kalmia. 
Juniperus, Cornus and Cercis are frequent, and Viburnum pruni- 
folium is also to be found. Of the herbaceous vegetation the fol- 
lowing species were found to be the chief forms present : 

Eupatorium coelestinmn 
Stylosantlies hiflora 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Euphorbia corollata 
Solanum nigrum 
Saponaria officinalis 
AcalypJia virginica 
Sericocarpus aderoides 
Viola pedata 
Chimaphila maculata 
Ilepaiica hepatica 
Cassia nictiians 
Phytolacca decandra 
Silene stellata 
Menispermum canadense 
Hystrix hystrix 
Lobelia inflata 
Housionia purpurea 
Baptisia tinctoria 
Podophyllum peltatum 
Cypripedium acaxde. 

The species of ferns which were noted were the following: 

Adiaiditin pedalum 
Asple7iium trichomanes 
Pellaea atropurpurea 
Woodsia obtusa 
Asplenium platyneuron 
Aspleriium ruta-muraria 
Polypodiiim vulgare 
Phegopteris phegopleris 
Dryopteris marginalis 
Dicl'son ia punctUobnla. 


Of these Asplenium tricliomanes, Asphnium ruta-muraria and 
Pellea were .restricted to a few small outcrops of limestone, along 
the west slope of the ridge. 

In the damp places, where there was less of forest cover •Lobelia 
cardinalis and Mimulus ringens are found in frequent association, 
and Lobelia syphiKticads usually present. 

The Main Axis. — The greater elevation of the hody of the Blue 
Ridge, gives portions of that area a drier character .'than on the 
less elevated Elk Ridge, but the character of forest does not differ 
to any considerable degi-ee until the northern end of the Ridge is 
approached where there is a tendency toward greater moisture 
through higher rainfall. The upper portions of both ridges are 
covered with a nearly continuous forest, but extensive clearings for 
planting of peach orchards, makes the general appearance of the 
woodland ragged. The forest fires have also done damage, butthei-e 
is not as yet the fire type of growth such as was 'noted for the top 
of Catoctin, where the Bear Oak was so conspicuous a feature of 
the region. The valley lands are mostly in good cultivation, but 
on the higher slopes the soil is often only roughly cleared, and 
poorly cared for, resulting in a persistent crop of brambles (Rubus 
sp. and Smilax) with scattering Sassafi-as. Under the same condi- 
tions such rank weeds as the Phytolacca decandra. Datura stramon- 
ium, Echium vulgarc, Chenopodium album, Solanum carolinense are 
found in considerable abundance. 

Roadsides. — Along the roads where there are scattered trees, very 
often of the Black Locust, there are occasional clumps of the Sweet 
Sumach which closely resembles its poisonous relatives, the "Poison 
Ivy," but has more hairy twigs and fruit. Anthemis cotula is a 
common plant where there has been considerable traffic, and Malva 
rotundifolia occurs about the dooryards of the farm-houses, x^ear 
the barns and other buildings Xanthium spinosum is not rare, and 
Dipsacus sylvestris is scattered along the pikes. The roadside grass 
is a feature of the hei-baceous vegetation both in the Hagerstown 
and in the Frederick Valleys. It extends as a turf from the fields 
to the actual roadway of the pikes and other roads, even in thin 
soils. This cover of Pea pratensis when not cut and broken by 


teams greatly reduces the wasliing of the roads. The turf formed 
is too compact for most plants to penetrate, and the grass thus acts 
directly as a check upon the abundance of weeds which in many 
other places make the sides of the roads their habitat. In the 
marshy places along the streams, there are usually margins of 
Nepeta cafaria, and in less frequent cases Eoripa nasturtium is 
found in the meadow streams. 

In the neighborhood of Boousboro, near Turners Gap, the forest 
was found to be composed of the following species, with the first 
forming much the larger proportion and the last two occurring 
only near the streams : 

Castanea dentata 
Quercus velutina 
Quercus alba 
Juglans cinerea 
Pinus strobus 
Liriodendron iuUpifera 
Platanus occidentalis 
Quercus prinus 
Quercus rubra 
Hicoria ovata 
Fagus americana 
Pinus virginiana 
JugJans nigra 
Nyssa biftora. 

On the slopes of the hills the several species of Crataegus occur 
with some frequency, chietly, however, Crataegus crus-galli, Cra- 
taegus oxyacantha and Crataegus coccinea. They are severely at- 
tacked by a rust which infests both foliage and fruit and also but 
less commonly the young shoots, making the trees conspicuous at a 
considerable distance by the discoloration from the fungus. 

Moist Areas. — The character of the forest is quite uniform from 
Weverton to Tiirners Gap, and for some distance to the north of 
that point ; but near Wolfsville there is an apparent increase in the 
moisture content of the soil and of the atmosphere also, resulting 





in tlie increase in the number of humus-loving plants, and of suc- 
culent herbaceous undergrowth. A typical spot of this character 
is found along the route of the trolley from Myersville to Hagers- 
town, close to the tojj of the gap by which the road passes over the 
Blue Eidge mountain (Plate XXII., Fig. 2.) 

Standing water, and slow moving and shallow streams are found 
at several points along the tracks, and furnish a rather vmifonn 
list of plants for the several places. Sphagnum is one of the com- 
ponents of the upland bog, and the Swamp Blackberry {Bubus 
hispidus) is usually present with Acer rubrum, and the Osmunda 
regalis. The small-flowered bog orchid, and its more showy rela- 
tives Habenaria clavellata, Habenaria Jacera are here in the edges 
of the wet ground, within the shade of the woods, and at a little 
distance from the damper spots there is an abundance of the 
Whorled Orchid, (Pogonia verticillata) growing in the humus of 
the chestnut-oak forest. Monotropa uniflora assists the other humus 
plants in decomposing the fallen leaves into wood soil, and is found 
here in large colonies. The various Ericaceous plants, as Vac- 
cinium, Oaylusaccia, Epigaea, Azalea, Kalmia, Leucothoe, Xolisma 
and Gaultlieria are distributed through the area and supply much 
of the more shrubby undergrowth. Both Xyris flexuosa, and Sisy- 
rinchiuni graminoides are to be found in the immediate vicinity, 
and a rare plant of Isoetes englemanni may reward a careful search. 
The list of species does not add materially to those previously 
recorded, the increase in frequency of the moisture loving, and the 
corresponding lessening in the nimil>ers of drier ground plants, 
being the chief change that is noticed. The woods are still of 
Chestnut and Oak, and the other species present do not show great 
differences from previous stations. Here the Tulip-Tree is some- 
what less common than at some of the other places visited. There 
is biit a small amount of pine in the forest, but an occasional stand 
of White Pine is to be foiind on some exposed places, also Scrub 
Pine and Black-Jack Oak and rarely Table-Mountain Pine are to 
be discovered. 

On the cut-over slopes of the mountain a considerable degree of 
reforesting is in progress through the self-seeding of the Locust, 
which has already been noted in several localities as a fence-row 


tree. Here it is present in a considerable abundance in the forest, 
and when open land is abandoned, it is an important tree in the 

Along the Ridge toward the north, or north-east, the conditions 
continue much the same, occasional bog pockets in the sandstone 
surface, with the plants already recorded in nearly constant variety. 
Upon the upper portions of the ridge, in places having good soil 
and considerable shade, the Paw Paw occurs in extensive clinnps, 
as it did in similar situations on Elk Ridge. 

In the drier woods the Corallorliiza muUiflora is occasional and 
Gypripediwrn acaule occurs in jjine-needle soil. Scattered through 
the forests Portcrantlms trifoliatus, Medeola Virginia, Elephantopus 
nudatus and Dioscorca villosa are rather common. 

Boulders. — The dipper end of the Blue Ridge is of interest be- 
cause of the presence in several places of "Rivers of Rocks" located 
high above any present watercourse. These are collections of water 
worn boulders, marking the bed of some ancient river, now aban- 
doned through the cutting of new channels across the earlier chan- 
nels. The ''river" may be several rods in Avidth, and show no 
evidence of water beyond the rounding of the boiilders, and the 
sound of a trickling stream at the bottom of the bed of rock, out 
of sight below the lichen covered fragments. One such area is 
located between Smithsburg and Wolfsville, in which the rocks are 
not of great size. A more striking one is near Riven Rock, to the 
south of Edgemont, in which the rocks are large, some of them 
not fully rounded, but all worn by the action of the stream. 
(Plate XXVI., Fig. 1.) 

The lichen covering of these rocks is largely of Umhilicaria, 
which grows to the size of a disc six inches in diameter upon these 
exposed rocks where there are few accidents to break the growing 
thallus. Along with this Umbilicaria, there are of course the smaller 
species, that are usually associated with the sandstone rocks, and 
adhere closely to the rock surface. The general trend of the drain- 
age which is represented by these channels, is toward the south- 
east, while that of the present streams in the same area is south- 


On the road to the summit of the Bkie Mountain, at Pen Mar, 
there is exposed a similar mass of rock fragments, but these are 
not rounded, but are scattered over the face of the cliff and adjacent 
steep slope. (Plate XXVI., Fig. 2.) 

There is no high cliff for these fragments to have fallen from, 
but the flat top of the mountain is composed of the sandstone layer 
already mentioned, which extends southward on Catoctin, and 
was noted at Weverton and Elk Ridge. Below this top layer, shales 
occur which disintegrate with greater rapidity than does the sand- 
stone, and thus allow large fragments of the latter to fall as talus. 
The northwest face of this mountain is closely covered by these 
great masses. In the soil which collects in the spaces between the 
rocks and is maintained by the fallen leaves, there is a good stand 
of oak and cliestnut forest. The soil is nearer the upper surface of 
these talus slopes than in the case of the rock rivers; for in these 
the action of the running water has kept the fine particles of dis- 
integrated rock or decaying leaves from accumulating. It will be 
a very slow process of invasion from the sides following the accumu- 
lation of minute quantities of soil along the margins, which will 
result in the covering of the rock rivers with tree growth. The 
talus fragments by contrast fall upon soil already in place, and 
even when close together allow the seeds of plants to reach the 
ground easily, and tend to cover such with the falling leaves of each 
season as they gather in the spaces between the rocks. Tlie water- 
worn rocks are more closely placed, lying in the dry bed of the 
deserted river to a depth, apparently, of ten feet or more, and it is 
only rarely that seeds of trees or smaller plants falling upon this 
area can germinate and reach the upper surface. 

The forest conditions at the north end of the Bhie Ridge are 
much the same as at the points reached from Thurmont; there is 
a considerable proportion of Hemlock, White Pine, and occasion- 
ally a Cucumber Magnolia. Along the roads there are the same 
forms which have been noted before, including Comptoiiia and 
Ruhus odoratus. In the bog pockets Veratrum viride, Tofeldtia 
glutinosa and Aletris farinosa are added to the lists from other sta- 
tions. These bog pockets are nearly uniform in being formed in 
the depressions on the upper surface of the sandstone, which is 


often coarse like fine conglomerate, and therefore having a pure 
M'hite sand or fine gravel, as the soil constituent of the bog. Most 
of the bog plants already mentioned are found here, but one addi- 
tion to the tree list is of value. In the forest near one bog on the 
eastern face of the mountain, between Buena Vista and Pen Mar, 
a single specimen of the Holly which is rare in the Midland Zone 
was seen. 

Hageestown Valley. 

In the deep soil of the alluvial bottoms of the wider valley there 
is a considerable amount of the Mertensia virginica in the thickets 
near the Witch Hazel and Hornbeam. The Dogwood is abundant 
upon the slopes, and the Beaked Hazel occasional along the roads. 

Cavetown. — A little to the west of the end of the Ridge, at Cave- 
town, there is a considerable outcrop of limestone, which is asso- 
ciated with some few changes in the flora of the region, but these 
changes are not of such a character as to introduce new species, but 
rather repeat what has already been seen upon the limestone areas 
of the Frederick Valley. It is chiefly of interest through the 
occurrence there of Asplenium ruta-muraria, the previously recorded 
station for which is the road to Harpers Ferry, on the west slope of 
Elk Bidge. Large quantities of Locust are associated with the cal- 
careous soil, as about Westminster, but there are few modifications 
in the plant-cover of the hills. 

The Valley Floor.- — The region from Cavetown west to North 
Mountain has little interest to one looking for the original plant- 
life of the state, for the wide valley between the two bounding 
ridges is almost wholly in cultivation, and the woodlots, which were 
quite a feature of the upper Frederick valley, are much less fre- 
quent here. The grassy roadsides, remarked upon previously, con- 
tinue through this section and reduce the land surface upon which 
the wild plants are to be found in other regions. Where there are 
strips of uncultivated land they are usually occupied by the Yellow 
Locust as the first tree, and by such si i rubs as the Sumacs, Choke 
Cherry, and in low spots by the Alder. The Elm is somewhat more 
common than is the case in the other parts of the state and the 
Ailanthus is occasionally found as an escaped tree. 


The trees in the groves or wood lots of the farms, are of the same 
varieties as have been already discussed, the several Oaks, Hick- 
ories, Chestnut, and more rarely the Butternut and Black Walnut. 
The amount of Hickory and White Oak is less in the region about 
Hagerstown than to the east or south of it, because of their demand 
at that place for the wheelwright and coopering trades. The re- 
maining trees are thus of the less valuable species, and in culled 
condition, as the better types have already been reiuoved, leaving 
only the poorest species, and of these often the poorest individuals, 
to represent the original forest cover. 

Among the plants that have been noted in the open valley, the 
f olloAving are common : 

Hcdeoma puJcgioides 

Dipsacits sylvestris 

Monania fishilosa 

Si da spinosa 

Parsonsia petiolata 

Daucus carota 

Rudbeckia Jiirta 

Datura stramonium 

Bidens hipinnata 

Linaria linaria 

Echium vulgare 

Achillea millefolium 

Nepeta cataria 

Anthemis cotula 

Cichorium intyhus 

Verbesina occidentalis 

ClirysantJiemum leucauthemuni 

Yerbascum blattaria 

Clematis virginica. 

Coiwcocheague Valley. — Toward the west side of the Valley a 
shale belt occurs which changes the general character of the soil, 
but as the plant life is so largely that of the weed type, and to so 
large an extent independent of soil conditions, there is little to 


note in connection with the changed soils. At several points along 
the line of contact between one of these belts of shale and the 
adjoining one of limestone on the west, the Conococheague Kiver 
has carved its valley, leaving on one side considerable bluffs of the 
hard rock, facing the lower level of the shale land on the opposite 
side of the stream. On such a bluff, near Broad Fording postoffice, 
there is a large grove of Red Cedar covering several acres of 
ground to the nearly complete exclusion of other plants. (Plate 
XXVII, Fig. 1.) The river bed lies mainly in the shale area, but 
follows the line of contact again at the crossing of the National Pike, 
where it has produced a considerable cliff of limestone on the west 
bank, with a lesser one of shale on the east. On both the Red Cedar 
occurs singly or in small clumps, rather than as a grove like that 
mentioned above. Along the banks of the stream between the two 
places thei'e were noted the following species: Lychnis githago, 
Achillaca millefolium, Papaver rlioeas, Plantago mgelii, OxaUs 
stricta, Echium vulgare, Erigeron annuus, Plantago lanceolata, 
Lactuca scariola and Cynoglossum officinale, beside the grasses and 
weeds more common in moist and deep soil. 

The conditions from the River to North Mountain are like those 
about Hagerstown, where the land is under cultivation, and only a 
few forms are able to meet the struggle with the turf forming 
grasses along the roadside, or the competition of the cultivated 
crops within the fields. Such plants as do make a successful 
struggle, are the same kind as have been previously recorded and 
will not here be repeated, there being no novelties to add to the 
lists made out for the eastern side of the Valley. 

Williamsport. — The Conococheague flows into the Potomac at 
Williamsport, and along the latter there is a line of cliffs which are 
covered by a series of plant forms, somewhat different from those 
seen at other places, though closely related to the types seen along 
the river near Harpers Ferry. The apparent difference may be due 
in some measure to the difference of several weeks in the time of 
examining the two localities, as well as to inherent differences. 

Among the plants which were seen along the high canal cliffs, or 
on the ground between the canal and the river near the mouth of 
the Conococheague, the following deserve mention: Sedum acre i.s 


abundant upon the abutments of the canal bridge, and upon the 
nearby cliff to a slight extent, Dianthera americana is common in 
the margins of the Potomac, and near the mouth of the tributary 
stream, forming compact beds close to the water, or just below its 
surface, and the following additional species were noted : 

AlUu7n cernum 
Ambrosia trifida 
Cuscuta gronovii 
Verbena hastata 
Asclepias quadrifolia 
Woodsia obtusa 
Viburnum dentatum 
Pellaea atropurpu7-ea 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 
Micrampelis lobata 
Acer negundo 
Tradescantia virgitiica 
Linaria linaria 
Aquilegia canadensis 
Asplenium trichomanes 
PkysaUs heterophylla. 

Considerable seepage from the canal makes the ground below it 
almost swampy in places, biit no rare or unusual species were noted, 
as these areas are usually accessible for use as pastures, or if too 
steep for the latter, then covered with the normal river bank vege- 
tation in somewhat greater luxuriance than in the drier places. 
Many weeds become established along the canal, about the feeding 
places of the canal boat teams, but as the plants so established are 
of the common species to be seen in the hayfields or along the road- 
sides elsewhere, it is hardly necessary to list them. 

North Modntaix. 

The slopes of North Mountain are flanked by a series of lesser 
hills and intervening valleys, in which the moisture conditions are 
favorable to a rich growth of forest, and of herbaceous undergrowth. 
There are few spots of sandstone bog pockets, such as were found 


in the Blue Eidge region. There are, however, places where the sur- 
face of the ground affords a basin in which water has accumulated 
for a long period and now presents the condition of a Leucothoe- 
Andromeda pond, with little or no Sphagnum about the margins ; 
in these bogs there is no such development of the typical flora as 
has been found in the other places, there is more standing water and 
much less of the saturated layer of peat and humus that is character- 
istic of the pockets in the Catoctin and Blue Kidge regions. 

The cultivated land of the Hagerstown Valley extends to the base 
of the flanking ridges of North Mountain, and ends with abrupt 
transition into the forested slopes. There is lacking the intermediate 
condition of cut-over woodlands between the standing forest and the 
tilled or j^astured farm lands, so that the farm ends suddenly against 
the dense tree-covered slopes of the hills. In many cases there are 
cleared fields higher up on the sides of the mountain, but such are 
usually separated from the wide valley land by intermediate woods, 
so that the general effect is not lost by these advance farms. The 
woodland soils are usually rich, and have a high content of humus, 
though this is subject to local conditions according to the care with 
which the owners of the several areas exclude forest fires from their 
woodlands. The top of the mountain is as before, of massive sand- 
stone, breaking up into large boulders. 

Fairvicw. — The south shoulder of North Mountain is known as 
Fairview, and is farmed nearer to the top than at many other places. 
The JSTational Pike passes the farm house, and the outlook at this 
point gives one the characteristics of the two sections of the state. 
To the east and southeast, the cleared lands extend throughout the 
breadth of the Great Valley, as far as the west side of the Blue 
Ridge which is hidden in the blue haze, nearly twenty miles away. 
The valley is under almost complete cultivation, the scattered wood- 
lots which are irregularly distributed over the area being almost the 
only unciiltivated areas, and these are not natural in their composi- 
tion, because of the selective cutting which has been done by the 
owners, as has already been stated. To the west an outlook of strik- 
ing difference is afforded ; for the land surface is in the form of 
closely succeeding ridges, covered by forest to their tops, with a 
clearing here and there where a farm is dropped as it were into the 



« s 
S w 


thick of the trees. In this direction the outlook may extend, if the 
air is especially clear, to Sideling Hill about sixteen miles distant. 

The ridges between these two heights consist to a large degree of 
shales, and are left in their forested condition because of the unsat- 
isfactory character of the soils for farming purposes, and afford 
therefore an opportunity for seeing the character of forest which is 
likely to have been common in the whole Upper Midland Province 
at the time of the settlement of St. Mary's City by the first Mary- 
land Colonists. 

Valleys. — In the valleys formed between the main elevation of 
Xorth Mountain and the subordinate ridges on the east side, there 
are present such trees as are indicated in the list below, and it will 
be noted that the species represented are not materially different 
from preceding woodland lists. There is, however, a considerable 
difference, not evident in the enumeration of species, due to the pro- 
portions of the chief members of the forest flora, although there is 
close similarity between this and the east side of the Blue Ridge, near 
Sabillasville or Buena Vista. The following species may be men- 
tioned : 

Castanea dcntata 
Hicoria ovata 
Platanus occidenfalis 
Cornus florida 
Pinus pungens 
Pinus virginiana 
Lirioden dro n tu lip ife m 
Hicoria alba 
Juglans nigra 
Nyssa sylvatica 
Hamavielis virginiana 
Tsuga canadensis 
Quercus prinus 
Quercus alia 
Quercus coccinea 
Quercus velutina 
Cercis canadensis 


Pinus rigida 
Pinus strohus 
Acer saccharinum 
Juglans cinerea 
Acer nigrum 
Alnus rugosa. 

In the smaller growth there are lacking some of the species which 
were not infrequent further east, as the Bear Oak here rare, the 
Chinquapin (one station only found), Comptonia, peregrina (infre- 
quent) and Eaibus odoratus (seen at one locality). 

There are a number of outcrops of the white sandstone of the 
Tuscarora formation, such as occurs in Wills ^Mountain at Cumber- 
land, and the rocks that occur in the woods are chiefly of a similar 
character, and bear numerous patches of Umhilicaria and other 

The herbaceous plants of the drier areas include the following 
forms : 

Trifolium arvense 
Dianthus iarbatus 
Anagallis arvensis 
Stylosanthes bifiora 
Abutilon abutilon 
Plantago rugellii 
Plantago major 
Erigeron canadefisis 
Verbascum blattaria 
Lespedeza repens 
Echium vulgare 
Lupinus perennis 
Malva rotundifolia 
Sid a spinosa 
Plantago lanceolala 
Erigeron annuus 
Verbascum thapsus 
Xanthium spinosvm 
Anemone virginica. 


In the more moist places of the deep or shady valleys the plants 
like Vagnera, Dioscorea, Monotropa, Botrychium virginianum. Ger- 
anium, maculatum, Polygonatum biflorum and Oakesia are common. 
Along the I'oads Baptisia is associated with the Gayhissacia as at the 
other stations, and occupies similar situations. Kalmia while still 
common does not form so large an element of the shrubby growth 
as was the case on the Blue Ridge. 

On the road from North Mountain to Fort Frederick, however, 
there are drier areas than in the immediate vicinity of the Moun- 
tain, and in such there is an abundance of Kalmia and Bear Oak, 
often associated with young Pine on hillsides cut over within a few 
years. (Plate XXVIIL, Fig. 1.) 

Roadsides. — Along the roadsides, adjacent to the wooded areas 
there is an abundant vegetation somewhat different from that seen 
elsewhere; a large proportion of Dicksonia forms conspicuous dis- 
plays along the fence rows, while the shrubbery consists of Sassa- 
fras^ Ruhus, Pinus, and a few oak saplings, the whole forming what 
the landscape gardener would call a "Border Planting" though here 
naturally developed. (Plate XXVIII., Fig. 2). The Laurel is 
often set off in such a background to the best advantage, and if this is 
present in the border, the Sweet Fern is likely to be present nearby. 
The soils upon which this association of species occurs is usually 
a weathered shale, and the best examples were seen near Hancock, 
along Pig-skin Ridge. 

Shale Ridges. — The soil conditions between Xorth Moimtain and 
Hancock are unfavorable to extensive farm operations, hence the 
land has been largely left in forest, especially upon the shaly 
ridges. The forest composition changes somewhat, and there in 
an increase in Scrub Pine and Table-Mountain Pine. The State 
at this point is narrow from north to south, and there is not suffi- 
cient distance between the high ground and the Potomac to give any 
considerable amount of level land, the stream erosion working upon 
the shale soils to produce steep-sided valleys and usually narrow 
topped ridges. These ridges tend to unite toward the north at the 
head of the comparatively short drainage basins of the small streams 
between them and then the land surface becomes more level, and 


better adapted to agriculture, the forest in general being cleared away 
in proportion to the gain in levelness of the country. 

A considerable stream enters the Potomac from the north two miles 
east of Hancock, the Big Tonoloway, and this has cut a rugged valley 
through the shale, the sides of which are clothed with a good forest 
of the deep soil type: Hemlock, Beech, Kiver Birch, Scrub Pine, 
White Pine, Tulip Tree, Chestnut Oak, Sugar Maple, the Arro%v- 
woods, (Viburnum dentatum. Viburnum prunifoUum, and Vi- 
burnum acerifolium;) with Hamamelis virginiana, Alnus rugosa. 
Hydrangea arborescens and Kalmia latifolia as the smaller forms. 

The first station seen in the Upper Midland for Rhododendron 
maximum is on the bank of this stream, upon an exposed bluff and 
associated with Sedum ternatum. In the bed of the stream there is 
the characteristic growth of Dianfhera which has been found along 
the Potomac at other stations. 

Of the herbaceous vegetation, there is nothing of note as peculiar 
to the area at hand, the lists already given covering the forms seen. 
Along the roads, especially the main tiirnpike, Hypericum prolificum 
is abundant in mid-summer; and in the fields, Echium vulgare is 
perhaps the worst of the common weeds. 

Rhus aromatica which was found in the Elk Ridge region, is oc- 
casional here, with Rhus glabra, and Rhus copallina, as well as Rhus 
radicans common on the fences and edges of woods. The Elm is 
rather frequent in the low grounds, especially near the river, and 
the Box Elder occurs as before along the river bank, with the addi- 
tional associate here of the Bladder-nut. 

Round Top. — An extensive outcroii of limestone is found to the 
southwest of Hancock, at Round Top, and here there is a consid- 
erable change in the lists of plants observed. The river slo^De of the 
hill is steep, and well covered with forest, the land side is not so 
steep, and the trees have been culled more thoroughly. The forest 
on the river side of Round Top, consists of the following species: 

Acer saccharum 
Quercus prinus 
Quercus coccinea 
Juglans cinerea 
Cornus florida 


Hamamelis virginiana 
Tilia americana 
Quercus alba 
Hicoria microcarpa 
Liriodendron tulipifera 
Vibiirimm acerifohutn 
Hydrangea arhorescens. 

The Linden here first becomes a factor in the forest, in this case 
reaching 15% to 20% of the stand. In previous occurrences the 
presence of this tree was merely as a constituent of the woody flora 
and not as a timber tree. 

The herbaceous vegetation does not change to a great degree, but 
Panax quinquefoliurn is still present in sufficient abundance to be 
found by a few minutes' careful search. It occurs in the upper 
portions of the Blue Eidge, but is now so infrequent as to escape 
discovery, unless one spends hours in the search. The herbaceous 
plants include the following: 

Campainda americana 
Scrophidaria marylandica 
Sanicula marylandica 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia 
Celaslrus scandens 
Asaruni canadense 
Aspleniuin plaiyneuron 
Adiantum pedatum 
Botrychium virginianum. 
Astei- divaricatus 
Phlox suhulata 
Washingtonia longistylis 
Washingtonia, claytoni 
Cimcifuga racemosa 
Dioscorea villosa 
Dryopteris marginalis 
Dryoptems acrostichoides 
Sanguinaria canadensis 
Circea lutetiana 
Podophyllum peltatum. 


Upon the summit of Kound Top, there is a drier type of habitat 
and the following plants occur: 

Quercus prinus 
Pinus virginiana 
Pinus strohus 
Rohinia pseud-acacia 
Quercus velutina 
Pinus pungens 
Juniperus virginiana 
Cercis canadensis. 

In the localities where the soil was deeper, the species which 
were recorded for the river-slope were also found on the sides of 
the hill adjacent to the latter. The herbaceous growth included the 
follox^ang forms, the first one named being in a large colony or 
patch covering a quarter acre or more of the summit of the knob, 
and close to the outcrop of the limestone, spreading downward on 
the gentler slope of the northern side : 

Dodocatheon meadia 
Anemone virginiana 
Arahis canadensis 

Silene inflata 
Houstonia purpurea 
Astragalus carolinianus 
Camptosorus rhizopkyllus 
Aschpias quadrifolia 
Aquilegia canadensis 
Conopliolis americana 
Campamda americana 
Cynoglossum officinale 
Cynoglossum virginicum 
Draba ramosissima 
Clematis viorna 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Pellaea atropurpurea 
Veronica officinalis 
Cubelium concolor 
Leptamnium virginianum. 


The slope on the northwest face of Kound Top is sufficiently 
gentle to be easy of ascent for much of the distance, and the land 
is cleared over much of this and the adjacent hill sides. Along the 
road the white violet occurs in considerable abundance, and in the 
drier places the roadside legumes, like Medicago Iwpulina, Stylos- 
anihes hiflora, Baptisia tinctoria, while in the edges of the woods 
and on stretches of sandy soil the Lupine is occasionally found. 


The hills adjacent to Round Top have been cleared to a consid- 
erable extent, and there are plantings of apple and other orchard 
trees in the place of the forest trees. To the west of Kound Top 
a few miles lies the high ridge of Sideling Hill, topped as in the 
case of the previous heights, with sandstone, and like them flanked 
along the base by smaller ridges. The Hill as well as the sub- 
ordinate ridges, are well covered by trees, and there are a few 
small streams running jDarallel to the axis of the ridges affording 
drainage to the slopes. One such stream is the Little Tonoloway 
creek, which flows through a rather broader valley than do some, 
and is flanked by occasional farms, chiefly on the west side of the 
stream. The east bank is a steep and wooded ridge which rises 
rapidly from the creek. The forest cover in this case is thin, and 
contains a large amount of Scrub Pine saplings of pole size. The 
steej^er face of the ridge is sandstone, the more gentle slope toward 
the east has some shale, and hence may be cultivated. 

The following species have been recorded upon the sandstone slope 
of this ridge: 

Pinus virginiana 
Pinus strobus 
Quercus rubra 
Castanea dentata 
Amelanchier canadensis 
Gaylussacia resinosa 
Mitchella repens 
Pinus rigida 
Quercus alba 


Qucrcus phellos 
Quercus velutina 
Quercus nana 
Kalmia latifolia 
OauUheria procumbens 
Epigaea re pens. 

Along the banks of the creek, there aru to be seen the following 
additional forms, which include those of the bottom land not in the 
immediate vicinity of the flowing water, but in places of good mois- 
ture : 

Pinus virginiana 
Fraxinus am erica n a 
Juglans cinerca 
Carpinus caroUniana 
Ilex verticillata 
Pinus strohus 
Hicoria alba 
Acer saccharinum 
Alnus mgosa 
Ulmus fulva. 

In the bottom alluvial soil of one of the tributary creeks, a group 
of Arisacma draconfiuni was found in association with the follow- 
ing species : 

Ulmus fulva 
Fraxinus americana 
Celtis crassiflora 
Impatiens biflora 
Wasliingtonia longhtylis 
Platanus occidentalis 
Morus rubra 
Ambrosia trifida 
Verbesina occidentalis 
Adicea pujnila. 




One of the most cosmopolitan of the ferns is Asplenium platy- 
ncuron, which occurs at frequent intervals in the woods, or more 
noticeably along the roads, and similarly open localities, with no 
evident regard to the soil upon which it may be growing. Thus if 
the roadside is of good soil depth, as at the base of a moist hill, the 
2)lants there will be of good development and be associated with 
grasses and sedges. If the habitat is the dry exposure of massive 
shale, as along the road over Sideling Hill, the associated plants will 
probably be Polypodium, Asplenium trichomanes, Aster divaricatus, 
Aquilegia canadensis, Quercus velutina (in the adjacent woodland) 
and Phlox suhulata (on the edges of the exposed shale). By con- 
trast, the selective habit of the two species, Asplenium pinnatifidum 
recorded only at Weverton, and Asplenium ruta-muraria, at Wever- 
ton, Cavetown, and Blairs Valley, northwest of Clear Spring, show 
a low degree of adjustment of the life factors that control growth, 
to the conditions in which the plants may find themselves. A notice- 
able feature in this narrow range in adjustment is that the habitat 
in which the plant is able to become established is one of extreme 
unfavorableness, as judged by other plants which are so largely 
absent in these latter cases from the immediate environment of the 
plant mentioned. 

The upper portion of Sideling Hill is sandstone, and is tliere- 
fore covered with the dry forest such as already has been listed 
from several localities. Some of the areas upon the Hill have been 
cvdled over so as to leave a poor representation of the original for- 
est cover, but the species represented are not materially different 
from those of this type on Tonoloway Ridge. A few herbaceous 
plants not previously recorded M-ere noted as: Senecio obovaius, 
Eupatorium sessilifolium, Agrimonia pumila, PoientiUa canadensis. 

There is a considerable valley to the west of Sideling Hill, hue 
it is narrower and more uneven than that about Hagerstown, which 
has a floor in the foi-m of a wide and comparatively level trough. 
The former consists rather of a complex of small valleys associated 
in one great one, the component units separated by hills and ridges, 
so as to make the valley floor a rolling or undulating surface between 
Sideling Hill and Martin's Mountain. 


On the slopes of the wooded hills, the forest is largely of the 
types already seen, but there is an increase in Hemlock, Pitch Pine 
and White Pine, and along the steep sides of the stream banks, the 
Ilhododcndron occurs in greater frequency, displacing to some ex- 
tent the Laurel which has been present under much the same con- 
ditions heretofore, and from now on shares the hill sides and ex- 
posed situations with the larger shrub. 

Sideling Valley. — The creek at the west base of Sideling Hill 
bears the same name as the hill along which it flows, and forms the 
boundary between Allegany and Washington counties. The land 
surface from this point to the limit of the Upper Midland, and the 
beginning of the Mountain Zone, is much more imeven than that 
heretofore seen, the units are larger, and the heights reached by 
the successive hills or ridges is much more than has been the case 
with the shale ridges of the region between North Mountain and 
Sideling Hill. There is less of agricultural modification of the 
original conditions here than in the previous areas, and the forest 
is evidently more nearly in its original assortment of species on this 
account. However, even in this area, the land has generally been 
cut over at least once, and is now receiving the saw and axe upon 
the second growth timber. Much injury is being done in the for- 
est, by the careless methods of lumbering, both in the felling of the 
trees, by destroying and breaking young trees ; and by cutting the 
trees which should be left for the next crop of timber. 

The commercial trees of the forest, at the present time seem to 
be anything over six inches diameter, with slight choice of species. 
All this is greatly modifying the character of the vegetation of the 
area, but just what the changes are can be learned only by a con- 
tinued series of observations over a considerable period. 

So far as could be determined, the forest species were maich the 
same as in other places, but there is an increase in the number of 
such trees as the Cucumber Tree, the Black Jack Oak and the Yel- 
low Oak {Quercus accuminata). In addition, there were observed 
the following species: White Oak, Chestnut Oak, Black Oak, Scar- 
let Oak, White Pine, Scrub Pine and Pitch Pine, Black Maple, 
Sugar Maple, Eed Maple, Bladder-nut, arrow-woods (Viburnum 
prunifolium, Viburnum acerifoUum), Large-toothed Poplar, and 


Black Gum. Of the undergrowth, there was an abundance of Phlox 
auhulata, in both the white and the pink flowered forms, Eupatorium 
coelestinum, Lacinaria scariosa, Lacinaria squarrosa, and Cuiiila 

There is much less of the roadside weed vegetation, such as is 
abundant in the areas already discussed, the Teazel, Chicory, 
Thistle and Blue Weed being much less common. This is due to 
two causes, of which the more important is the decreased amount of 
haiiling of farm produce, from which the seeds may be scattered 
along the route traversed ; the second is the presence of hardy plants 
along the edges of the woods which tend to resist invasion by the 
plants of the agricultural areas. The weeds of the woods come out 
into the open along the roads, and replace the more common forms. 
Among the latter were Cunila origanoides, Hypericum prolificum, 
Asclepias quadrifolia, Anemone virginiana, Aralia nudicaulis, Par- 
sonsia petiolata, and Dasystoma laevigata. 

Town Creel: — In the neighborhood of Flintstone there is a con- 
siderable area of rather level bottom land which is in farms, and 
extends along the valley of Town Creek toward the Potomac, be- 
coming wider as the river is approached, the soil being mainly of 
weathered Komney shale. Along the edge of the woods, following 
the valley southward from Flintstone, the following species were 
recorded : 

Quercus acuminata 
Hicoria ovata 
Nyssa sylvatica 
Liriodendron tulipifera 
Tilia americana 
Vlmus americana 
Quercus alba 
Acer ruhrum 
Pinus strohus 
Quercus marylandica 
Tsuga canadensis 
Rohiuia pseudacacia. 


And iu the way of smaller growth the following plants were found: 

Corylus rostrata 
Amelancliier canadensis 
Hamamelis rirginiana 
Cornus florida 
Azalea nudi flora 
Ruhus odoratus 
Crategus sp. 
Sassafras sassafras 
.Kalmia latifolia 
Benzoin benzoin. 

The ferns include the following species: 

Polypodium vulgare 
Asplenium platyneuron 
Asplenium filix-foemina 
Dryopteris marginalis 
Adiantum pedatum 
Dryopteris novehoracensis 
Dryopteris spinulosa 
Phegopteris phegopteris. 

There were the usual herbaceous plants associateil with the more 
woody forms, and the following were noted as not infrequent : 

Uvularia perfoliata 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Lobelia cardinal is 
Meibomia nudiflora 
Vagnera racemosa 
Lobelia inflata 
Lobelia syphilitica 
Polygala verticiUala. 

To the northward from the same locality, there is a ridge of 
higher groimd which extends nearly or quite to the Pennsylvania 


line (Iron Ore Ridge) and upon the sandstone soil of this higher 
ground the more hardy plants were in predominance, such as are 
listed here: 

Pinus virginiaiia 
Pinus strobus 
Quercus alha 
Quercus priitus 
Quercus coccinea 
Rhododendron maxim urn 
Cunila origanoides 
Thaspium trifoliatum 
Trifolium arvense 
Pinus pungens 
Quercus nana 
Quercus marylandica 
Quercus reluiina 
Hicoria alba 
Acer nigrum 
Lacinaria squarrosa 
Phlox subulata 
Iloustonia purpurea. 

Just to the west of the village of Flintstone, a creek of the same 
name occupies the bottom of an irregular valley extending northwest- 
erly into the region of Bedford County, Pennsylvania. On the shale 
cliffs, along the lower half mile of this creek, there is a considerable 
scattering of Eed Cedar, and in the flood-plain nearby, there is a 
colony of half a dozen Willow Oaks. Both of these trees appear to 
be out of their natural habitat, the last particularly; but a little 
investigation indicates that the Oak at least, has probably been seeded 
by the overflow waters of the creek, depositing acorns picked up 
in some of the upper portions of its drainage basin, because the 
tree is recorded as rather common over the Pennsylvania line. 
Plaianus occideniaVis is rare, but occurs in the broader valley to the 

268 the plant life of maryland 

Cumberland Hills. 

Following tlie road toward Cumberland, after crossing the west 
valley, there is a hill known as Martin Mountain, npon the slope 
of which there is an outcrop of limestone. In the vicinity of this 
outcrop, the following species were noted : 

Pellaea atropurpurca 
Campiosorus rhizophyllus 
Saxifraga virginica 
Aquilegia canadensis 
Hydrangea arborescens 
Acer saccharinum 
Cercis canadensis 
Woodsia ohtusa 
Campanula americana 
Anemone virginiana 
Allium cermmm 
Asimina triloba 
Acer saccharum 
Sanguinaria canadensis. 

On account of the steepness of many of the stream valleys, the 
lower portion of the slopes are often damp and support a luxuriant 
vegetation, hut the species present are not often of conspicuous dif- 
ference from those of the somewhat dryer but otherwise similar 
habitats. The differences in the humidity are often shown in the 
development of the lower forms, like the Liverworts, Mosses, an<l 
damp soil Algae, especially of the blue-green group. Of the higher 
forms the low and moist places show such plants as Spathyema, 
Veratrum and Sagittaria or Alisma, although none of these are as 
common as in the localities at less elevations. 

Between Martin Mountain and Cumberland there is but little of 
note ; the region is a rolling one, with the more gentle slopes and 
tlie uplands tilled, the steeper slopes and the steep valleys in general 
left in forest. The rugged character of the country encourages the 
washing of the roadsides by the rains, and thus there is less of that 
type of vegetation through this territory than was the case to the 
east of Sideling Hill. As in the region discussed in connection with 


the Sideling Creek Valley, so here the vegetation of the roadside is 
largely of the forest plants, rather than of the farm weeds, there 
being but little of the turf noted in the Hagerstown Valley. The 
soil is too easily washed to develop a turf along the roads, and even 
in the fields it is not so easily produced as in the limestone soil of 
the eastern section. The general trend of the drainage in the areas 
discussed has been soiithward, with the side valleys of the main 
streams cutting into the long ridges. This characteristic of the 
drainage continues to the limit of the Midland Zone, at Wills Moun- 

Cumberland. — In the neighborhood of Cumberland the influence 
of the demand on the part of the coal mines for timber and small 
props is seen in the more numerous stripped hills and exposed slopes 
from which the forest cover has been removed. The great Georges 
Creek area of coal lies only a few miles to the west, and this locality 
has long been the distribviting point for the coal and for the mining 
supplies. There is not a great deal of good agricultural land in the 
vicinity, on account of the large amount of sandstone present over 
much of the area, while elsewhere the shale soil of the Romney 
formation furnishes almost equally poor farm land. 

Wills Mountain. — The great point of interest lies just west of 
the city, in the high ridge of Wills Mountain which is cut through 
by Wills Creek, both banks of the Creek being used as roadways 
to reach the country beyond. The Mountain is cleared for mucii 
of the distance from base to top on the eastern face, but as the 
west side is much steeper, and cannot be tilled, it remains in scat- 
tered forest, of such hardy trees as Rohinia pseud-acacia, Quercus 
■prinus, Quercus velutina, Pinus virginiana, Kalmia latifolia, Amel- 
ancliier canadensis, Pinus pungens and Quercus ruhi-a. 

In the way of herbaceous vegetation in the immediate vicinity of 
the Mountain, and the Creek banks, there are the following species, 
at times in some luxuriance as some small spring may bring the 
needed water into easy reach: 

BicucuUa eximia 
Mertensia virginica 
Viola pedata 
Sanguinaria canadensis 


Phlox suhulata 
Clayionia virginica 
Hepatica hepatica 
BicucuUa canadensis 
Chelidonium majus 
Syndesmon thalictroides 
Asarum. canadensis 
Capnoides flavulum 
Epigaea repens 
Aquilegia canadensis. 

The sandstone is coarse, and while the exjjosed summit is very 
dry and unfavorable to general vegetation, on the slopes, especially 
where there is an accumulation o£ talus, coarse and fine mixed to- 
gether, there is a good cover of vegetation. The finer material grad- 
ually Aveathers to soil, and the spaces between the rocks catch the 
leaves and debris from the larger plants, to add fei'tility to the more 
sandy portion. Percolating moisture supplies and maintains the 
water supply on the lower slopes, which it cannot conserve on the 
ex^wsed top. 


The area of the Upper Midland Province may for convenience 
in review be divided into (1) Parr's Ridge, (2) the Limestone Val- 
leys, (3) the Sandstone Ridges and (4) the Shale Ridges, and on 
this basis the points of the discussion may be summarized. 

The boundary line between the Upper and the Lower Disti'ict of 
the Midland Zone lies in the first Ridge discussed in the foregoing 
pages, but as Parrs Ridge offers nothing strikingly different in re- 
spect to soil and vegetation from the conditions to the east, and in 
the other portion of the Midland Province of which it is properly 
the topographic boundary, its bearing upon the LTpper Province may 
be given in a few words. 

Parr's Ridge Area. — Along the eastern boundary of the Upper 
Province the soils are derived to a large degree from the decomposi- 
tion of the rocks of volcanic or granite types with occasional valleys 
in limestone. The vegetation which is characteristic of this area is 






one in which the proportion of deep soil and humus plants is high, 
liaviiig a large proportion of Beech in those places where moisture 
conditions are such as to give the best development of both soil and 
vegetation. In the less favorable conditions, there is a tendency to 
produce a type of dry forest, typified in the Chestnut and Kock 
Oak forest, with a border growth of the Bear Oak. The first type 
is developed on the lower slopes, and bottoms of the many narrow 
valleys, or broader drainage slopes of the ridges, the latter is formed 
along the crests and upper portions of the valley sides, where there 
is but little moisture in the way of issuing springs, or soil water, 
and where the drying influence of wind and sun reaches its maxi- 
mum in the case of forest gTowth. The undergrowth is of a type 
similar to that in the ridges of the Lower Province, and needs no 
special mention. The roadsides are bordered with a turf of pas- 
ture grasses in many places, but in the localities of steep or rocky 
exposures there is little in the way of wild plants beyond the com- 
mon country weeds to retain tiie soil, or to interest the traveller in 
the wayside vegetation. 

Frederick Valley. — This is perhaps better called the Monocacy 
Valley; it includes the broad area of gentle ridges and shallow de- 
jjressions between the elevation of Parrs Bidge on the east, and that 
of Catoctin Mountain on the west. It contains in the way of soil 
characters, a wider variety than the j^receding section, but on ac- 
count of the extensive cultivation the region receives, it is less avail- 
able for botanical stiidy than the more wooded parts. Where there 
is forest cover present it is usually composed of nearly the same type 
of growth as before, but there is a larger quantity of Laurel in the 
undergrowth, and in the more moist places more of the Ash in the 

The value of the land for agricultural uses has made the clearing 
of it extensive, and there are not many areas of considerable size 
except in steep and inaccessible places, where the forest remains. 
The best areas of woodland are in the upper portion of the Valley, 
and here the composition is hardly different from that of the Parrs 
Ridge area. The roadside vegetation is almost a constant turf, 
largely of blue-grass, escaped from the adjacent agricultural land. 


but this is lacking in many places where the farms are scattered, 
and in woodland areas. There the finer kinds of the woodland 
grasses and sedges replace the blue-grass, and maintain a covered 
surface on the more level roadside. The other plants of the way- 
side are, to a considerable degree, the weeds which are distributed by 
the farmers in the course of their regular work of transportation of 
hay, or grain, and thus are most abundant near the more travelled 
roads, but actually growing in spots where there is not so great traf- 
fic or vigilance to keep them under control. In its characteristics 
the lower portion of the Monocacy Valley becomes a continuation 
of the larger one to the west, the Hagerstown Valley (Cumberland 

Hagerstown Valley. — The limestone rock which once occupied 
the region where this depression is now located has by its disintegra- 
tion and solution, left a soil of such composition that the agricul- 
tural uses are paramount, and but little has been left in forest. The 
wood lots where present are noteworthy on account of the large 
amount of the Black Locust present, and this tree is so well adapted 
to the highly calcareous soil that it is the common roadside tree 
throughout both this and the Monocacy limestone region. The turf 
of the road margins is better developed in this valley, as the condi- 
tions are more uniform. The forest when present is of Chestnut, 
Hickory, White Oak and the two Walnuts (Juglans nigra and 
Juglans cinerea). The slopes of the hills are not gullied by small 
washes as is the case in the next area, and are more gentle than those 
of the Parrs Eidge area. The general attitude is a nearly level one, 
enough slope existing for drainage, but not enough to make it a 
hilly country. 

Some areas of considerable extent have limestone outcrops so 
frequent as to exclude farm operations. Tree gi'owth is usually 
good, however, and in considerable variety. 

Sandstone Ridges. — The Blue Eidge, including the Catoctin and 
Elk Eidges, is the eastern one of this division, and owes its present 
height to the strata of sandstone at the crest. The slopes are usually 
moist and well covered with a mixed forest, including the better 
Oaks, Hickory, and Walnuts, with occasional Beeches, in general 
becoming poorer toward the top. 


The undergrowth is good and includes the forms common to the 
deep woodland of the Piedmont region, occasional orchids, vernal 
herbs of the Blood-root, and Hepatica types, mid-season plants like 
Porterantlius and Bubus and later vegetation like the Blazing-Star 
and Hawk-weed. The higher slopes and the summits are much 
dryer, and after fires may become much modified from the forest 
type of the uninjured areas. The normal areas produce the Rock 
Oak, Chestnut, Eed Oak, and Scrub Pine, mth a border growth of 
Bear Oak in much abundance, and occasional bushes of Chinquapin. 
In the depressions in the sandstone small areas of boggy ground are 
met with, which have a flora of the sandy bog type — Sundew, Peat- 
moss, and Bog Orchids, etc. The burned areas are covered Avith a 
scrub growth of the Bear Oak, Laurel, Brake, and Sweet Fern, re- 
lieved by scattered Scrub Pines, and Sassafras. Sugar Loaf Moun- 
tain is included here. Scrub Pine is an important element in re- 
forestations of shale lands. Sideling Hill, Round Top, and Wills 
Mountain, and to a less degree the top of ISTorth Mountain, form 
the other sandstone exposures in the shape of ridges. In the latter, 
however, the exposure is not so extensive as in the others, and has 
less influence upon the vegetation. The best example of this group 
is the Wills Mountain ridge, where there is a considerable difference 
in the fertility of the adjacent soils, and a higher degree of steep 
exposure of the sandstone stratum. On the broken slopes the forest 
Is not so greatly changed, but on the dry surface of the sandstone 
layers, there is a considerable increase in the amount of Scrub Pine, 
and decrease in the more useful timber trees. Chestnvit Oak or 
Rock Oak, and the Black Locust are prominent among the forest 
cover, and of the vernal plants, Mertensia and Dodocatheon are to 
be found, with the BicucuUa cucullaria and Bicuculla eximia in the 
deeper and more moist soils. The later plants are very largely of 
Goldenrods in mixed profusion, but mainly of the more common 

Shale Bidges. — These are found between North Mountain and 
Wills Mountain forming most of the lower, steep-sided and much 
gullied ridges. They are usually covered with a somewhat poor 
type of forest, the soils being too dry, and lacking in humus to 


become deep or retentive of moisture. The forests comprise two 
groups, according to the drainage conditions: (1) That on steep 
slopes, dominated by Pitch Pine and Chestnut Oak, with an abun- 
dant undergrowth of such dry ground vegetation as the Wild Indigo. 
(2) That of more gentle slopes, the White Oak becomes prominent, 
and the soil deeper and more valuable for all purposes. These soils 
wash badly, and are on this account best in their natural condition 
of forest. When the trees have been removed the poor quality of the 
soil for farming purposes brings it back to a condition for reforest- 
ing in a few years. 

The conditions of plant growth and distribution in the Upper 
Province of the Midland Zone are less different in the several natural 
divisions into which the topography divides the region than might 
have been expected. This uniformity seems to be produced by the 
repetition of the same general conditions at intervals within the area, 
and to the comparatively slight change in elevation and rainfall 
between the eastern and the western members of similar types of soil 
or topographic conditions. Thus the valleys rise from 190 feet above 
tide at the mouth of the Monocacy, near the eastern limit of the dis- 
trict to 610 feet at the mouth of Wills Creek, close to its western 
limit, a rise of only 420 feet in the 148 miles or about the same 
difference as that between the Gunpowder Eiver at Loch Raven 
(near the dam), and the head of Beaverdam Eun on the east slope 
of Chestnut Eidge, west of Cockeysville, a distance of a dozen miles. 

The differences in elevation between the bounding ridges is of the 
same gentle character. Parr's Eidge, at Westminster, being aboiit 
1000 feet above tide, and Wills Mountain 1690 feet above the bed of 
Wills Creek, near Cumberland, a difference of about 700 feet in the 
distance between the limits of the area considered. When similar 
soil or topographic conditions are repeated within the limits of so 
small variations, there is not a great deal of change needed on the 
part of the vegetation to keep pace with any differences that may 
locally modify the general type of habitat. The presence of a spring 
may produce more difference in the space of a dozen rods about its 
opening, than the broader conditions give in the greater area included 
in this discussion. 




The Mountain Zone has not nearly so great a diversity of vegeta- 
tion as the Coastal Zone, having borne in its virgin state a continu- 
ous covering of forest without meadows or bogs, and without cliffs 
or extensive rock out-crops. The several types of forest occurring 
in the Mountain Zone are, however, more distinct from each other 
than those of any other part of the state, and three of them are 
chiefly made up of tree species which are either absent or much less 
common in the Midland Zone. The floristic distinctness of the Zone 
lies both in the presence of species not found in the remainder of the 
state, and in the absence of species found throughout the other Zones. 
The former species, which are listed in Part II, are, — as there 
pointed out, — either plants of wide range in the north which extend 
south along the Alleghanies, or are confined to the AUeghanies. The 
number of Alleghanian species reported from both Pennsylvania 
and Virginia, but not collected in Maryland indicates that the list 
of 27 species given may be considerably extended by further search 
in Garrett County, particularly along the highest mountain ridges. 
It has not been possible to explore all parts of the Zone at all seasons 
of the year with sufBcient thoroughness to prepare a reasonably com- 
])lete list of the Coastal and Midland species which are absent. The 
list given in Part II is therefore chiefly made up of trees. 

Many of the species involved in the distinctiveness of the Moun- 
tain Zone are commion and characteristic in their respective habitats 
or of very striking appearance, a good number of them, indeed, being 
forest trees. Among the more notable of these are the Tamarack 
{Larix laricina), the Black Spr\ice (Picea mariana), the Striped 


Maple (Acer pennsylvanicum) , the Mountain Ash (Sorhus ameri- 
cana), the Yew (Taxus minor), the Flame Azalea (Azalea lutea), 
the Ilobble-bnsh (Viburnum alnifoliiim), and others. Among the 
species of the Midland Zone which are absent are several trees abun- 
dant in flood plains and on the banks of streams, as the Buttonwood 
(Platanus occidentalis), the Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum) , the 
American Elm (JJlmus americana) and others. 

A few small tracts of virgin forest have been spared in the Moun- 
tain Zone, and so recent has been the clearing of the larger areas that 
something may be learned by hearsay of the character and com- 
position of their stands of merchantable trees. Even in the present 
condition of the forests it is possible to detect differences in occur- 
rence and distribution of the tree species due primarily to the topo- 
graphic factors, and in a less degi-ee to the influence of soil texture. 

Curran* has investigated the forests of Garrett County, and recog- 
nized four major types of forest, the Ridge, Slope culled and cut- 
over and Swamp types, the distribution of which he has indicated by 
means of a map. The Ridge and Swamp types are designated here 
by the same names, the Slope type is distinguished as the Rocky 
Slope type. 

Of the seven forest types which will be described in this paper the 
one which would be considered the highest from the standjjoint tif 
physiographic ecology is that which occupies the lower slopes of the 
main mountain ridges and the smaller hills. It is found throughout 
the district and in the virgin state of the country was one of the 
commonest types. The presence of a deep soil with an abundant 
accumulation of humus material, added to conditions of soil mois- 
ture which approach the optimum for forest trees, makes the Slope 
habitat rich in tree species, all of which are deciduous, and particu- 
larly rich in its herbaceous flora. 

The Ridges are much poorer in species of trees and in herbaceous 
vegetation than the Slopes, having a stand made up chiefly of the 
Chestnut (Castanea dentata) and Chestnut Oak (Quercus prinus). 
The type reaches its greatest distinctness on the summits of Big 
Savage, Great Backbone and Meadow mountains. The writea* has 

*Curran, H. M. The Forests of Garrett County. Maryland Geological 
Survey, Garrett County. 1904, pp. 303-329. 


been told that there was little differeuce between the virgin forest of 
the slopes and ridges of the larger mountains. This may have been 
true of the extreme ridges when compared with the upper slopes, but 
cannot have been true of the ridges and the middle and lower slopes. 

Over the gentlv rolling plateau which extends north-easterly and 
south-westerly from Oakland and over the more level portions of the 
north-western corner of Garrett County there are two types of forest 
which are not greatly different as respects their tree species but 
which are unlike in their herbaceous floras, the types which respec- 
tively occupy the Loams and the Sands, ^feither of these is known 
to the writer in the virgin state, indeed they occupy the areas which 
have been most thoroughly lumbered and most' encroached upon by 
the clearing of farming lands. The loam forest is deciduous, being 
chiefly made up of White Oak and Black Oak. The forest of the 
Sands is made up of Wliite Oak, other oaks and a considerable per- 
centage of Pitch Pine, and is found overlying the sandstones of the 
Allegheny, Conemaugh, and Pottsville formations. 

On the steep lower slopes of mountains where the soil is thin or 
occurs only in pockets in the rocks, and also along the rocky banks 
of rivers is found a coniferous type of forest in which the Hemlock 
is the predominant tree. In some localities these Eocky Slopes and 
tlie soil-covered Slopes merge into each other, giving a mixed decidu- 
ous and coniferous forest, as at several localities along the Castleman 

In the deep soils of the bottoms of broad valleys and on flood- 
plains there were formerly pure stands of White Pine, occupying 
situations which are locally known as "Glades." One of these forests 
situated about half way between Frostburg and Grantsville was 
traversed by the National Poad and was known to the early settlers, 
by reason of the dense shade, as "The Shades of Death." Although 
no pure stands of virgin White Pine are left, the writer has seen a 
small tract of White Pine and Black Spruce in which the herbaceous 
and other subordinate vegetation was identical with that on the 
Pocky Slopes. 

In the mountain Swamps there is a coniferous type of forest made 
up chiefly of Black Spruce, with some Hemlock and, in two locali- 
ties, the Tamarack as well. There was formerly an extensive area 


of Swamp forest four miles north-east of Thayerville, and small 
tracts of it have been examined by the writer at Thayerville, Cranes- 
ville and near Finzel. A large numlicr of boreal species of her- 
baceous plants which find their southern limit in Maryland or Vir- 
ginia occur only in or about the Swamps and the Bogs which now 
occupy some of the cleared Swamp areas. 

The only cultural habitats of ecological interest are the cleared 
bottom lands, or Meadows, formerly occupied by "Glade" forest, 
which now, if uncultivated for several years, liear a rich and varied 
stand of sun-loving palustrinc plants. 


The forest typical of Slopes has been examined at Swanton, Kelso 
Gap and Conway Hill on Great Backbone Mountain ; west of Frost- 
burg and west of ilidlothian on Big Savage Mountain ; and at Eoman 
Jfose Mountain, five miles north of Oakland. 

Lumbermen state that the White Oak Avas the predominant tree of 
the virgin forest of the Slopes, where it reached a maximum height 
of 125 to 150 feet, giving clean trunks 100 feet long. This height 
was undoubtedly attained by many of tlie subordinate trees, although 
there are now no second gTowtli stands in which the height of the 
forest canopy exceeds 75 feet. The White Oak is still the commonest 
tree, occurring in varying percentages, but nowhere forming as much 
as half tlie stand. The commonest subordinate species, which are 
about equally abundant, arc the Linden, the Cucumber Tree, the 
Sugar Maple, the Sweet Birch, the Red Oak, and the Shagbark 
Hickory. The abundance of these six species is one of the princijial 
characteristics of the forests of the Slopes, for no one of them is so 
common in any other habitat in the state. Much less frequent than 
the preceding are the Butternut, the Scarlet Oak, the Chestnut Oak, 
the Chestniit, the Wild Black Cherry and the Pignut Hickory. The 
Butternut is not so common here as in similar forests in the Upper 
Midland, and the Chestnut Oak and Chestnut are much more abun- 
dant on the ridges. The absence of tlie Tulip Tree (Liriodendron 
twliplfcra), which is rare in tlio ilountain Zone, is particularly 
notable, as it is found altundantly in just such habitats in the Mid- 






land Zone. Coniferous trees are absent except where the thin soil 
of lower slopes favors the occurrence of occasional individuals of the 
Hemlock. The tree species of subordinate importance are the Stri2>ed 
Maple, the Beech, the Sassafras, the Hornbeam, the Mountain Maple, 
the Black Oak and the Serviceberry. The most frequent shrubs in 
the Slop.e forests are: 

Hamamelis virginiana 
Hydrangea arborescpns 
Vaccinium raciUaiis 
Cornus alternifolia 
Yihurnum acerifoUum 
Spiraea corymbosa 
DierviUa diervilla 
Rhododendron maximum 
Eibes rotundifolium. 

The absence of the I'lowering Dogwood from the ^lountaiu Zone is 
particularly noticeable in this habitat ; its place in the physiognomy 
of the vegetation being taken by Cornus alternifolia, which is infre 
quent in the Midland Zone. The shrubs are scattering in the midst 
of the forest, but abundant in openings and along the margins. 

The floor of the forest occupying deep-soiled Slopes is extremely 
rich in herbaceous plants, both in individuals and species, — indeed 
there is no habitat in the state, of any character, which has a larger 
flora. Several of the species of herbaceous plants peculiar to the 
Mountain Zone are fo\ind here, and a much larger number whicli 
occiir very rarely in the Soil-covered Slopes of the Lower Midland 
District are abundant or conunon. The only species which are con- 
spicuously abundant as compared with others are Osmunda clayton- 
iana and Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia. As one moves from 
place to place in the forest the impression is given tliat an cxa-'t 
census of several small areas would give about the same figures in 
each case for the relative abimdance of the following species: 

Hydrophyllum virginicum 
Ansaema triphyllum 
Trillium erectum 
Wash ington ia longisfylis 


Geranium macidatum 
Aster divaricatus 
Disporum lanuginosvm 
Adiantum pedal idh 
Brachyelytruni erecium 
Uvidaria sessdifolia 
Cypripedium parviflorum 
Medeola virginiana 
Aster cordifoUus 
Eupatorium ageratoides 
Galium lanceolafum 
Unifolium, canadense 
Hepatica triloba 
Podophyllum peltatum 
Dryopteris marginalis 
Adicea pumila 
Sy7i desmon th a 1 ictro ides 
Peramium pubesceiis 
Campanula americana 
Botrychium virginianum 
Parthenocissiis quinque folia 
Silene stellata 
Aquilegia canadensis 
Cimicifuga racemosa 
Juncoides campestre 
Phryma leptostachya 
Monarda punctata 
Ph egopteris dryopteris 
Geum canadense 
Vrticastrum divaricafutit 
Dioscorea villosa 
Asplenium filix-foeni i na 
Circaea lutetiana 
Mitelta diphylla 
Wasliingtonia clayton i 
Actaea alha 
Collinsonia canadensis 


Viola canadensis 
Anemone virginiana 
Falcata comosa. 

Less abundant than the above and more sporadic in their occiiv- 
renee are the following: 

Solidago monticola 
Carex platyphylla 
CaulopliyUum thalictroides 
Smilacina raceviosa 
Aralia nudicaidis 
Asarum canadense 
Erythronium amencaninn 
Oxalis acetosella 
Polemonium reptans 
Streptopus roseus 
Bicuculla canadensis 
Jeffersonia diphylla 
Dentaria diphylla 
Sanicula gregaria 
Thalesia imiflora 
Cypripedium puhescciis 
Cypripedium parvifloni ni 
Panax quinquefolium 
Asclepias quadrifolia 
TriUium undulatum 
Conopholis americana. 

Around sjDriugs and along small streams are to be found a number 
of herbaceous plants, some of which do not occur elsewhere in the 
Slope forest, a few of which are not known elsewhere in the State. 
The most common of these are Urticastrum dioaricatum, Adicea 
pumila, Tmpatiens hiflora and Chelone glabra. One of the most 
showy plants of the Mountain Zone, Monarda didyma, is found only 
in this habitat, its brilliant scarlet flowers being very striking amid 
the sombre surroundings. Other characteristic species are Calthn 
palnstris, Saxifraga pennsylvanica, Saxifraga micro nthid if oha. 


Traidvetteria carolinensis, Arabis canadensis and C'iniicifuga amer- 
icana. The last of these is an nnconmion Alleghanian species closely 
resemhling- the frequent and wide-spread Cimicifinja raremosa. 


The Ridge type of forest has been seen by the wi-iter at several 
localities along the summit of Great Backbone Mountain and Big 
Savage ^Mountain in Garrett County, and on the summit of Piney 
Mountain in Allegany County. The type is described by Curraii 
and is indicated on his map of the forest types of the county as 
extending also along the summits of Negro and Meadow mountains. 

This habitat is poor in tree species, being made up predominantly 
of Chestnut, Chestnut Oak, and Red Oak, which together form 75% 
to 90% of the stand of the second growth forests which now alone 
represent the Ridge type. The trees of secondary abundance are the 
AVhite Oak, Shagbark Hickory, Black Oak, Sweet Birch, Sassafras, 
Cucumber Tree and Linden, — the last two of which are uncommon. 
There is no sharp line of demarcation between the Ridge and Slope 
types, the former passes gradually into the latter on the upper slopes 
of the mountains, as may be seen in descending the road which leads 
from the summit of Backbone Mountain down to Swanton. The 
Ridge forest recalls strikingly the forests of the gravel hills of the 
Lower Midland District, both in the abundance of the Chestnut and 
Chestnut Oak, and in the herbaceous vegetation. On Piney Moun- 
tain this resemblance is more close than on the mountains of Garrett 
County, due to ,the almost pure stand of the two trees mentioned. 
The shrubs characteristic of the Ridge forest are: Vaccinium 
stamineum; Gaylussacia resinosa, Vaccinium vacillans, Ribes cynos- 
bati and Crataegus "punctata. Kalmia latifolia, which is so abundant 
in the Gravel forests, is uncommon on the Ridges of the Mountain 
Zone, preferring the Rocky Slope forests. 

Among the most common herbacenus plants may lie mentidncd: 

Eupatorium ageratoides 
Aster sagittifolius 
Poteniilla canadensis 
Veronica officinalis 


Eatonia nitida 
GauUheria frocumhcns 
Galium lanceolatmn 
Lacinaria scariosa 
Doellingeria umheJIafa 
Geranium maculatum 
Aralia nudicaulis 
Silene stellafa 
Porteranthvs irifolkifus 
Lysimachia quadrifolia 
Hedeoma pulegioides 
Pteris aquilina 
Pedicularis caiwdmsis 
Aralia racemosa 
Panicum capiUare 
Solidago hicolor 
Angelica villosa 
Hieracium paniculatum 
Washingtonia longistylis 
Dasystoma laevigata 
Asclepias quadrifolia 
Pogonia verticillata 
Polygala verticillata 
Hieracium venosum. 

At, many places along the summit of Great Backbone Mountain 
the soil overlying the sandstone rock is thin, and at other places rock 
outcrops and gigantic boulders completely occupy the svirface. On 
the boulders and in their crevices grow stunted trees of Sweet Birch 
and Mountain Ash. Such a habitat for Mountain Ash is particularly 
surprising as the tree is elsewhere in the Zone found only in the 
Glade and Swamp forests. Equally striking here is the occurrence of 
Impatiens aurea commonly found only in flood plains and meadows, 
and nowhere so common in the Mountain Zone as it is in the Mid- 
land. It is probable that the porous sandstone boulders serve as 
reservoirs of water which is fed out into the crevices, thus favoring 
the occurrence of hygrophilous plants in a habitat which would ap- 


pear to be hostile to them. Growing rooted in mosses on top of the 
honlders or in their crevices is found Capnoides semper virens, 
which occurs only in just such situations here, and in the Blue Ridge 
and in Baltimore County, near Warren. Other plants common on 
cr among the boulders are: 

Sambucus pubens 
Ilamamelis virgin ia na 
Hydrangea arborescens 
Acer spicatum 
Ribes cynosbati 
Eubus odoratus 
Aster acuminaius 
Tiarella cordifolia 
Polypodium vulgare 
Umbilicaria sp. 


LoAJis. — The vegetation of the loam soils of the central valley of 
the Garrett County plateau is known to the writer only from an 
examination of cut-over forests in the vicinity of Oakland, where 
the White Oak is the predominant tree, forming 75% to 90% of the 
stand. In the virgin forests of the loam soils there was doubtless a 
larger pei'centage of the species which are now subordinate : i. e. the 
Red Oak, the Black Oak, the Shagbark Hickory, the Chestnut, the 
Pignut Hickory, the Scarlet Oak, the Eed Maple, the Sweet Birch 
and the Hornbeam. 

The shrubby vegetation is predominantly made up of Quercus 
nana and Taccinium stamineum, together with Gaylussacia dumosa, 
Corylus americana, Cornus candidissima, Ehiis copallina and Cra- 
iaegus uniflora. In the most open cut-over stands the herbaceous 
plants are almost identical with those of the Kidges. In the older 
second growth stands, sueli as those in the vicinity of Deer Park 
niav ln' seen : 

Solidago hicolor 
Pedicularis canadensis 
Nabalus alhus 


Dasystonia laevigata 
Angelica viUosa 
Aster sagittifolius 
Hieracium scabrum 
Antemiaria plantaginifolia 
Potentilla canadensis 
Geranium maculaium 
Aralia nudicaulis 
Doellingeria umhellaia 
Hieracium paniculatitm 
AndroTpogon furcatus 
Aster laevis 
Uvularia perfoUata 
Dasystoma virginica 
Zizia cordata 
Mehmpynnn amcricainim 
SmiJax hispida 
Gyrostachys cernua 
Gentiana andrewsii 
Chrysopogon avenaceiis 
Dioscorea villosa 
Aralia raceniosa 
Hystrix liystrix 
Castilleja coccinea 
Senecio halsamitae 
Chamaelirium luteum 
Lycopodium complanaium 
Aster concinnus 
Pyrola eUiptica 
Hovstonia coerulea 
Pimpinella integerrima 
Asclepias quadrifolia 
Helianthus divaricatus 
Apocynum androsaemifoliui 
Lobelia spicata 
Kneiffia punxila 
Washingtonia longistylis 
A ch roan til es monoph yJhi . 


Sands. — The forest of the Sands has been studied chiefly in the 
portion of Garrett County lying west of the Youghiogheny Kivei-. 
Like the Loam type it now exists only in the cut-over condition, in 
M'hich it is not so distinct from the Loam forests in its tree species 
as it is in its herbaceous flora, which comprises many of the plants 
common on sandy soils in the Coastal Zone. The soil is deep but 
full of sandstone boulders. The same deciduous species occur as in 
the Loam forest, \\dth White Oak predominant; and Pitch Pine, 
forming a small percentage of the stand, is distinctly characteristic 
of the t^pe. Along streams in the Plateau Sand forests Black 
Gum, Ked Maple and Winter-berry are moi-e common than else- 
where in the Mountain Zone, recalling the Stream Swamps of the 
Eastern Shore. 

The shrubby vegetation is likewise quite similar to that of the 
Loam forests, having in addition: Aronia arhutifolia, Viburnum den- 
tatum, Salix tristis, Comptonia peregrina. 

The herbaceous vegetation of this type embraces: 

GauUlieria procumhens 
Mitchella repens 
Pteris aquilina 
Andropogon furcatus 
Baptisia tinctoria 
Hieracium scabrum 
Meibomia nudiflora 
Koellia flexuosa 
Sarothra gentianoides 
Aster ericoides 
Lupinus perennis 
Cracca virginiana 
Epigaea repens 
lonacfis linariifollus 
Lespedeza hirta 
Aster sagittifolias 
Polygala verticillata 
Sisyrincliium gramin o ides 
Hieracium panicidatiim 



f. i 


Comandra umhellata 
Hypoxia hirsuta 
Habenaria ciliaris 
Cypripedium acaule 
Dicksonia punctilohuJa 
Juncus dichotoimts 
PolygaJa viridescens 
Ryncliospora glomeraia. 

Rocky Slopes. 

The Eocky Slope type of forest occurs throughout the Mountain 
Zone in tracts of limited size. It has been examined in its virgin 
state at Boiling Spring and Swallow Falls. It formerly existed 
along the banks of the Youghiogheny, Castleman and Savage rivers 
and in isolated groves at the heads of smaller tributary streams. 
The dominant tree is the Hemlock, which forms 75% to 90% of the 
stand. The circumstances under which the lumbering of the orginal 
tracts took place has rendered the conditions extremely unfavorable 
for the reseeding of Hemlock, and the writer does not recall having 
seen any second groArth forest of this type. The principal deciduous 
species in the forest are Yellow Birch, Red Maple and Sugar Maple. 
Relatively infrequent are the Beech, the White Oak, the Butter-nut, 
the Linden and the Yellow Birch. 

In some parts of the Rocky Slope forests, particularly along 
streams, the undergTowth of Rhododendron maximum forms dense 
thickets which are very difficult to penetrate, in other places the 
floor of the forest is almost clear of shrubs and carpeted by snuill 
herbaceous plants, mosses and hepatics. In addition to Rhododen- 
dron, Kahnia lalifolia is abundant. Viburnum alnifoUum, a striking 
shrub with large leaves resembling those of the Linden, is frequent 
in these forests but not found elsewhere in the state. Sambucus 
pubens is also frequent, and in pockets of deep soil the prostrate 
shrub Taxus minor is not unconnnon, resembling the Hemlock very 
strongly in the appearance of its foliage. Less freqiient are Men- 
ziesia pilosa, Diervilla diervUla and Lonicera ciliata. 


While the herbaceous vegetation is not rich in species it is ex- 
tremely so in individuals. Oxalis acetosclla and Mitchella repens 
may form a continuous carpet for many square yards. Daliharda 
7-epens, Unifolium canadense and Circaea alpina are also gregarious 
and extremely abundant. Other characteristic species are Dryop- 
teris spimdosa var. intermedia, Phegopteris phegoptevis, Aster divan- 
catus, Heuchera pubescens, Ruhus liispidus, Waldstcina fragarioidos, 
Trillium erectum, Adaea alba, and Lycopodium liicidulum. Infre- 
quent in the Rocky Slope forests, but not known outside them in 
the state are Habenaria bracteata, Habenaria orbiculata and Ilepat- 
ica acuta. The fallen logs and open places in the forest floor are 
closely covered with the mosses Thuidium, Mnium and Bryum, 
v.'ith the hepatics Bazzania and Sea pan ia or the lichen Peltigera. 


The Glade type of forest was a nearly pure stand of White Pine, 
with a small admixture of Black Spruce, Yellow Birch, Wild Black 
Cherry and Mountain Ash. The dense shade of the floor made the 
shrubby vegetation scant, while the herbaceous plants appear to have 
been much the same as those already mentioned as being character- 
istic of the forests of Rocky Slopes. In the small areas of Glade 
examined the following herbs were noted: 

Oxalis acetosella 
Mitchella repens 
Panicularia nervata 
Osmunda claytoniana 
liubus liispidus 
Vagnera racemosa 
Unifolium canadense 
Viola cucullata 
Carex hystricina 
Dalibarda repens 
CaWia palustris 
Dryoptet'is spinulosa. 

maryland weather service 289 


The Swamp type of forest has been examined at Wolf Gap, neai- 
Finzel, at Thayerville and Cranesville, at each of which localities 
there are small groves of virgin or old second growth trees. The 
Swamp forest is distinctly coniferous, with the Black Spruce the 
predominant tree and the White Pine, the Hemlock and Tamarack 
the ijrincipal secondary si^ecies. The Black Spruce forms 60% to 
75% of the stand ; the Pine and Hemlock together, 15% to 20% ; 
the Tamarack is found at Cranesville and is abundant at Thayer- 
ville, but is not known elsewhere in the Zone. The White Spruce 
(Picea rubra) is reported for Garrett County by Curran, but has 
not been seen there by the writer. The deciduous trees in the 
Swamps are the Yellow Birch, the Red Maple, the Moimtain Ash 
and the Black Ash. 

Among very dense stands of spruce there is little shrubby vege- 
tation, the saturated gTound is covered with beds of Sphagnum, 
Polyirichum, Thuidium and Bazzania, and there are scattered plants 
of Osmunda cinnamomea, Spathyema foetida, Dalibarda repens, 
Carex folliculata, Osmunda regalis, UnifoJium canadense, Viola 
sagittata, Trillium erectuni and Habenaria clavellata. Where 
streams traverse the swamps or where the stand of trees is more open 
there are dense thickets of Rhododendron maximum. Other abundant 
shrubs are Alniis rugosa. Viburnum cassinoides, Aronia nigra. Ilex 
verticillaia, Ilicioides mucronata and Benzoin benzoin. Taxus 
minor also occurs on moist but not on saturated soil. In the Swamps 
at Cranesville and Tliayei"ville the following herbaceous plants, in 
addition to those named above, are common : 

Impafiens bi flora 
Chelone glabra 
Chrysosplenium amerlcanum 
Veratrum viride 
Thalictruin dioicum 
Galium triflorum 
Panicularia nervaia 
Eupaforium purpureum 


Rubus liispidus 
Dryopteris spinulosa 
Dryopteris cristata 
Mimulus ringens 
CaJilia paJustris. 

The Swamp at Wolf Gajj near Finzel is chiefly of second growth 
and has more deciduous trees in its make-up than the Cranesville and 
Thayerville Swamps. All of the plants thus far named have been 
seen at Finzel excepting the Tamarack and Ta.rus minor and Ilici- 
oides mucronata. Additional species to those named above are 
Aronia atropurpitrea, Asfer acuminatus. Polemonium reptans, 
Oronfiinn aquaticum, CaUlia fhihcllifoUa . CUntoiiia boreaUs. 


The Bogs of the ]\Iountain Zone are all situated near areas of 
Swamp or Glade forest, or in places where these forests formerly 
stood. At Finzel, Thayerville and Cranesville there are typical 
Bogs, and others ha^-e been examined between Oakland and Crellin 
and between Oakland and Deer Park. All of the Bogs bear immis- 
takable evidence of formerly having been forested, presumably by 
Spruce and White Pine, and the encroachment upon them of shrubs, 
chiefly Alders and seedling trees, chiefly Red Maple, indicates that 
they will rapidly return to forest if undisturbed. In the virgin 
Swamp forests there were probably narrow belts of Bog along the 
streams which traversed them, or perhaps around their edges on the 
transition line between the Swamp and the Upland. The clearing 
of the Swamps would result in the occupation of the bare floor by a 
continuous covering of Spliar/nu)ii. into which the characteristic Bon- 
plants AvoTild migrate from the areas already present. 

Tlie tyi^ical Bogs of the northern United States arc usually found 
around glacial lakes or in depressions formerly occupied by lakes 
wliich have been filled by the accnniulatidu of Sphagnum. Since the 
topography of the Mountain Zone presents no such habitat favoring 
the development of Bogs it is not surprising to find them limited in 
occurrence and size. The species whieli are ilominant in the northern 








Bogs and characteristic of tlieiu are far less commou, if not absent, 
south of the glaciated region. But few of these, indeed, are found 
in the Bogs of the Mountain Zone, — a less number than are found 
in the bogs of the Western Shore district of the Coastal Zone. 

The characteristic species in the Bogs of Garrett County which 
are also abundant in bogs in the glaciated portion of ISTorth America 
arc: Erioplioruin virginicum, Bubus hispidus, Oxy coccus macro- 
carpus, Drosera rotundifolia. Dryopteris thelypteris, Habenaria 
clavellaia, Triadenum rirf/iiiicuin. Dulirliium. anindinaceuin and 
Osmunda regalis. 

These shrubs characteristics of the Bogs are Alnus rugosa, Alnus 
incana, Ilicioidcs mucroncda. Tier vcrticillata. Azalea viscosa and 
Hypericum densiflorum. Ollior herbaceous species are Solidago 
monticoJa. Gentiana linearis, Scirpus cyperinus, Carex atlantica, 
Dryopteris crisiaia, Carex baileyi, CaUha palustris, Hypericum 
canadciisc. Dryopteris spiiiidnsa and Foi/oiiid nphioglossoides. 


The floristic history of the ^lonntain Zone has been similar to 
that of the Midland. There have been climatic fluctuations since 
Tertiary time that were of the same amplitude as those to which the 
Midland District was siibjected but their maximal and minimal 
points were lower. This has resulted in a less invasion of the Moun- 
tain Zone hj southern forms, and the persistence of numerous 
northern forms. 

Although the main oiitlines of the topography of the Mountain 
Zone are old and topographic development has gone on well toward 
maturity in many localities, yet the elevation and the differential 
weathering of the underlying rocks has prevented a maturing of the 
topography of the Zone as a whole. The jiresence of the great moun- 
tain ridges and of the long valleys with horizontal floors has main- 
tained a diversity in the vegetation far greater than that of the 
Lower Midland District. 

In the relatively level valleys the influence of the physical char- 
acter (jf the luiderlying rock is shown through its determination of 
the character of the soil, while in all other situations topography 


plays a more important role in determining the vegetation, being 
responsible for the distinctions of Ridge, Slope, Glade and Swamp. 
The character of the Ridges will not be lost until they are worn well 
down toward the level of the Valleys, when they will pass through 
the slope stage to that of the Valleys, when, for the first time in their 
history, the influence of the subjacent rock will be manifested, sand- 
stone soil supporting the Sand type and shale soil the Loam type. 
The weathering of the Rocky Slopes and the carrying of erosion 
materials down onto them will make them approach the soil-covered 
Slopes in character. The silting up of the Swamps will lead to the 
invasion of them by Glade forest, which may be in turn invaded 
by the Valley type, although little evidence of such invasion has 
been observed. 








It ^vas one of the initial purposes of the botanical exploration of 
Maryland to discover what relations there may be between the spon- 
taneous vegetation of a particular geological or soil formation, or 
a particular topographic feature, and the agricultural capabilities of 
the same area. To what extent does the character and composition 
of a forest or the occurrence of particular tree species give indication 
of what crops may be expected to succeed upon the land if cleared, 
or upon nearby land of the same character ? What indication is 
given by the occurrence of particular native or introduced plants, 
particularly weeds and grasses, as to the capabilities of the land upon 
which they grow; and when those capabilities are discovered how 
surely may the relation there existing be taken as a sure indication 
of the same relation holding elsewhere in the state? It has been 
said that many of the settlers in early colonial days chose the loca- 
tions for their homes and cleared the virgin forest in accordance 
with the promise which the natural vegetation gave of the soil being 
deep and rich. This is coiToborated by the fact that throughoiit 
Maryland the oldest and largest holdings of land are the ones that 
are most responsive to tillage and most productive, while the small- 
er holdings of the recent settlers occupy land which is stony, sandy, 
poorly drained or otherwise undersirable. It goes without saying 
that the uniform and intelligent treament of the large holdings has 
served to improve the texture of their soils and to prevent the ex- 
haustion of their fertility, but there is much evidence, particularly 
on the Eastern Shore, that the virgin forest did give indication of 
the character of the underlying soil and hence its cultural capabil- 
ities, and that the practice of the settlers was well groimded. It is 
also true that at the present day farmers frequently judge the char- 


aeter of a piece of land by tlie weeds growing on it, — the presence of 
and abundance of the Great Mullein ( Verbascum thapsus) or Slieep 
Sorrel (Bumex acetosella) , for example, being sufficient to condemn 
a field as poor, or at least in a "run down" condition. 

Before entering into an examination of the manner in which the 
common dependence of spontaneous and cultivated plants upon the 
external factors of climate and soil may cause a relation between the 
character of the two, it may be well to review the present condition 
of tlie vegetation of the state as compared with that which it orig- 
inally bore, in order to obtain a proper conception of the comparative 
validity of the several methods of estimating the cultural value of 

The occurrence of forest over the state at large is due to those 
far reaching but fundamental climatic factors, temj^erature and rain- 
fall, which are of such a character as to favor this highest type of 
l^lant formation throughout eastern North America. Only in the 
grassy marshes bordering the salt estuaries and in the sands of the 
coastal bars are local conditions of soil so marked and so hostile to 
tree growth as to give rise in the former case to a grassland and in 
the latter to a desert-like condition. Cultivaton has replaced the 
primeval forests with fields and with second and third growths of 
timber. The difference between a piece of virgin forest and a wood- 
lot such as may be found on almost every farm, is profound and 
striking. In the former the largest trees tower to a height of 100 
feet or more, trees of smaller stature and less demand for light crowd 
the space between the larger trees, here the shnibby vegetation is 
sparse and the forest floor darkened by the dense tree-tops above it, 
in another spot are impenetrable tiiickets of Rhododendron, Laurel 
or Bayberry. On the ground or on the fallen tnmks of forest giants 
are dense carpets of shade-loving herbaceous plants or mosses or 
hepatics. The neighboring wood lot may contain much tlie same 
assemblage of trees and shrubs ns flip virgin growth, but the stature 
of the trees is much loss and nsnally tlio greater openness of the 
canopy results in a much di-icr condition of the forest floor with a 
corresponding alteration in the lierbaceous vegetation. The differ- 
ence between virgin and second growth forests lies, then, not so 
much in differences in tlie actual species found in both as in tlie 


general appearance of the plant assemblage and the relative abun- 
dance of the species involved. There are nevertheless a few small 
plants foimd only in the shade of deep forests which seem to be dis- 
appearing as the virgin forests are destroyed, notably the Small 
Enchanter's Nightshade {Circaea alpma) and the Twin Flower 
(Linnaea borealis). On the other hand the clearing and ciiltivation 
of the country with all its attendant activities has brought about the 
introduction from Europe, South America, our Western States and 
elsewhere of a very large number of plants, most of which have be- 
come a permanent part of our flora. These introduced plants belong 
chiefly, though not entirely, to the class which we designate as 
Vv'eeds, and owe their introduction and persistence to a high faculty 
of withstanding adverse conditions of soil moisture and to a high 
degree of adaptability to varying external conditions. As these 
introduced members of our flora have found their way here they have 
taken up as habitats the fields and other cultivated grounds, road- 
sides and waste places, so that the plant assemblages which they form 
are separate from the assemblages of native plants, whether or not 
these are modified by man. It is very necessary in the study of a 
highly cultivated area like Maryland to keep in view the modifi- 
cations in the plant-life due to man. The number of species actu- 
ally exterminated are few if any; the number introduced is large 
but we know just which ones they are and, — with a few exceptions, — 
they are distributed throughout the state. So far as concerns the 
flora of the state, then, cultivation has made no change save a con- 
siderable addition of species. As concerns the vegetation of the 
state, however, the changes have been profound. 

The attempt has been made in the foregoing chapters to give some 
notion of the character of the original vegetation of the various parts 
of the state, so far as that may be reconstructed from the plant cov- 
ering of today. The observation and study of vegetation has cen- 
tered about virgin and other old growths of forest, swamps, marshes, 
bogs, dunes and beaches, because it is only in such habitats that one 
may find native plants in their natural relation to external con- 
ditions and to each other. Inasmuch as every plant which is grow- 
ing and reproducing has necessarily found conditions which are more 
or less congenial to it, no matter by what means it came to be grow- 


ing in that spot or in what relation it stands to the phmts mth 
which it is associated, it would appear at first thought that the 
introduced weeds are quite as good indicators of the conditions of 
soil or climate under which they are persisting as are the native 
species. This is a matter in which both native and introduced plants 
vary among themselves, but in general it may be said that the greac 
bulk of native plants are capable of survival only in much narrower 
ranges of conditions than are the introduced ones which have become 

An inquiry into the relation between spontaneous and cultivated 
vegetation may well follow several lines of procedure. To what ex- 
tent, it may be asked, do the ranges of occurrence of native species 
indicate the regions in which particular crops may be successfully 
planted ; to what extent does the composition of the forest give indi- 
cations; to what extent the occurrence of particular tree species in 
the forests ; and, as well, to what extent may the occurrence of par- 
ticular weeds or other herbaceous plants serve the same end. 

Correspondences have frequently been pointed out between the 
natural range of a plant species and the area within which a partic- 
ular crop may be successfully planted. For example, I have been 
told by Dr. Eoland M. Harper that in the southern states there is a 
close correspondence between the distribution of the Loblolly Pine 
and that of the profitable cultivation of cotton, and in Maryland the 
region in which the Eed Spruce is native is adapted to the success- 
ful cultivation of buckwheat. These are cases in which it is the 
length of growing season and the temperature requirements of the 
correlated species that is significant. Merriam has pointed ouf' 
the various life zones of the United States, based upon the collective 
ranges of characteristic plants and animals, and has shown that 
these may furnish a basis for recommendations as to the probable 
success of various cereals, vegetables and fruits within the zones. 
This class of phenomena is quite a special case in the relation of 
natural and cultivated plant life, and can give only the most general 
indications with regard to the suitability of the atmospheric factors 
affecting plants. Indeed, it often happens, as in the case of the 

*Merriain, C. Hart. Life Zones and Crop Zones of the United States. 






Spruce and the Buckwheat, that the soil requirements of the two 
correlated species are quite distinct. 

The other inquiries mentioned above may be made as respects the 
vegetation of smaller areas with uniform climate, when the mat- 
ter of topography and soils becomes the centre of interest. The 
composition of forests is of particular value in indicating the char- 
acter of soils because it represents the degree to which the component 
species find their optimum requirements. It is, in other words, a 
special case of the indicating value of individual species, in which 
natural competition has served to bring forth into predominance the 
species to which the conditions are most nearly suited. 

The greatest obstacle to using forest composition as an index of 
agricultural capabilities is one that also hindered the gathering of 
an adequate idea of the original forest covering of the various por- 
tions of the state, namely marked difference between nearby forests 
under identical external conditions. The conditions under which 
each particular piece of woodland was cleared and under which it 
has returned to forest have a great and a varying influence on its 
make-up. Particularly in the Lower Midland District on the Cecil 
loam and the Cecil mica loam do the forests vary in composition to 
an extreme degree. Elsewhere, as in Worcester County, the same 
type of forest may be found on a number of the diiferent soil types 
recognized. Indeed, a comparison of the soil map of Worcester 
County with the carefully prepared forest map will show at a glance 
that there is no sharp relation between the soils and the forest types. 
It is true, however, that many soils which are mapped as distinct are 
differentiated on characters that ai'e of no importance in the physi- 
ology of the plant, as for example, the Cecil loam and the Cecil 
mica loam, the Sassafras sandy loam and the Portsmouth sandy loam. 
In the case of soils of more marked character there are, however, 
obvious differences in the plant covering, as occurs in the Lower 
Midland District between Cecil loam and Susquehanna gravel, or 
either of these soils and the Conowingo clay, or between ISTorfolk 
sand and Elkton clay. The physiography of an area is of determ- 
ining influence iipon the plant covering through its fundamental 
relation to soil water supply, and this fact offsets many influences 
of soil composition, as may be noted in the difference between the 


forest of the summits of the gravel hills uf the Lower Midland Dis- 
trict and their bases (see p. 217), or in the identity of forests in 
like topographic situations on Cecil loam or on Cecil clay in the 
same District (see p. 202). And again, widely distinct soils in 
different localities may display the same plant covering. On the 
Susquehanna gravel of Cecil County and on the loams derived 
from Devonian shales on Piney Mountain in Allegany County may 
be seen identical forests of Chestnut and Chestnut Oak, witii 
the same accompanying shrubby and herbaceoiis vegetation. It ap- 
pears then that forest types do vary with the underlying soils when 
these are of marked character, but that they also do not fail in many 
cases to be uniform over different soils, and to vary on the same 
soil. In how far these results are due to the forest areas examined 
being almost exclusively second and third growths cannot be de- 

There are certain trees the presence or absence of Avhich may be 
taken as valuable evidence in judging soils, even in the present dis- 
turbed condition of the forests of Maryland. Several classes of 
soils which are thin, rocky or gravelly and several classes of topo- 
graphic situations in which the conditions are equivalent are found 
to abound in the Chestnut Oak, the Post Oak, the Black Jack Oak 
and the Scarlet Oak. The predominance of any one or two of these 
trees, for they rarely all occur together, may be taken as a clear 
indication that the soil is not suited for any of the usual farm crops, 
although a few fields of buckwheat have been seen on such soils, 
and near such forest stands in the Moimtain Zone. In similar 
fashion the occurrence of the Swamp Oak may be taken as a sure 
indication of poorly drained and sour soil, demanding underdrain- 
age for successful cultivation. For the growth of specialized crops 
the indications to which these trees point may be in the opposite 
direction. On the Eastern Shore the occurrence of the Black Jack 
Oak is an indication of a sandy or light loam soil with excellent 
drainage, which would promise success with small fruits, berries, 
watermelons, sweet potatoes or peanuts. The occurrence of the 
same tree in the Mountain or Midland Zones, however, would have 
no such significance, for the rocky barrens in which it is most com- 
mon, as for example the Serpentine Barrens in the vicinity of Dub- 


lin, Harford County, Gaithersburg, Montgomery County, the bar- 
rens of Elk Ridge in Washington County and the steep shale slopes 
to the northeast of Cumberland in Allegany County, are ill adapted 
to any crop. In the southern Eastern Shore the occurrence of a 
high percentage of Hickory in a deciduous or mixed forest may be 
taken as an indication of a deep loam soil, and points to the neigh- 
boring soils as having a high value as wheat land. On the other 
hand the Elkton clay of the Eastern Shore, characterized by White 
Oak, Loblolly Pine, Holly, etc., (see p. 109) is valuable wheat 
land, although not capable of producing as high yields as are gor 
on the loam soils. In the upper Eastern Shore the bulk of the 
upland is well adapted for the production of high yields of wheat, 
which, together with the high percentage of Hickory in the oldest 
forests there, is in accord with the conditions in the southern East- 
em Shore. The occurrence of the Tulip Tree on the Eastern Shore 
is an indication of soil in which the moisture content is too higli 
for cultivation, although it is an infrequent tree in the upland for- 
ests of the upper counties. In the Midland Zone the occurrence of 
a high percentage of Hickory is of no significance in connection 
with the adaptability of the soil to wheat, and the presence of the 
Tulip Tree is quite equivalent to that of the Hickory on the Eastern 

The fact that the majority of our native and introduced weeds 
are plants with a high degree of adaptability to different atmospheric 
and soil conditions and excellent capacities for seed dispersal makes 
them of only very general value in indicating the agricultural ca- 
pabilities of soils. The weed flora of a field is much less a function 
of its soil character than it is of the source from which it was seeded, 
the surface conditions in which the soil was left, and the length of 
time that has elapsed since it was disturbed. In Part III. some 
facts have been brought out with regard to the difference exhibited 
by abandoned fields in successive years. 

Such weeds as the White Daisy (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum) , 
the Wild Carrot (Daiicus carota) and the Narrow-leaved Plantain 
(Plantago lanceolata) are omnipresent throughout Maryland on soils 
of the widest diversity, in fields and waste grounds, both in open 
and shaded situations, and their catholicitv of habitat is character- 


istic of perhaps a hundred other species. Still other species are 
wide-spread in occurrence but are much more abundant in certain 
sections of the state where soils of a partcular character are pre- 
dominant. For example, in the counties of Southern Maryland the 
Dwarf Dandelion (Adopogon carolinianum) , the Blue Toad-flax 
(Linaria canadensis) and the Ipecac Spurge (Euphorbia ipecaca- 
anhae) are three native plants which are among the most charac- 
teristic weeds in old fields with sandy or sandy loam soil. The Gum 
Succory (CJiondrilla juncea) is common in certain localities in 
Southern Maryland and at a few places on the Eastern Shore, where 
it grows on light soils. It is a plant which is restricted in its oc- 
currence rather because of the recentness of its introduction than 
because of particular life requirements. The Yellow Horned Poppy 
(Glaucium glaucium) is an adventive plant which is confined to 
the sandy beaches of the Chesapeake and is one of the few intro- 
duced plants restricted to a definite natural habitat. 

Particular attention was given during the field work throughout 
the state to the occurrence of the Viper's Bugloss (Echiuni vulgare) 
and the Great Mullein (Veriascum thapsus). Both of these were 
observed in every county of the state and on a wide range of soils 
from the shale-derived loams of Allegany County and the lime- 
stone clays of Washington County to the sandy loams and sands of 
the Eastern Shore. Both plants were noticed to be much more com- 
mon in fields that had lain fallow for several years, because of their 
biennial habit. Much of the reputation that these plants have as 
soil indicators is due to the fact that fields which have become "run 
down" are allowed to lie in pasture for several years, these weeds 
then have time to develop and the fact that they are not eaten by 
the stock leaves them consincuous over the field. 

The spontaneous occurrence throughout the Midland section of 
the state of the Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis) and other turf- 
forming grasses is an evidence of the freedom of soil water move- 
ment into the surface layers of the soil occupied by the roots of 
these grasses. Throughout the sandy soils of the Coastal Plain, as 
in the states to the south, the maintenance of a close sod of such 
grasses is difiicult, and their occiirrence indicates that the physical 
character of the soil has been modified by artificial treatment in the 







direction of the character of the Midland soils. There does not 
appear to be any evidence that grasses are superior to other her- 
baceous plants as indicators of the value of soils or as indices for 
crop recommendations in a forested region like Maryland. 

The only sound conclusions that may be drawn from the natural 
plant life of an area as to its agricultural capabilities are very 
general ones. The more specific the inquirer attempts to be as to 
the value of a particular plant association or a jjarticular species 
in indicating favorable conditions for the growth of a particular 
crop the more is he apt to be led into error. The larger and more 
striking phases of the vegetation of Maryland which have been 
pointed out in the preceding pages are all dependent upon the sev- 
eral climatic and soil factors to which attention has there been called. 
Within small areas such as any one of the ecological districts of the 
state, the whole inquiry reduces itself to an indirect method for the 
estimation of the characteristics and value of soils. While numer- 
ous broader facts might be pointed out as to the desirability of the 
soil occupied by Loblolly Pine forest or Chestnut and Chestnut Oak 
forest or Upland Swamps for the cultivation of particular crops, 
these facts would be so far behind the experience and knowledge of 
agi'iculturists as to be of no value to them, however important they 
might be theoretically. That crop recommendations can be profit- 
ably made on the basis of the occurrence of a single tree species is 
doubtful for all but a few cases to which reference has been made, 
and these cases may not hold good in other parts of the natural 
ranges of these trees. The task of the pioneer who traversed the 
virgin forests of Maryland, and without any experience of the soils 
picked out favorable spots to be cleai'ed merely by the indications 
of the size and character of the trees was infinitely easier than that 
of the botanist who traverses the state at the present day and at- 
tempts to draw any close lines as to the index value of native vege- 
tation. What the pioneer was doing was merely to judge the un- 
known soils by the vegetation, and we today have too many direct 
ways of knowing the nutrient content of soils and the relation of 
their texture to water supply and movement to need the less direct 
and eminently fallible method of examining the natural or introduced 
plant covering. 







The type of building found upon the farms of a region is a char- 
acteristic worth noticing, as it is directly related to the crops pro- 
duced. On the tobacco areas of the Coastal Zone the best farm 
buildings, aside from the houses, which are omitted in this dis- 
cussion, are the tobacco barns. 

In the more severe climate of the Midland and Mountain Zones 
it is necessary to have shelter for the animals as well as for the 
main crop. And with the need of storage of fodder for winter use 
added space is required. These two factors imite in making a type 
of barn quite -different from the one used in the tobacco areas. 
Sheds and shelters for implements and for the smaller animals, such 
as sheep and swine, are provided by thrifty farmers when needed, 
and are of a rather imiform type. 

The tobacco bams are necessarily so built as to make possible the 
easy ventilation needed for the curing of the crop. The shelter of 
animals is a very secondary purpose, and is in many cases confined 
to the horses or mules, a shed sufficing for the other stock. As wheat 
displaces tobacco, the purpose of the barn changes, and where the 
growing of wheat is important, a large barn structure is common, 
usually in the form of a "bank bani:" This provides space within 
for the unthrashed bundles and for the sacks of thrashed grain ; for 
hay; the more important machinery of the farm, and below a half 
basement shelters the stock. 

For the benefit of those who are not familiar with the barns in 
the central part of the State, the characteristics of the bank barn 
may be mentioned. Ordinarily placed at the top or brow of a slop- 



ing piece of ground, the cellar is excavated so far as necessary from 
the bank, or hill, and the foundation is built so that a basement story 
of eight to ten feet is secured. Usually about two-thirds of the depth 
from front to back of the cellar wall is in the bank, the rest being 
in the clear for its full height. This detail varies with the shape of 
the hill against which the barn is built, but the greater warmth 
which the excavated cellar gives as compared with one built above 
ground makes the presence of the former the rule through the dairy 
region. The main doors of the barn are of a convenient height for 

Pig. 9 Map of Marj'land showing the relative Valuation of Farm Buildings. 

driving loaded hay wagons, or other farm teams directly upon the 
floor. To do this easily the approach is usually built as a gentle 
grade from the road, or directly to the door if the natural condi- 
tions make this possible. 

The main structure of tlio l):irn. in a large nuinber of cases, pro- 
jects over the barn-yard for six to ten feet. This 2)i"ojection, called' 
the "overhang," affords a shed-like protection to stock, from sun or 
rain, and makes a drier passage way for the farmer as he goes from 
one part of the stable to another. The stalls for the draft animals 
are commonly of the box type, the cattle having stanehions or neck 
chains in ordinary instances. Ventilators are inserted at intervals 


in the walls of the barn, and in a few cases were noticed as pro- 
viding a change of air for the stable also. In the old stone and 
brick barns the ventilators are in the form of narrow slits running 
through several courses of the stone work of the wall; but in the 
brick barns a brick is left out at intervals in the Avail so as to pro- 
duce a series of openings over a space of several square feet, and 
repeated at intervals in regular patterns. Some among these old 
barns have stood for two or three generations, and look strong enoiigli 
to last as much longer with but slight repairs to ridge and sills. 

The total value of farm buildings varies greatly in the different 
i:ones, the Midland Zone leading in this, as well as in expenditure 
for implements and fertilizers. This is shown by the tables. 



The sections of the state included within the Coastal Zone were 
those which were easily reached by the first settlers in the region. 
Trading stations were established by William Claiborne at the 
mouth of the Susquehanna Eiver in 1627-8*, and a definite settle- 
ment was made in 1629 on Kent Island by some of the Virginia 
Company's colonists under the leadership of Claiborne. In 16-34: 
the first settlement under the Charter rights was made at St. Mary's 
City, near the mouth of the Potomac, and soon after (1637) the 
first county officers were in authority indicating the local civil unit 
in the colony. Kent Island was then incorporated as a hundred of 
ihe comity, and continued subordinate to St. Mary's until 1640 
Avhen its county character is first recognized. Thus early is there 
present a division of the Colony into the Eastern and Western 
shore, the names coming into use a little later. But the two settle- 
ments Avere not brought under the actual authority of the Lord 
Proprietary until 1650, when the dispute as to jurisdiction was 
decided, and Kent Island Avas recognized ofiicially as part of the 
Maryland territory.'' 

*Maryland Geological Survey, vol. vi, part v, The Counties of Maryland, 
p. 442. 1908. 

tFurther details of the early history of the Colony may be found in History 
of Maryland, John Thomas Scharf, 3 vols., 1879. 


The early settlements were located along the waters of the Chesa- 
peake Bay and tributary rivers, as these were easily reached by the 
vessels in which the colonists arrived. The soils of the areas first 
settled were adapted to the culture of tobacco, which could be 
shipped from the plantation wharf with the minimum of transporta- 
tion. The raising of this crop was the purpose of the colony, and 
easy shipments assisted in increasing its commercial value. 

As the developing colony advanced along the shores of the Bay, 
toward its narrow head waters, certain places were naturally fitted 
to keep a considerable share of the Inisiness, and to act as market 
places for the plantations. Such localities developed into towns and 
cities, some with only temporary importance, others becoming more 
prominent as conditions changed. In response to the needs of these 
to^vns there came to be a slight difference in the agricultural prac- 
tice of the fanners and planters nearest to the towars, the increase 
in proportion of wheat to other crops being perhaps the first notice- 
able change. The presence of a garden of more or less size as a 
I'cgular ])art of each house unit in tlie early life of towns enabled 
the individual householder to be his own market gardener, the mar- 
ket in such case being his own table, or that of some neighbor. The 
regions near these towns of the growing colony, by gradual develop- 
ment made the equally slow changes in crops and practice required 
to keep pace with the increase in population. Tobacco gave place 
to such crops as were more directly related to human needs, as wheat, 
corn, potatoes, and later, fruits and what we know as "truck crops." 
The latter did not become of much importance until the transporta- 
tion facilities were developed and stimulated the farmers into giv- 
ing more attention to this side of their possible revenues. 

Under the Charter the amount of land to which a planter could 
gain title depended upon the number of laborers or other help con- 
trolled by him, which was a kind of survival of the feudal relation 
of lord and vassal. Tobacco was the crop of the new country, and 
tlie two conditions of new land and a highly cultivated crop united 
to make strong and cheap labor essential to the profitable manage- 
ment of the great plantations. It is not surprising that the custom 
of shipping prisoners or "redemptioners" (from England) as laborers 
for the colony should have become an important practice both from 







a political point of view and from the viewjwint of the planters. 
These laborers received no wages, but would become free after a 
certain number of years. A step which was almost to be expected 
was that instead of purchasing prisoners to be bound servants, sav- 
age prisoners from other than the home country should be pur- 
chased as permanent property, thus doing away with the limit of 
service on the part of the servant. It is characteristic of the tobacco 
region that the cheap field labor was depended upon to bring the 
returns for the year, in the shape of the tobacco, and to earn its 
keep in the corn fields. In Maryland, in the sections where little 
or no tobacco was raised few negroes or other unpaid laborers were 
commonly found, and this early areal distribution of labor types 
has held good almost to the present time. 

The tobacco was grown and cured by the planter, shipped from 
his plantation wharf, and the master of the ship took with him an 
extensive list of needed items to be brought on his return to the 
gentlemen and ladies whose hearts and thoughts were often in their 
home country though their manor house was in the Colony. The 
planters of the Bay shores continued their dependence upon the 
home country until the war of Independence compelled the general 
development of industrial resources of the Colony. This was espe- 
cially true in respect to tools, and clothing materials. 

Iron was smelted in the Colony, and pig iron was an important 
export before the Revolution, but upon the Coastal Zone little or 
none of it was forged into tools, those needed being brought back 
from the other side with other merchandise in exchange for the 
tobacco sent from the Colony.* Not only as a medium of foreign 
exchange did tobacco serve as a "money crop" but at home as well 
did the staple crop have value in exchange, and take the place of 
more convenient coined money. As late as 1752 tobacco was de- 
clared legal tender at one penny the pound, and taxes, fines and 
salaries of both ministers and judges, were paid therein even con- 
siderably after that date. 

*Scharff, History of Maryland, ii, 60, 61. 



Tobacco was from the first the important crop, and it soon became 
evident that only the richest land would produce the best crops. 
Since the best land was that richest in humus it followed that as a 
field became impoverished, new land was cleared and planted to the 
staple crop, leaving the older fields to the less important, and less 
exacting plants of the colonists, and finally to the "Old Field Pine."' 

In order to get a given area of the forest into cultivation as quickly 
as possible, the Indian method of girdling the trees was made use 
of, the slower method of cutting and burning being used to a mucli 
less extent. The trees continued to stand for several years after 
girdling, the twigs, branches and finally the bark dropping to the 
ground, leaving the gaunt skeleton in the midst of the field, which 
might even be exhausted and abandoned to its wild fate, before the 
forest monarchs decayed and fell. This is probably the most waste- 
ful of any method of transforming the wooded areas into tilled 
fields. The method of "slashing," or cutting and burning, is only 
less wasteful in that the ashes of the destroyed trees add to the 
fertility of the soil, which may however be injured locally by the 
heat of the great fires quite as much as the ashes can benefit it by 
their presence. In each of the two methods mentioned, the first 
desire was to get the ground ready for the chief crop, the trees being 
only a hindrance to that end, and the wastefulness of one or the 
other means used did not figure in the result, or in the plan. These 
same methods are still to be seen in the remoter parts of the state, 
although there are not many areas left where the trees are so much 
of an incumbrance as to call for their mere destruction in order 
to use their place for planted crops. The waste in present lumber- 
ing methods is quite as serious as this girdling and slashing, for 
not only is the crop of trees only in part utilized, but by fire, or 
careless felling of the trees, or too close cutting, — often by all 
three, — the ground is rendered practically barren; neither planted 
crops being introduced, nor the natural one of trees being allowed 
to restore itself on the area cut over. 

The present wastefulness in lumbering methods is a direct inher- 
itance from the days when the trees were an incumbrance upon the 


land. In fact the presence of the forest was originally a source of 
actual danger, concealing hostile Indians or dangerous animals. 
The habit then acquired of getting rid of the trees by the easiest 
methods, for safety, as well as for agriculture, is responsible for 
the later indifference to the consideration of timber. 

The heavy demands upon the soil, made by the system of repeated 
tobacco crops, soon removed the most available elements of fertility, 
and resort would then be made to new soil, made to yield to culti- 
vation in the way mentioned in another paragraph. The means for 
cultivation of the ground possible in the days of the Proprietary 
Colony, were quite different from those of the present. There were 
no plows with iron or steel mold boards, or shares, the best having 
flat oak mold boards with a point of iron and perhaps in the case 
of especially ingenious or progressive farmers having a flat plate 
of iron nailed to the surface. It was thus impossible to plow deeply 
or to throw a well turned furrow. Hand work was called upon to 
make good the deficiency of the plow, and the hoe in the hands of 
the slaves became a steady implement for the preparation of the 
soil as well as for later tillage of the crop planted. The hoe which 
did so much for the agricultural development of the Colony, was 
not the bright sharp-edged tool of the present type, but more nearly 
a mattock in weight and size. Although it was not so long and nar- 
row as the mattock, still the amount of iron used in its construction 
was apparently not much less. That a hoe of this type was the 
best for the work to be done is quickly seen if one remembers that 
the fields in which the crops were grown still had the stumps, or 
even the standing trees, scattered through the corn or tobacco, and 
the roots, decaying but slowly, were constantly being encountered 
as the gi-ound was worked. With a light hoe of the present type, it 
is sometimes difiicult to strike a sufficiently hard blow to cut through 
the root of a well developed weed ; such would have been useless then 
in the work of actual tillage. 

The hoe was so thoroughly recognized as the farm implement of 
the plantation, that the year's plans as to acreage of corn and the 
number of hills of tobacco were calculated on the basis of the hoeing 
power of the hands. It was calculated that a negro could do the 
necessary work in the field, using the hoe, to care for 37,800 hills 


of corn, equivalent to five acres ; and 6,000 hills of tobacco was the 
season's task in the tobacco field for one field hand.* 

Eeference lias been made to the importance of numerous laborers 
in the agriculture of the Colony, both as to the actual working of 
the fields, and as to the acreage of one planter's holdings; and to 
tlie wasteful methods of clearing, exhausting, and abandoning the 
land required for the production of tobacco. ISTot every planter 
thus severely treated his land, for we find that apple and other 
fruits were set out in the fields on which tobacco was no longer a 
profitable crop, in St. Mary's County as early as 1656, and it is 
}n-obable that the custom was practiced to a considerable extent 
among the more thoughtful of the planters.' The more careful and 
observant colonists learned to conserve the fertility of their fields 
by the use of marl, which is abundant in some parts of the Coastal 
Zone. The Avild fruits made up then to a large degree the relish 
dietary furnished by tlic more highly developed but not always 
better flavored fruits of the present growers, just as the different 
wild game animals and birds of many kinds, furnished the early 
supplies of meat in a reasonably sure and economical manner. 


One condition as to location was inijiosed by tlie lack of roads or 
other means of land communication ; the toliacco bad to be grown 
in regions convenient to navigalile waters. The two "Shores" of the 
Bay met this requirement through the numerous rivers and creeks 
which are navigable for many miles inland from their mouths and 
still are in great measure the routes for freight transportation. The 
settlement of Maryland by the colonial planters under the Charter, 
was a progressive advance from the mouth of the Bay towards its 
liead. The deep estuaries from the Bay and along each shore, made 
the shipment of tobacco easy even if the plantation was some distance 
from the Capes. But the area suitable to the cultivation of the 
staple was narrower in the upper part of the Bay than lower down, 
and as the demand continued to grow, other lands were developed 

♦Scharff, History of Maryland, i. 13-60. 
tScharff, vol. ii, p. 6. 


at a distance from the navigable water and the "back-woods" began 
to be settled. 

The Bay region was in general level, and easily accessible from 
the water; to go inland one had merely to follow the tongues of 
land between the diiferent streams, with no considerable hills to 
climb for many miles in the lower counties, the distance decreasing 
as the head of the Bay was reached. From the region about Balti- 
more northeastward, the higher ground comes closer to the shores of 
the Bay, and the level Coastal Plain area is correspondingly de- 
creased. A considerable series of long hills or ridges extended as 
a barrier across the path of any avIio would go westward, and sim- 
ilarly checked the travelers from the western side from reaching the 
coastal region. Thus each group developed with bvit little influence 
on the other; the Indian trails, enlarged to allow the passage of 
pack animals, being the first means of communication. The 
streams which rise in the ridges between these two areas of settle- 
ment, flow in oi^posite directions, the dividing line of the two sys- 
tems of drainage being in the midst of the ridges. Thus there was 
no chance to use these natural lines of travel for any extensive com- 
munication as was possible in the case of the Potomac and Susque- 
hanna rivers, the head waters of which lie beyond the ridges and 
lines of hills that are here mentioned. 

It was not xmtil the settlers in the valleys or those of the Bay, 
found that trade in their surplus products was possible with the 
settlers of the other region, that trails were cut for regular trade, 
and the business of the trader began to develop) into a larger form 
than mere barter. In this develoi^ment it appears that there were 
three centers of trade, at Georgetown on the Potomac, Annajjolis 
on the Severn, at Joppa and later at Baltimore, i^ractically at the 
head of the Chesapeake. At these points the surplus from the car- 
goes of the vessels retiirning from their tobacco voyages naturally 
were stored and the products of the interior could be easily ex- 
changed for such imported articles as were of greatest value or 
otherwise were desirable. 

As the settlement of the tidal regions became more complete and 
the localities away from the water front were occupied, it was found 
possible to get the tobacco to market from these plantations by roll- 


ing the hogsheads over trails cut through the woods to some con- 
venient landing. These trails were known as "EoUing Eoads" 
when their character became more permanent. One such still holds 
its name near Baltimore, running north from Elk Eidge Landing 
into the western portion of Baltimore County. 

As the colonial government developed it became desirable to have 
the tobacco which was grown in a given region shipped from a 
definite place. The colonial tobacco inspectors were located at desig- 
nated ports, and it was enacted by the Colonial Assembly that ship- 
ments should be made from these ports. Among the places so in- 
dicated, Annapolis is mentioned in 1649* and roads were cleared 
to aid in bringing the tobacco to the wharves. 

The grain crop required no special transportation facilities, as 
much of the crop was utilized on the place where it was grown, 
being ground on the premises, or in the neighborhood, the element 
of distance being practically eliminated. The ready adaptability 
of sacks as units in pack trains made the carrying of grain and of 
flour an easy task. 


The easy commimication and convenient transportation by water 
had great influence upon the Bay settlements. The development 
of other means of communication was of importance to other parts 
of the State, as one can see by a brief glance at the history of the 
main routes which have been built in this State, and extending in 
their gi-owth far beyond its limits. 

The first roads seem to have been developed in the Coastal Zone 
to meet the requirements of the sessions of the Assembly, but only 
slowly even for this purpose, since many of the members could 
reach the place by the convenient Bay and its tributaries. The first 
actual road building, however, so far as records show, was done 
in the region between the Delaware and Elk Rivers, by the Herrman 
family, to facilitate communication between parts of the family 
properties, and to aid in the establishment of communication be- 
tween the Bay and New Castle, Delaware. The conditions in this 

♦Scharff, 1, 421, 422. 


section of the Province were so favorable that Cecil County was 
erected in 1674, lying between the Susquehanna and the Chester 
Rivers. The settlements along the Delaware, especially Phildelphia, 
gave impetus to the construction of roads in the north-eastern sec- 
tion of the Colony not present elsewhere, and this was also in the 
route of the north and south travel, from south of the Potomac to 
New York, or beyond.* 

Roads. — The actual development of roads to facilitate the trans- 
portation of agricultural produce, which is of chief interest to us, 
did not begin until the country to the west of the Coastal Zone be- 
came sufficiently well occupied to receive consideration by the County 
Courts. Thus in 1712, under the authority of the Court of Prince 
George's County, a road was opened between the Eastern Branch 
of the Potomac and the coimtry near the head of Rock Creek; that 
is, across the region lying to the northeast of the District of Colum- 
bia, and included now in the adjacent portions of Prince George's 
and Montgomery counties. This was part of the route used by the 
German settlers entering the Monocacy Valley, via Annapolis, pass- 
ing south of Parrs Ridge to Frederick. From this part of the Col- 
ony there were connections with the adjacent parts of Pennsylvania 
along several rovites, the most important one being the Monocacy 
Road. This ran northward to Philadelphia by way of Lancaster, 
and extended southward into the Virginias, crossing the Potomac 
near Williamsport at the mouth of the Conocheague Creek. By this 
road the settlement of the Monocacy Valley was stimulated. As a 
result of the comparative ease of communication, together with the 
generally favorable farming conditions, the town of Frederick was 
laid out in 1745, the first house having been erected in 1735. The 
next step of importance to the agriculturist was the opening or lay- 
ing out of routes between Frederick and Annapolis, and to Balti- 
more; and also one to Georgetown on the Potomac, important as 
being at the head of navigation of that stream. 

The establishment of settlers, and the accompanying gro\vth of 
towns in the interior sections of the Colony made the gradual ex- 
tension of the routes a necessity and this later growth of existing 

*Por a detailed discussion of tlie roads of tiie State see Maryland Geological 
Survey, vol. iii, 1899, 109 et seq. 


lines of transportation need not be taken up. But the use of roads, 
in the place of the former trails, meant the widening of these to allow 
the use of wheeled vehicles, which had jDrevionsly been rare in the 
hauling of the colonial produce. The absence of iron in convenient 
form for use, made the early wagons heavy and cumbersome affairs, 
the wheels being sawed from logs of suitable sizes, and not built 
witli the modern method of spoked wheels. Spoked wheels were of 
course in use on the coaches for passenger travel, but these were 
imported, the freight vehicles being of domestic manufacture.* The 
owners of the pack horse trains were opposed to the improvements 
in roads for the accommodation of wagon traffic, as they supposed 
it would ruin their trade, and at a later time the wagon freighters 
opposed the development of the railroad upon the same grounds. 
That there developed a considerable freight business is shown by 
the statement that in October, 1751, in two days, sixty wagons 
loaded with flaxseed came into Baltimore from the "back country," 
in the central part of the Colony (Frederick and Carroll coimties 
and the vicinity of York, Pa.)^ 

Baltimore became the terminus of the roads extending into the 
region just mentioned and as the trade increased, its importance in- 
creased because of its position at the junction of the routes by land 
and those by the Bay. Its business was thus practically assured, 
from the time that there was recognized a possibility of traffic along 
the routes named. 

The extension of the French settlements into the Ohio Valley is 
responsible for the Washington and the Braddock Roads of 1753-4, 
and 1755 respectively, from Fort Cmuberland westward toward the 
Ohio, a part of the route then laid out being later used for the Na- 
tional Koad, but its steepest grades being avoided by relocation. 
The road in tliis part of its route had but little to do with Mary- 
land farm life or the produce of the farms. It was not until a 
road was laid out to connect the settlements in the Valley, the 
Hagerstown and Frederick region, with the country in the vicinity 
of Fort Cumberland, that the plantations and farms in the older 

*See Schulz, First Settlement of Germans in Maryland, p. 19. 
tMaryland Gazette, October 30, 1751, quoted in Mereness "Maryland as a 
Proprietary Province." 






part of the Colony became directly concerned in the road as a route 
for traffic, or as an outlet for produce. The direct purpose of this 
road was for the better communication between the two Forts, Cumt 
berland and Frederick* about which settlements were growing up, 
which were dependent upon thena for protection from the Indian 
troubles which at intervals following Braddock's defeat were of 
serious importance. Settlements followed the line of communica- 
tion that was thus opened, and agriculture thus spread westward 
along the road. 

The National Koad, for which moneys were first appropriated 
by the Congress in 1810, extended westward from Cumberland 
toward the settlements of the Ohio valley. The name has been ex- 
tended to cover the main turnpike route eastward from Cumberland 
through Flintstone, Hancock and Hagerstown to Frederick, and 
the term "Xational Pike" is aiDjjlied also to the road through Mount 
Airy eastward. This system of roads Avas in fact the feeder for 
the National Eoad proper, as it brought the freight to the starting 
point at Cumberland. These roads were of much importance in the 
development of the agriculture of the central sections of the Colony, 
and the German settlers of the Monocacy Valley were thrifty in their 
use of such routes for the marketing of their produce. 

There were two roads of importance across the central Valley 
area as early as 1805", one from the District of Columbia and the 
other from Baltimore, which ran westward to Frederick, thence to 
Williamsport. These were directly related to the National Koad 
as its antecedents and feeders. For a considerable time the Road 
lead through unsettled country, liut the favorable locations along 
the route were gradually taken up, and the country became settled 
from the roadside back into the wilderness. The extension of the 
highway between Baltimore and the Cumberland end of the National 
Road, was largely the work of an association of banks, which formeil 
an incorporated company for the building of the necessary connec- 
tions between the City and the Road to Ohio. The road so built 
is sometimes referred to as the "Bank Road." The completion of 
this system of transportation routes, about 1820, from the Ohio 

*At Cumberland and near Big Pool, Washington County, respectively. 
tSee Maryland Geological Survey, vol. lit, p. 182. 


River to the seaport of Baltimore was of great importance to the 
latter. Its influence was felt by the life all along the route of the 
road, from which a large amount of freight was drawn in the shape 
of farm produce. It is this "Bank Eoad" to which the name "Na- 
tional Pike" is commonly applied in the counties between Cumber- 
land and Baltimore. 

Canals and Railroads. — Soon after the turnpikes were thoroughly 
established as freight routes, the project was revived which had 
been more or less dormant since the time of Washington's Potomac 
Company. This contemplated the building of a canal westward to 
the Ohio Kiver for the conveying of freight across the mountains 
between the seaboard and the interior. In 1823 a convention met in 
Washington, and declared in favor of a canal route to the West. 
Surveys were made for a canal to Pittsburg, by way of the Potomac 
valley to the Savage river and across the divide to the Youghiogheny 
at Bear Creek, then by the valley of the Youghiogheny to Pittsburg. 
On account of the development of steam transportation the canal 
was not built farther than the mouth of Wills Creek, at Cumber- 
land, to Avhich point it was completed in 1850. The railroad had 
in 1840, reached the canal terminus. The canal thus found a more 
speedy rival to meet instead of having a clear field to draw upon 
for freight. It has not figured largely in the agriculture of the State, 
the chief canal freight being coal from the vicinity of Cumberland. 
Wheat was carried to a considerable extent however in the earlier 
years. This was ground in the mills at Georgetown, which obtained 
their power from the canal waters.* 

The influence of the railroad uixin the development of agri- 
culture, especially in the Midland and Mountain Zones, need not 
be mentioned in any detail. The fact may properly be stated that 
the presence of a rail route from Bahjmore westward through the 
Patapsco Valley, past EUicott City and Mount Airy stimulated set- 
tlement and agriculture in the Upper Potomac region. The other 
i-outes leading into the upi>er part of the State have had a direct 
influence upon the development of the different types of farm prac- 

*For further details, see Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal Project, Johns Hopkins Studies in Historical and Political Science, 
Series 17; Nos. 9, 10, 11, 1899. 


tice, especially such as dairying, truck raising, and fruit growing, 
market cities being conveniently near. These lines of transportation 
were by way of the valleys of Gwynns Falls, the North Branch of 
the Pataj^sco, and Little Pipe Creek on the one hand, and more 
directly to the north by Jones Falls and upper Gunpowder river 
valleys on the other. 


The policy of the Lords Baltimore which allowed freedom of con- 
science to all who came into the Colony, was a favorable element in 
the development of a varied population of the several important 
groups then active. The Church of England and the Eoman Cath- 
olic Church which were both represented among the first settlers at 
St. Mary's City, continued to share the rights and privileges of the 
Colony for a long period. From Delaware there came Sweedish 
settlers in 1661-1662 who had found the conditions there unfavor- 
able for them. Puritans settled in the region about the Severn 
river, and Anne Arundel County was erected in 1650 in recognition 
of their influence in the affairs of the Colony. Quakers came over 
the line from Pennsylvania, especially along the Susquehanna Kiver, 
and the Germans who came to occupy the central valleys of the 
colonial area in 1735, brought with them their Lutheran principles 
and German methods.* 

The diversity among the settlers who thus became established in 
the Maryland Colony made it different from those in which less 
toleration was allowed, and helped to pave the way for the prom- 
inent place that the Colony was later to take in the preparation for 
Independence and Union among the colonies. The broad and gen- 
erous attitude of the colonial authorities toward those who might 
differ somewhat from themselves in certain details of their manner 
of life, resulted in the settlement in the Colony of groups of people 
having diverse experiences, and histories. The benefit of this was 
reflected in the varied kinds of farming that came to exist in the 
Colony, and the important place it took in the maintenance of the 

*See First Settlements of Germans in Maryland, E. T. Schultz. Frederick, 
Md., 1896. 


Continental Army in the long struggle for independence. A divei"si- 
fied agriculture is of benefit to a community in that it raises the 
standard of living, by making possible a variation, substitution, or 
alternation, of food siibstances not available Avhen there is no such 
diversity in crops or jiroduce. It manifests itself also in being able 
to secure returns from some one crop in case another j^roves a fail- 
ure in the same region. Thus the toleration of the authorities 
toward the settlers was of benefit to the Colony in broadening its 
agricultural resources. 

In the region of the Monoeaey where the German colonists began 
to settle as early as 1710, and came in large numbers in 1735, the 
local resources were developed early. The requirements of the 
neighborhood were supplied by the industry of the settlers of the 
vicinity, if each one did not meet his own needs. Here forges were 
associated with the smelting furnaces for iron, and the flax and wool 
of the farms became the sheets and clothing of the homes and farmers. 

A difference between the farm unit in a new and in an old region, 
which is very essential but often overlooked, lies in the relation of 
the natural resources of the locality to the cultivated ones. The 
farm in the new country yields only the bread stuffs and essential 
vegetables like potatoes, while the wilderness aroimd supplies the 
needed meats, and such fruits and bei-ries as there may be oppor- 
tunity for gathering. In the older region however, the farm must 
not only produce the bread and vegetables of the daily fare, but the 
meat also. And from its surplus must come the revenue to pur- 
chase the needed accessories of better tools, of more clothing and the 
other features of neighborhood life which difter from the frontier 
conditions. There the game killed for food furnished in many 
cases the clothing also, as in the case of buckskin, or was the revenue 
of the pioneer, as in the case of beaver and other skins. The de- 
mands wpon the land and the j)roductivity of the soil, by which the 
demands may be met, seem to be related, at least in time; and the 
productivity is in turn related to the character of the demands which 
inust be met. It is in the region of good crops that the different 
accessories of life are to be found in home comforts and labor-saving 
implements. Where the soil has the greatest demand laid upon it 
the demand is met by the farmer through the intelligent application 


of the best principles of agricultural practice. By the use of the 
improved varieties of plants, the improved methods of tillage, more 
intelligent arrangement in succession of crops, and better choice of 
each crop to be grown at a particular place, the yield of oiir crops 
has been increased. But there is more to be gained still, which 
will be gained as the principles now new to many become the prop- 
erty of all, resulting in the more careful selection of seed corn or 
some special type of grain adapted to particular conditions, or of 
some other detail the underlying principles of which have been but 
recently recognized. 

Tlie Labor Problem. — One of the most important factors in the 
development of agricultural methods and customs is the recent his- 
tory of the people who may be under consideration. In the present 
case the settlers who were accustomed to their servants in the 
mother country, found difficulties facing them in the new land that 
were of a different character from those which faced the settlers 
who were accustomed to be their own reliance in the matter of labor. 
Similarly, those who under these conditions sui^plied their own 
needs developed a different type of community from that which 
grew up in the region of easy transportation and dependence upon 
the home country. One is apt to continue along the lines already 
familiar, and to endeavor to make the new conditions meet the older 
customs, as far as possible. Thus the growing of tobacco was in 
itself a new business, or custom; but the planter adapted the cus- 
tom of tenant labor, or at least labor other than that of his own 
family, to the new requirements. The idea was modified from the 
first form of indentured servants bound to the settlement for a term 
of years, to the later form of purchased slaves of a foreign race. 
This was an easy step and had the distinct advantage of permanent 
tenancy, if one may so think of it for the moment, and a total 
absence of regular wages, or of "shares'' or other jjayments to the 

Those to whom the tenant system was not an essential were not 
so much in need of cheap labor, and their farm customs developed 
along different lines, which required fewer iield laborers and also 
fewer household servants. The results of these two types of farm 


or plantation life are reflected in the homes that were built in the 
regions where the respective customs prevailed. Abundant servant 
help went with the extensive mansion of the Coastal Zone planta- 
tion, the kitchen being in a separate building, often duplicated on 
the opposite side of the mansion by the office of the overseer. The 
absence of numerous servants is reflected in the more compact houses 
of the Midland and Mountain Zones, in which regions the kitchen 
is a part of the house proper and not removed to an adjacent build- 

The slave was a factor in the tobacco section by which it was 
possible to make the crop. In those sections of the State where the 
tobacco was of less consequence and which were settled by a different 
type of farmer, the need of slave labor was not so great and their 
niimbers were much less. 

The present conditions of labor and agriculture vary in somewhat 
the same manner as during the earlier years. Where the labor is 
efficient the general tone of farm life is thrifty ; where the labor is 
lacking in this respect there is often a decrease in the appearance of 
prosperity. As a very general statement it may be said that very 
large units are the most difficult to care for economically. The smal- 
ler holdings can be more fully utilized \vitli a given expenditure of 
time, labor, and money. 

Influence of Soils. 

The question of the relative fertility or suitability of a given soil 
for farming purposes does not enter the mind as a question of fun- 
damental importance, so much as does the thought of convenience 
to market, or to transportation facilities. If this is the case at 
present, it was still more so in the earlier days when the competi- 
tion between the several regions was less keen, and there was less 
demand upon the soil for its maximum return for labor expended. 
The subject of soil characters in connection with farm practice is 
receiving much attention at present, and the careful farmer is be- 
ginning to choose his new location or select his crops in accordance 
with the mutual relation the two have been found to bear to one 
another. This may be illustrated by a single example in Maryland. 


In the vicinity of Hagerstown there is an area of former swamp 
or bog land too wet for ordinary crops, but of such a loose and 
easily tilled character that some crops would do well in it if only 
the right one could be found. A consideration of the region in 
which some of the great celery farms are located showed the owner 
that this soil was suited to this crop, and the test of a trial crop was 
made, since which celery has been a staple crop on that farm. 

In considering the relative fertility of different soils, it is difficult 
to make statements of a positive character concerning the influence 
of small variations in the composition or texture of the soils men- 
tioned, or present in a given area; for the differences in the farm 
practice of two neighboring farmers upon the same soil, are often 
such as to produce as great difference in the years returns as is 
found between two at a greater distance from each other and on soils 
differing materially in respect to the rock from which they have 
been derived. Where the soils differ in the way mentioned in con- 
nection with serpentine, and limestone, or certain shales and 
gTieisses, the differences of the individual methods cannot make good 
the absolute lack in the one ease of the necessary elements to make 
a soil, and provide food for the possible j^lant gro\vth, or in the 
other case, to so alter the texture as to make the soil produced by 
weathering of the shale of a character more useful to plant activ- 
ities and more retentive of moisture, except in a very slight degree. 
Thus any statement as to relative fertility of the several sections of 
the State are necessarily general averages, and serve to indicate 
the general tendencies of the section, rather than the positive re- 
sults of individiials. 

Trees and Soils. — In the slow processes of ISTature, the gradual 
weathering of shale into soil was fast enough to furnish support to 
an extensive and valuable natural crop, the forest growth. But 
with the substitution of human haste for deliberate Nature, there 
comes a great change. The trees are removed, the steel jdIow loosens 
and overturns the soil, corn is planted in the raw earth, and then 
the rains come. The humus that had been accumulating for decades 
by the gradual contributions from the trees, is now below the sur- 
face, buried by the plow. Only raw soil is exposed to the rain, and 


this can retain but little of the downpour. Rivulets form, these 
combine into larger streams, and soon a channel is begun along the 
line of the furrow and the work of washing is started. 

Certain types of soil should never have their natural cover of 
trees entirely removed because of the ease with which the soil par- 
ticles are washed away in any heavy rain. Such should be perma- 
nently in forest, and the tree growth so secured would be a source 
of revenue to the individual owner. The rapid runoff of the rain 
and snowfall would be checked and the water supply of springs 
and other sources of stream flow would become more regular. The 
loose shale soils form agriciiltural areas of poor returns in the way 
of cultivated crops, and aside from the possible profits available 
they are difficult to work. It is such soils as these which should be 
permanently devoted to the crop of forest trees, and the tree growth 
on them cared for as if it were a permanent crop, instead of a tem- 
porary supply which must be used all at once. 

In the more valuable agricultural areas, winter cover crops should 
be utilized to prevent similar damage by heavy rains upon light loam 


The soils of this region are as a class formed by the deposit of 
material by water, at a time when the sea level was at a higher 
point than at present. Under these conditions the various types of 
sandy and loamy or even clayey soils are found in areas of consid- 
erable extent and having a nearly level surface. In the portion of 
the Coastal Plain designated as the "sub-aqiieous area" below the 
present sea level, the same process of deposition of transported soil 
particles is now going on to form additional areas of nearly flat 
land. If the whole coastal plain should be raised a hundred feet 
above its present level, the gentle slopes of the Eastern Shore would 
extend beyond the present beach line and be correspondingly greater 
in area. This variation in land area has occurred several times ac- 
cording to the Geology of the region,* and at each change in level 
the soil materials have been worked over by the wave and current 

•See Physical Features of Maryland, pp. 144-5. 








action of the sea. With the exception of a few boulders there are 
ahnost no rocks in the Coastal Plain, the soils being by nature of 
their origin deep and easily tilled. 

The possibilities of selected crops on special soils Avill help to 
solve the question of the swamp areas of the lower Bay region, when 
that section has been thoroughly drained by ditches, as has been 
done with very similar areas in ISTew Jersey, where the increased 
value in quantity and quality of hay made from the self-sown 
grasses which grow upon the drained lands, was more than enough 
to pay the expense of ditching.* 

Differences in soil texture are accompanied by corresponding dif- 
ferences in the water content, and thus the methods of farm prac- 
tice vary with the differences in soil. The great aim on the part of 
a farmer is to secure for his crops the greatest benefit of the soil- 
moisture and the accompanying fertility, and to reduce so far as 
possible the loss of these throvigh the growth of undesired plants, 
the weeds, or through excessive surface evaporation from the soil 
itself. The first of these may be largely controlled by the use of 
the various cultivators and weeders, that loosen the soil in which 
the weeds are growing, and more or less perfectly throw them out 
upon the surface to wilt and die. The second source of loss is partly 
met by the loosened surface accompanying the weed-killing work of 
the cultivator, but is best accomplished by the supplementary use 
of some pulverizing implement, following the regular cultivator. 

On the stiff clay soils of Dorchester County, a form of roller was 
seen in use that was not noted in other sections of the State. The 
field itself was in corn, which was twelve to eighteen inches high. 
The compact clay formed large clods and thus exposed a great sur- 
face to the air and to evaporation. These clods were compacted 
together and crushed to a considerable extent by the roller, which 
was so built that the soil between the rows of corn was rolled by 
its passage. The roller passed down each side of a row of corn, the 
corn plants having a space between the two sections of the roller; 
just as in a wheeled cultivator the cultivator spans the planted row, 
and loosens the soil on each side of it, so here the roller spanned 
the row and crushed the soil on either side. 

*See Bulletin 207, New Jersey Experiment Station, 1907. 


For the same purjiose, conservation of nioistni'e and compacting 
of the surface layer, there is in use in Worcester County, iipon an 
area of sandy loam, a drag much like a small stone boat, which is 
used in the rows immediately after the passage of the cultivator. 
This treats but one row at a time, and is drawn by a single mule 
or horse, the boy driver sitting ujion tlie ilrag to make it the more 
effective as a soil eompacter. Often after a rain this drag is run 
between the rows without the preliminary use of the cultivator, as 
it is in effect a very fine toothed weeder or cultivator, and this pre- 
vents the loss of moisture by the prompt production of a dust mulch 
over the surface. 

The value of these light soils for the early and quick growth of 
crops, is shown in the trucking industry, which is most largely de- 
velojied on the soils of the coastal plain type. Their light and friable 
texture is unfavorable to the production of turf forming or pasture 
grasses, especially on the Western Shore. 


In contrast to the soils of the Coastal Zone, those of the Midland 
Zone are not of material transported from a distance, and rear- 
ranged by a large body of water acting by wave and current upon 
the transported particles, but the soils are formed in place by the 
weathering of the rocks which underlie them. Thus the character 
of the soil is found to vary in its fertility as the composition of the 
original rock diifers, and according to the manner in which the 
rock is broken down into soil. For example, the region in the vicin- 
ity of Mt. Washington, Baltimore County, known as "Bare Hills," 
is one of the poorest of farm soils because of the lack in the rock 
itself of minerals, such as feldspar which would by their decomposi- 
tion form a soil. The serpentine rock which forms an ex- 
tensive outcrop at that point does not contain the substances that 
are available for plant nourishment, and they are bare of plant 
guTA\'th to a degree not often seen. 

The rocks of the Eastern extension of the ]\ridland Zone, have 
mostly come from the gneisses, and usually form fertile and rather 
compact soils, open and deep in texture, well adapted to the raising 
of general farm crops. The gneiss soils are favorable to grasses, 


inclnrling pasture types, hence dairying is extensively conducted 
by the farmers along the railroads which cross this region. The 
same soil and fann characteristics extend into Carroll County, es- 
pecially in the part east of Parr's Ridge. 

Valleys. — The rock matter may be reduced to a soil of a high 
degree of fertility with both composition and texture of a favorable 
character. In this class fall the highly fertile valley lands along 
the ilonocacy and its tributaries, in the Middletown Valley, and in 
the TIagerstown Valley, between the Blue Eidge and North Moun- 
tain. Much of these lands are of limestone origin, and rank among 
the richest of the State. Special bands of soils differing from the 
type occur in sections where rocks of different composition form 
outcrops in the general mass of more uniform character; such is 
the belt of "red soil" in Frederick County, caused by the presence 
of a rock containing more iron than is usually present in the vicinity. 
A few miles above the "Fall-line" in the vicinity of Gaithersburg, 
there is an outcrop of serpentine, that is almost iiseless for farming, 
being but little better than that mentioned before as forming the 
"Bare Hills" area. 

The limestone soils are chiefly formed of the i-csidue left behind 
when the more soluble portions of the original rock were carried 
away in flowing water. The process is continuing along the surface 
of the limestone ledges, but so slowly that it is not conspicuous. 
Soils so derived are mucli benefited by top dressing with burnt 
lime. The explanation lies primarily in the physical action of the 
lime, not in its fertilizing action. The soils are fine loams approach- 
ing more or less closely to clay condition, and as such are largely 
composed of the fine silt particles that become flocculated, or coagu- 
lated by the action of the caustic property of the lime. The result 
is to make the soil somewhat more of the nature of a coarser loam 
in especial reference to the drainage and plant-gi'owing power. Very 
much the same result is attained when manure containing large 
amounts of plant remains, bedding or other trash, is plowed into a 
clay soil ; the addition of vegetable matter loosens the soil and gives 
it a chance to become better drained, and lets in the air, all aiding 
to increase the succeeding crops, as compared with those before the 


Shale Ridges. — Westward fi'oni North Mountain, the soil char- 
acter, the vegetation and the farm life appear to change almost 
immediately with the first outlook over the upper Potomac Valley 
from the crest of the mountain at Fairview. From this point the 
country appears clearly divided into the cultivated area of the Val- 
ley eastward, and into the wooded slopes of the small and large 
ridges westward. The blue haze hides all detail in the distance, 
but these differences on the two sides of the crest continue as far 
as the eye can see, and form the characteristic features of the re- 
spective sections of the state. 

The farm land is occupied in smaller holdings, and may appear 
as mere clearings in the woodland for most of the distance from 
Fairview to Hancock, but there one finds more extensive farms and 
more active agriculture. As the transportation facilities are poorer 
than in the region just passed, this may account for the difference 
in development to a considerable degree. This difference will be- 
come less from now on, as transportation by rail is now possible in 
the section between North Mountain and Hancock. 

While the general soil conditions from North Mountain westward 
are unfavorable for the best agi'iculture, just west of Hancock there 
is a considerable area which is better than the region between that 
point and Fairview. The land is underlaid by thin bedded shales 
and limestones which disintregate to a soil of good quality. The 
steep slopes of the valleys draining this area make cultivation dif- 
ficult, biit grasses form good turf and washing is much diminished. 
The upper slo^jes of the ridges are largely set out in fruit orchards, 
the lower slopes affording pasturage, or grain fields. Sideling Hill 
with its masses of sandstone limits this area of good ground on the 

From Sideling Hill to Cumberland there is a succession of hills 
or ridges, largely in timber on the slopes, and in cleared farm lands 
on the lower ground between, or near the crests. Tlie character of 
the farm work compares with that east of Hancock, and to a consid- 
erable degree for the same reason, i e. — character of soils and dis- 
tance from transportation. The soils in the region from the top of 
Sideling Hill to Flintstone are largely shales like those between 
Clear Spring and Hancock, but in the region just east of Flintstone 
there is a stretch of valley land having a shale foundation which 


is of fair fertility. This may be due to the influence of the nearby 
limestone hills which drain into the valley, and from which the soil 
particles have been gradually washed into the lower area. 

The quality of the agricultural lands improves as the hills to 
the west of Flintstone are approached, as these and the slopes at the 
foot are composed to a considerable degree of thin limestones, with 
a considerable amount of shale in associated beds. These soils are 
of a character suited to the gro^vth of wheat and corn, and in this 
region a considerable amount of hay is also raised. Oats and rye 
are grown to a considerable extent, wheat not doing well on the 
higher ground and being replaced by the other cereals. The farm 
buildings in this limestone belt resemble those of the broad valley 
lands about HagerStown or Frederick, being of the same substantial 
character, often of the bank barn type, and large to correspond to 
the crops cared for. The contrast in a few miles between such 
barns and the log barns of the steeper slopes, and less productive 
shale soils is strong evidence along the line of soil fertility as in- 
fluenced by the source from which the soil has been derived, i e. — 
from shales of unfavorable weathering qualities, or from limestones 
which weather to fine loams. 

There are two belts of the more fertile type of soil between the 
valley at Flintstone and the edge of the Midland Zone at Cumber- 
land. The characteristics of the two areas are so similar that more 
detailed mention of them is not needed, the last paragraph giving 
the essential features. Between these fertile areas there are ex- 
posures of the same shale soils that have been seen at frequent inter- 
vals since entering the ridge region at North Mountain, and these 
continue to the immediate vicinity of the city of Cumberland, as 
may be seen by reference to the map accompanying the volume on 
Physical Features of Maryland. 


The Mountain Zone, extending from Cimiberland to the western 
boundary of the State, is a part of the Plateau area which extends 
into Pennsylvania on the north, and into West Virginia on the south 
and west. Ridges are still present, but they rise from a base already 


elevated to a considerable height before their slopes are reached, 
tlie appearance of height being less than in the region of steeper 
slopes but lower elevations about Cumberland. 

The Zone has not yet been strongly developed in an agricultural 
way, the area being less highly cultivated than the regions which 
were settled earlier. The soils are in some considerable areas of 
sandstone origin, there is some little limestone, and a series of shales 
is also present, but of a different character from those previously 
mentioned. To a large extent the whole country is still in forest, 
or in the condition of waste land that follows the ordinary method 
of lumbering, but a few sections near the railroad being under care- 
ful cultivation. 

The general features of elevation and its associated phenomena 
of temperature and moisture have been discussed in an earlier chap- 
ter, the same factors have an important bearing upon vegetation and 
hence upon agricultural practice. The general conditions of cli- 
mate in this Zone are such as to make the arrival of Spring two 
weeks later, and of Autumn two weeks earlier than in the region at 
the foot of the Mountains as at Cumberland.* Thus the growing 
season is sensibly reduced from that of the lower parts of the State, 
and has been calculated to extend, on an average, from April 15th 
to October 20th in an ordinary season. The shortening of the grow- 
ing season by two weeks at each end necessarily influences the pos- 
sible crops, and this is evident to the eye in the increased proportion 
of oats, decrease in wheat; and the presence of buckwheat as a crop 
of considerable importance. There are a few natural cranberry 
bogs from which a small local supply is gathered, and it is from 
the same or similar wet spots that the finest blue-berries are gath- 
ered in the early summer. The forest types also show the influence 
of the colder conditions, as there are present those trees which are 
characteristic of the colder sections of the country. Hemlock, Spruce 
and Tamarack. 

In the Zone as a whole there has been but a slight development 
of the agricultural resources, as compared to the other areas of the 
state. This is largely due to the prominence heretofore of the lum- 
ber industry, in its various phases. As the forest crop is removed 

*See Introduction — Climatology. 


it will be more and more possible and locally profitable, to turn to 
some form of farm practice, for which the individual section may be 
found particularly fitted. One such line of development which is 
already in active operations is the raising of hay, both from natural 
and from planted meadows. Considerable areas of the Mountain 
soils are suited to the growth of grasses, and are too shallow for sat- 
isfactory tillage. 

In the broad valley that extends from the Pennsylvania line along 
the western slope of the Great Back Bone and Big Savage Moun- 
tains, a type of valley land has developed known as the "Glades." 
These are closed valleys of shale soils, having a rim of sandstone. 
The soft shales have broken down and formed a valley through 
which a stream of sluggish current runs. The wash from the sides 
of the valley accumulates along the sides of the stream, forming 
wet marshy areas slowly rising to the slopes of the bordering hills. 
The central portion of the "Glade" is tlnis of wet and cold soil, 
Avhile the margins may be of a good quality, both as to condition 
and fertility. It is in such restricted sections that much of the 
present farming is being carried on and the best types of agriciiltural 
soils located. 

Agricultueal Products. 

The chief agricultural products of the State are corn, wheat, 
tobacco, truck crops, canning crops, and forage crops which are pro- 
duced under particular conditions which have already been discussed. 


The leading grains of the State are corn and wheat which are 
widely produced throughout the State. In the western section oats, 
rye, barley and buckwheat are likewise produced in limited areas. 

Corn. — There are few crops in cultivation that are available in 
so many ways as is corn, but this is not the place to enumerate the 
various purposes to which this product of the field is put in the in- 
dustrial or manufacturing pursuits. Here the agricultural uses arc 
of importance. There are two classes of uses to which the corn crop 
is ordinarily applied, one being limited to the fresh, the other to 
the ripe or dry crop. In each of these both the stalks and the ears are 



included, for sweet corn and green fodder are used fresh, while the 
stock is fed with the ripe ears and with the stover. The different 
sections of the country and of the State also, make different prepara- 
tions for the utilization of the crop in the respective ways mentioned. 
In truck regions the sweet corn is marketed as a vegetable for table 
use on the cob; at a little distance from the market the same type 
of corn goes to the cannery and the need for prompt use by the con- 
svmier is removed, and the fresh vegetable season becomes extended 
by the use of the canning process to include the full year. In a some- 
what similar way the dairyman may feed his stock with the freshly 

Fig. 10 Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Corn. 

cut stalks, and the green husks, cobs, and waste ears from the can- 
nery, while fresh, or he may store the succulent stalks for winter 
feeding by use of the silo, and thereby extend the season of green 
feed through the winter. 

The greatest corn crops are produced in the central part of the 
State, as will be seen from the map. But the highest yield per acre 
may easily be located in some other region, as the result of individ- 
ual farming. The highest average yield per acre, for any one 
county, was 42.8 for Harford Coimty (1899 figures), while the 
average for the State was just 30 bushels.* 

♦The census year was an extremely poor year for all farm products. The 
average yield of corn for 1905 was 36.9 bushels. 


In the counties in which both green corn for canning, and field 
corn for harvesting are grown, it is difficult to learn whether both 
are included in the crop yield figures, or are kept separate as a can- 
ning crop and a grain crop respectively. 

The counties giving the highest total crop are not identical in 
rank with those having highest acreage, though the same ones form 
the highest group of four in each case. 

In marketing two customs are evident. In those cases where 
wagon haul is possible, the corn is usually sold in the ear. But 
when the railroad is used the shelled com is shipped, leaving the 
cobs on the farm. On account of the relatively large amount of 
mineral material (ash) in the cobs, it would be good farm practice 
if the farmers would regularly shell their corn, and so sell it. The 
cobs form an excellent fuel, for quick fires and efficient heat, match- 
ing the best of cordwood. The ashes obtained, if kept from rains 
would be efficient as a top dressing, on account of the potash and 
phosphoric acid contained. 

Progressive farmers find it to their advantage to keep the mineral 
substances used by their crops, and to restore them to the soil, 
rather than to lose those elements and thereby diminish the fertility 
of their fields. 

WJieaf. — The great bread crop — wheat — is less concentrated than 
is corn, on the basis of total yield for the county. The deep loams 
of the Eastern Shore are favorable to the production of large crops, 
and the level surface renders harvesting easy. The fields there are 
less frequently disfigured with the bare areas left by the rows of 
corn shocks than is the case elsewhere in the state. 

When the wheat is sown the shock rows are often left, and in the 
spring in the Midland Zone oats are frequently sown in these spaces, 
and left to ripen after the wheat has been harvested. Some farmers 
plant as close as possible to the shocks, driving around them as they 
come to the shock-row, but this leaves spots entirely bare where the 
shocks stood, and makes the rows through that portion of the field 
curved and crossed, an effect not liked by most farmers. 

The Coastal Zone has little need for the extensive barns of the 
other areas, and the barnyard is less important as a feeding and 
shelter place for stock. 



In the central portion of the State wheat thrashing commonly 
takes place from the barn floor, the straw being thrown into the 
barnyard through a narrow high door provided for that purpose; 
the engine standing on the grade in front of the main door. This 
secures for the stock a supply of coarse fodder through the winter, 
also assists in the preparation of the yard compost, by the trampling 
of straw into the litter of the yard enclosure. In the Coastal Zone 
the thrashing commonly occurs in the open, and at several points 
the straw is used in paper manufacturing, rather than as fodder. 






>^/^",0 ■ " ^ 

Fig. 11 Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Wheat. 

This is largely due to the proportionally smaller number of cattle 
maintained in this area. The use of yard manure is largest in the 
central portion of the state, where there are numerous farm ani- 
mals. In the areas of light soils along the Bay there is little 
manure available, since there are few animals to produce the rich 
compost of litter from the barnynnl. City manure, which is much 
used in the upper regions along tlio P)ay is less beneficial to the soil 
tlian the barnyard compost. Tlio latter is much more retentive of 
moisture and helps the soil to hold its water supply in a more help- 
ful degree than does the dryer type of manure. 


Maryland is not prominent as an oat or rye producing state, but 
both of these ai-e raised in every county. Much of the oat crop is 
an adjunct of the wheat, and is grown in the bare belts left by the 
rows of corn shocks at the time of wheat seeding. But in the higher 
land of the Mountain Zone oats are grown in the field, not merely 
as a filler in the shock rows. Kye is produced in varying amounts 
throiigh the State, but there is no definite relation between its yield 
per county and other factors, as soils or climate. The leading county 
in point of yield is Carroll, where the German love for rye bread 
is an evident factor. 

Buckwheat is raised in small areas through the Midland and Moun- 
tain Zones. The total yield is less than half the rye crop, the lead- 
ing county being Garrett, which in the census year 1899 produced 
71,400 bushels, or more than half of the State's ci'op. 


The tobacco crop assumed so great an importance in the life of 
early Maryland and its sister colony Virginia, that they are hardly 
to be considered apart from it, especially if the out-of-doors side of 
their work is in mind. It was not only the chief crop to be planted, 
but the one which took most care in the handling and prei^aratioii 
after gathering, and which also was on hand the longest before its 
value became available for use. 

The last feature makes the tobacco crop somewhat like a slow 
selling stock of a merchant. His capital is tied up for a long time 
before he can realize upon it through sales. Prices may be of such 
character as to give good profit, but the risk is large and the idle 
capital is earning nothing. On the contrary it is constantly requir- 
ing more added to it in the way of further care and labor up to the 
time of sale. While this is true of other ci'ops to some extent, the 
amo^^nt of care and of labor tobacco requires after it has been re- 
moved from the field, and the length of time before it is usually 
sold is greater than in most other cases. 

The soils preferred are sandy loams or slightly firinor lands, 
which can retain the water of rainfall, and also release it to the 
needs of the growing plants. 



While tobacco is characteristic of the Coastal Zone, a considerable 
amount is now raised in the region along the lower end of Parr's 
Eidge, in parts of Montgomery, Frederick and Carroll counties. 
Here, as the seasons are not so warm as in the lower areas, the barns 
are adapted to the fliie-curing of the tobacco, as is the custom in 
the Ohio Tobacco region. 

Tobacco being a crop which can stand long hauls to market, it has 
maintained its supremacy in the coTinties of Southern Maryland 
where facilities for rapid transportation are less developed, and has 

Pig. 12 Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of 


given place to varying degrees to other croi")s in areas better fitted 
for prompt marketing of produce. 

Truck Crops. 

In the Coastal Zone there are to be fotind the broad fields of corn 
and tobacco, of wheat also, with fields of strawberries and sweet 
potatoes in the warm loamy areas. As the vicinity of Baltimore is 
reached, the area of the single fields of the general crops become 
smaller, and the various special crops included under the general 
term "truck," become more prominent. Tomatoes, sweet corn, peas 


for canneries and market, with all the different crops that contribute 
to the supply of the city dweller, are found in more abimdance as 
the hauling distance becomes less. On the Western Shore the dis- 
tance from the city at which truck growing is profitable, is in a gen- 
eral way found to be closely related to the distance easily covered 
by wagon hauling in marketing the produce. Such produce as 
melons which are brought to the wharves in the quick sailing boats 
of the Bay, are grown at a much greater distance, and the staple 
canning crop — the tomato, is extensively grown on the Eastern 
Shore and shipped to the city by steamer. 

The Eastern Shore, as a whole, is much more of a small fruit or 
truck region than the Western Shore for the presence of good rail- 
road transportation to tlie northern markets in addition to the steam 
and sailing vessels assure the grower probability of prompt market- 
ing. The water-carried produce usually goes to Baltimore; the 
railroad transportation is mostly to the cities farther north (Phil- 
adelphia and JSTew York). The commission merchants of these 
cities send their buyers into the truck and especially the fruit re- 
gions of the State, and buy the crops of the growers at the farm in 
many instances. This is quite commonly done upon the Eastern- 
Shore, and in the apple area of the western part of the State, and 
is of benefit to the grower in that he has his market come to his 
goods instead of having to send the goods to the market. The level 
nature of the Coastal Zone, and the deep rivers penetrating the land 
far back from the Bay, assist materially in the development of the 
region as a truck and fruit section. 

Of the truck crops, tomatoes lead in acreage and yield, with 
sweet corn second. Cabbage and melons are next in importance, but 
the method of recording the crop is quite different in the two groups. 
The first group, tomatoes and corn, are recorded in bushels ; the sec- 
ond, by the individual imit, head of cabbage or single melon. Peas 
and beans are quite important as truck crops, but just what pro- 
portion of the yield should be credited to the truck and which to 
the canning list is difiJcult to determine. It is quite possible that 
any given load of produce might be raised as a truck crop, but 
through the various channels of trade finally reach the consumer as 
canned goods. 



Strawberries may be discussed as a truck crop more conveniently 
than as a fruit, since it is also a canning crop. The chief straw- 
berry areas are in the sandy soil of the Coastal Zone. The crop from 
the Eastern Shore is delivered to the northern cities, Philadelphia 
and beyond, while the Western Shore berries more largely supply 
Baltimore and Washington and Pittsburg. This is in direct rela- 
tion to the lines of communication established in the respective areas. 
The markets are in general siipplied from the nearest source of 
straight shipment, as every handling adds to the cost of transporta- 
tion, and to the risk of loss to the grower. Together these add to 




lllilll '^B! .SOOO tCPM 

Fig. 13 Map of Maryland showing the acreage in Canning Crops. 

the price which the consumer jiays for his berries under normal con- 

Of the otlier berries which arc grown for market, the total crop 
is comparatively small, and does not figure in the State's business 
as does the strawberry crop. 

Anne Arundel County leads in strawlierries, and in sweet pota- 
toes also. Baltimore county is first in white potatoes and in onions. 
The total crop of sweet potatoes is about one tliird that of the white 
potato crop. 

Canning Crops. — The canning industry is one of the most im- 
portant branches or adjuncts of "Maryland Agriculture. The farmer 


in the Coastal Zone by his contracts for tomatoes knows his possible 
income in advance, and does not have to seek an uncertain market. 
The contracting feature does not assume so jDrominent a factor in 
regard to the pea and corn canning, but in each of these there is 
a nearby market assured the producer who siipjalies the canning fac- 
tory. The chief corn canning area is in the central Midland Zone, 
the other two crops, tomatoes and peas, are characteristic of the 
warmer soils of the Coastal. 

Baltimore being a market centre dra^^•s upon distant as well as 
local sources of supply. This is noticeable in the canning industry. 
Peaches form an important part of the year's output from the city 
factories, the fruit being either consigned to the canneries, or bought 
in the open market. Strawberries are not regularly canned to an im- 
portant degree, but at times of glutted markets they are so treated. 
A modification of ordinary canning is found in the preparation of 
fruit juices for use in summer drinks. Much of the strawberry fruit 
juice so used is secured in the Baltimore markets through the can- 
ning factories. 

xipples and vegetables, such as sweet potatoes and beans, are ])ut 
up imder special conditions, but such special lines have not been 
developed much beyond the point of filling in otherwise idle time 
between regular crops. 

The relative acreage in canning crops in the several counties may 
be seen from the map on the opposite page. It serves also for a 
trucking map, as the two industries are closely related in their 


In the earlier days of fruit growing the Eastern Shore joined as 
one agi-icultural unit in the production of the "Delaware Peaches" 
which still fig-ure largely in the markets of the upper Atlantic cities 
and in the adjacent interior regions. Much of the actual peach 
production however has been transferred from the Coastal Zone 
to the Midland, and is even passing beyond into the Mountain Zone 
area, in the latter case beyond the limits of our discussion into West 
Virginia. The incurable disease of the peach known as "Yellows" 
is largely responsible for the shifting of the peach industry, as when 


its activity destroyed the productive orchards in one place the busi- 
ness was developed in another, to meet the demand from the markets 
dependent upon the State for their supplies of this fruit. The 
Yellows has followed the movement of the commercial orchard 
areas, and the industry in other parts of the State is threatened. 
The importance of destroying the trees as soon as there is a sight of 
disease is now recognized as essential to its control, and the more 
thrifty growers do so as part of the season's work. 

Under present conditions the region about the upper end of the 
Blue Eidge is important in the fruit industry; and it is in this 
region that the "Mountain Peach" as a product of Maryland was 
developed. The varieties which have the word "Mountain" as part 
of their name are not confined to the high ground, as both the light 
fleshed Mountain Kareripe, and the Mountain Eose, are or were 
grown on the low elevations of the Delaware-Maryland Peninsula. 
The qualities that made the Moimtain Peach so well known were 
probably due to the conditions of growth, just as is the case in the 
growing of apples, proper regard being used for suitable varieties 
for growth. 

The character of ground used for the planting of orchards of 
either peach or apple, is preferably recently cleared woodland, and 
there is a cultivated crop, of corn usually, grown among the trees 
during the first years after planting, before the trees come into bear- 
ing. Aftei-ward it is the practice among the best growers to cultivate 
during the early part of each season, and sow some form of clover 
or cow peas to cover the soil during the ripening period and before 
the winter sets in to turn this growth under to decay as a source of 
the next season's nitrogen. Where the season is open and much rain 
is expected, the late plowing is often deferred until spring, the plants 
acting as a protection against washing. 

Grapes are grown extensively in the Blue Eidge section of the 
State, but do not take so prominent a place in the fruit markets as 
do the peaches. The large Italian or Japanese Chestnuts are grown 
to a considerable degree on the woodland slopes of the Pen Mar 
region, where the sprouts which grow from the cut stumps of the 
native chestnut are grafted with the large type and an early bearing 
orchard of the nut trees results. One gi-eat advantage of thus de- 



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veloping an orchard lies in tlie presence already of an extensive root 
system on the part of the native tree whose stump-sprout is used for 
the stock into which to graft the foreig-n scion. A difficulty the 
growers have to meet is that the early opening of the burrs allows 
insects, like the wevils, to reach the young nuts, and by laying their 
eggs in them make them wormy and unsalable. Methods of control 
are coming into use by which this loss may be diminished. 

Working upon the supposition that soil which has supported a 
crop of wild deciduous trees will maintain a cultivated crop of trees 
also, the ridges in the higher parts of the Midland Zone have been 
planted to apple orchards ; the headquarters of the industry being 
in the region near Hancock, near the western end of Washington 
County. The conditions here approximate those of the celebrated 
apple regions of New York, the extremes of the climate not being 
reached here however. This is a comparatively new form of fruit 
growing in this section and has not yet reached its full development ; 
many of the orchards being too young as yet to produce commercial 
crops. As the production increases it seems quite possible that Mar^-- 
land will become known for its apples as favorably as it now is for 
peaches and strawberries. 

Just beyond Hancock a section of good farming country is to be 
found in several broad ridges and corresponding valleys which are 
in some cases too steep for easy tillage. These are often set out in 
apple orchards, the acreage in this section being very considerable 
and on the increase. The older orchards are now coming into beai-- 
ing. As in the case of the peach, the preference is for land that 
has recently been in timber, and one may see in some of the orchards 
the waste from the lumbering still lying where it was left at the 
time of cutting. Some of the hillsides afford pasturage to the An- 
gora goat, or to sheep, both of which especially goats act as fore- 
runners to the orchard through their ability as clean feeders. The 
goats secure the necessary pasturage from the sprouts and under- 
growth, killing the undesired shrubbery about the orchard area ; after 
wards they are removed, and the trees planted with a certainty that 
much of the grovrth of woody shrubs, that often continues for sev- 
eral seasons under other conditions, will not interfere with the work 
in hand. This ability of the goats depends upon a proper proper- 


tion of animals to the area to be cleared ; there should be enough 
animals to feed upon the shoots as fast as they develop and by suc- 
cessively eating off the shoots as they are renewed, the plants are soon 
killed through the constant loss of all leaf surface, without which in 
some form no plant can long remain alive. The roots of these dead 
slirubs soon decay, and the field is thereby the more easily cared for. 
Tlie long hair (mohair) of these goats is a valuable addition to the 
revenue of the fann, and comes in as almost clear profit so far as 
cost of food is concerned. 

One feature concerned in the clearing of the slopes, and planting 
to orchards, lies in the resulting washing of the soils. Under the 
modern method of cultivation of commercial orchards, the soil is 
bare during the season of the early summer when the rains are often 
heavy and driving. Under clean tillage the soil is easily washed 
away in such a rain-fall and gullying results. The time since the 
orchards were set out is too short to be able to make any statement 
as to injury actually done, but this is certainly a source of loss to 
the orchard ist, through the removal of the better portions of the 
soil near the top, as well as to his valley fields upon Avhich the debris 
and waste of the steeper fields are washed. Some keep a strip of 
some kind of green plant, cow-peas, rye, or other quick growing crop, 
in the space midway between the rows of trees through the season 
when the cultivation is going on, this being turned under and the 
whole planted to a quick growing crop about mid-season. The e.\- 
j)osure of the whole surface is thus materially reduced, and the con- 
ditions of washing and gnillying thereby lessened. 

Forage Crops. 

One of the imjwrtant sources of forage is found in the leaves and 
stalks of corn. 

The dry stover is prepared in two ways ; either by "pulling blades" 
and "topping," which is most common in the Coastal Zone, or by 
"cutting corn," as is commonly practised in the other Zones of the 

The method of saving fodder by the former system is thus de- 
scribed by one who is located upon a large farm in Worcester County ; 
the details may be slightly different elsewhere. The description is 


inserted to show the amount of labor involved in the method, as 
compared to the other methods, i. e., cutting the stalk at the ground 
and shocking, or running the whole plant with or without the ears, 
through sliredding or chopping machines. 

Three men together work down two rows, the first man cutting 
tops, and the two following him pulling blades. The tops from eight 
liills are thrown together as the men take the two rows and on the 
return trip the tops from eight other hills are added to the pile 
making a "stoop" of 16 hills. The blades have been pulled by the 
strippers and made into "bunches" which are tied with a blade of 
fodder and hung upon the standing portion of the stalk to cure. The 
next step is to tie up the tops which have been lying in the "stoop" 
for a day. Two or three of these are tied into a "tie" or bunch, 
using a tough stalk for the purpose, thus putting tops of 32 or 48 
hills together, according to the rankness of the fodder; these three 
"ties" are stood together to cure until time to stack. In stacking, 
100 bunches or "ties" are set up first, being bixilt about a center 
pole ; on the top of the tops which thus act as a foundation the blades 
from the same stalks are added, the whole arranged to shed water 
like a thatch roof. With one hundred ties to the stack, there are 
4800 hills accounted for in each stack, or a square of nearly 70 hills 
to a side. The men each receive 10c to 15c per hour, and put in 
ten hours as an average day. 

In thus gathering fodder, the ground is gone over several times, 
once to cut tops and strip blades, again to gather these into "ties" 
and to put the "ties" into trios of three ties each, to cure. A third 
trip over the ground is required in collecting these "trios" into the 
final stacks of 100 ties. The entire field must be gone over three 
times with no account taken of the short steps required in collecting 
the material into the successively larger units at the different times. 

As a substitute for hay this type of fodder is perhaps better than 
the others, especially for horses, as the coarsest portions are left in 
the field, but the hand labor involved is comparable to that required 
to gather grain by cradling instead of by some of the horse-power 
reaping machines. 

The ears may be husked from the standing stalk, or as is more 
often the case, broken off and husked at leisure, often with pleasure 


attendant, as at ''husking bees." The stalks and what may be left 
of the husks or blades, are usually left to be turned under in the 
spring and afford some exercise to stock during the outdoor weather 
of the winter months. 

In "cutting corn" the procedure is more simple, and the utiliza- 
tion of the fodder is more complete. The essential difference lies in 
the cutting of the stalk close to the ground, with the blades, ears, 
and top in place, and curing the whole plant in shocks, as were the 
tops in the first method. In this method the field is ordinarily 
planted promptly to wheat, the corn rows being disc-harrowed or 
otherwise loosened for the sowing of the grain, and this is in the 
ground before the corn is husked from the shocked stalks. The 
fodder is in this case usually fed to the cattle only, the other stock 
having hay in the more common cases. The fodder is usually thrown 
into the barnyard, or into a pasture field, and the cattle soon strip 
the blades and other edible parts tramping and breaking the rest as 
they move about. In the yard this is helpful in the general prepara- 
tion of the compost, but when fed in the field there is nearly complete 
loss in utility of the coarser parts. 

The use of self-binding corn harvesters is not so common in this 
state as in some of those farther West, but they are often used where 
the corn is to be stored in a silo. TJie harvester makes bundles of 
a size convenient to handle at the cutting machine, and works more 
rapidly than hand labor. It is possible to cut silage direct from the 
field by the use of the harvester, which cuts about as fast as the 
bundles are hauled to the barn and fed to the silage cutter. The 
corn is usually harvested for this purpose when the kernels are past 
the "milk" condition and becoming mealy when cut by the thumb 

Siloes. — The use of siloes is so much more customary now than 
a few years ago that it is hardly necessary to describe the construc- 
tion of them. The common type is the "stave silo," located just out- 
side the barn, and rising to about the same height as the eaves. The 
essential point in these, as contrasted to the older pit or stone siloes 
lies in the entire absence of corners, and the possibility of keeping 
the structure tight by the long screw rods which, like hoops of a 
barrel, are placed at intervals about the cylindrical tank which forms 


the silo of this type. A cement foundation is provided to assure a 
firm base and the rest is built of lumber, dressed on the inside at 
least, if not on both sides. JSTo rough points, or corners are left, and 
the finely cut ensilage is packed well against the walls, well dis- 
tributed elsewhere, and any holes or spaces carefully guarded 
against, contact with the air being the danger to be avoided, as spoiled 
silage results. The loss from this cause in a well packed, and 
tightly built silo, is not usually more than the top eight to twelve 
inches, and after the silage is ready for use, the injury rarely ex- 
tends further. 

By the use of ensilage the entire corn plant is utilized, excejjt the 
lowest six or eight inches of the stalk which are left as stubble, and 
the richness of fresh fodder is largely preserved. To a less degree 
the feeding value of the dry stalks may be retained through the use 
of the various shredding machines, and feed cutters. These tear and 
chop the stalks and attached blades, husks, and ears if there are any 
left, into pieces so small as to be easily eaten by cattle with almost 
no waste. The shredded fodder is almost ideal bedding material, 
as its absorbing power is very great, and its fine condition makes its 
distribution as bedding and later as compost, much more convenient 
than is possible with coarse litter. There are machines on the mar- 
ket which will take loose bimdles of stalks and reduce the stalks 
and blades to shredded fodder, and at the same time husk the ears, 
throwing these to one side ; however, there does not seem to be much 
call for these in this State, none having been seen in use during the 
past two seasons. 

Cost. — The practice of "pulling blades" as the method first de- 
scribed is often called, is a common but expensive one. The rate 
paid for the labor necessary to gather the fodder makes the bulk 
equivalent of a ton of timothy hay cost as much as the hay itself. 
lu some localities it is the custom for men or boys not otherwise 
occupied at the time to hire out to "pull blades" at a rate of a dol- 
lar a day, and to spend a considerable time in this work. The rate 
paid is sometimes reckoned on the quantity prepared, especially 
if done in part on shares, the basis being the amount which is gath- 
ered into the piles or shocks which have been mentioned, and which 



form the means of calculating the fodder yield of the crop. The 
custom is one that requires a great amount of time for the return 
received. Most of this is saved in the process of ensilage making. 
The use of the corn harvester is of value in cutting the ripe corn 
just as much as in gathering for the silo, and this reduces the amount 
of travel over the same ground to a large degree and much of that 
which is still necessary is done by draught animals rather than by 
laborers on foot. It is thought by some that the quality of the corn 
from topped fields is not so good as that from adjacent fields in 

Fig. 14.— Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Hay. 

which the entire stalk was cut at the proper time, both ripening in 
the field in the manner customary in the resjiective cases. The dif- 
ferences were found through careful analyses, and while hardly 
enough to influence ordinary feeding uses, might be of considerable 
influence in the seed qiiality of the corn for the next crop. 

The several methods of utilizing the corn crop are somewhat char- 
acteristic of the several Zones of the State; the top-and-blade gath- 
ering being largely prevalent in the Coastal, while the use of the 
siloes is most common in the Midland Zone. The use of the stover 
or whole fodder, is common in the upper part of the Coastal, and in 
both Midland and Mountain Zones, the areas overlapping in this 
feature more than in the other two, biit the limits are not sharply 
drawn for either. 


Hay. — As miglit be supposed, the soils that are favoi-able to the 
dairy industry are also well suited to the production of hay, and 
in the sections too far from transportation to make the shipping of 
milk a profitable business the raising of hay for sale in the baled 
form or loose, becomes of importance. The higher areas of the Mid- 
land Zone, and some portions of the Mountain Zone are important 
factors in the hay supply of the Baltimore and Washington markets. 

There are some natural meadows from which commercial hay is 
cut, but more frequently this wild hay is used at home. Most of 
the hay sold is that from the clover-timothy steps in crop rotation, 
as these are a standard in the market. Incident to the production 
of hay comes the production of seed for the replanting of the crop. 
Both clover and grass seed are raised to some extent in this State, 
although neither becomes of great importance in the general market. 


Dairying has become an important element in the State's agri- 
culture, and this is found to be directly related, according to present 
methods, to the soils of the several sections. It has been expressed 
in saying that "one cannot raise milk where the blue-grass does not 
grow naturally." This means that in those parts of the State in 
which the native grasses do not form a turf, as does the blue-grass, 
there is little use in raising dairy cattle ; for the absence of pasturage 
is in most cases a determining factor against the production of milk 
in commercial amounts. It vidll be seen from the maps on pages 348 
and 350 that the Coastal Zone is very largely in the area of unfavor- 
able soil conditions, hence lying outside the present dairy area. 

If, however, the present methods should be changed, so that the 
\ise of large fields for pasturage would be unnecessary, the food 
material being secured in some other way, as by fodder crops, soil- 
ing crops, or ensilage, the profitable limits of the dairy area could 
be extended to include some of the lighter loams not now available 
for such purposes. 

Some people have objected to the use of ensilage because of the 
possible flavor the milk might receive from the feed. It has been 
found that if the ration of silage be given immediately after milk- 
ing instead of before or while milking, there will be no flavor im- 



parted to the milk from the food, and the full benefit of the suc- 
culent milk producing material will be received. 

The greatest development of the dairying industry is of course 
in regions convenient to the large cities, where the milk can be de- 
livered promptly by the railroads. The presence of towns of con- 
siderable size in the central part of the State helps to distribute the 
milk industry over a broader area. The natural pasturage which 
prevails in the northern part of the State is an important factor 
in the success of the dairy farmer. 

Fig. 15 Map of Maryland showing the relative Annual Production of Milk. 

The sale of milk removes comparatively little fertility from the 
farm, as the chief components of milk are similar to those of green 
plants; i. e., water and carbon compounds which contain but little 
ash or mineral matter. By keeping the other produce on the farm 
for home consumption, the general fertility of one's land would in- 
crease rather than decrease from time to time. 

Farm Animals. 

Through the region of firm soils which favor the dairy industry, 
there is an accompanying line of agriciilture closely related to it in 
many ways, the feeding of beef cattle. It is the practice of many 
farmers to buy cattle of tlie beef type in the fall, stall feed them 






through the winter and in the spring sell for the export trade. Other 
farmers where pasture is abundant carry their steers through the 
winter on the coarse forage of the farm, fatten on pasture during the 
summer and sell as "grassers" in the fall. The careful farmer thus 
gains in two ways by the increased valuation at time of sale, and 
by the accumulated fertility during feeding time, which is of no 
little permanent value in the upbuilding of the farm's capacity for 
crops. In case the farm is located in convenient relation to corn 
canning factories, the waste from the cannery — cobs, husks, refuse 
ears, etc., is often secured by the growers and fed either fresh to 
dairy or as ensilage to both dairy and beef cattle. This particular 
feature may be found around Westminster or Frederick, both being 
important centers in each of the three lines mentioned, dairy, can- 
ning and beef raising. 

The "Glades" that occur in the Mountain Zone were important 
natiiral pasture lands before the separation of Garrett from the 
older Allegany County. Their pasture character is still important, 
as the firm deep soil with usually a sufficient supply of moisture, is 
well fitted to the growth of the grasses of the pasture type. Both 
sheep and cattle are raised in these areas, and they also afford nat- 
urally favorable conditions for hay raising. 

The raising of sheep is developed to a considerable business in 
the two extremes of the State, the Mountain Zone and the Eastern 
Shore District of the Coastal Zone. The counties in which there 
are any considerable number of sheep are Garrett, and the three 
counties from the Sassafras to the Choptank, — Kent, Queen Anne's 
and Talbot, the loam soils of these areas giving good pasturage for 

Other animals which are important in Maryland, are pigs and 
horses. The former are raised in small numbers quite generally 
over the State, but the pasture counties of the Midland Zone are the 
ones where horses are produced. 

Rotaiion of Crops. 

Crop rotations have much to do with the general maintenance of 
fertility of the farm lands, and the particular rotation practised is 
found to be quite different in the several sections of the State. In 


general the plan is best developed from the theoretical standpoint 
at least, in the Midland Zone, where the soil conditions make possi- 
ble a choice of several types of crops which may be grown in sucli 
order as to form a beneficial succession on a given field. 

The theory of crop rotation is that a continued cropping of one 
kind of plant in some way diminishes the available supply of the 
particular elements of soil fertility which that plant requires in 
greatest degree, this loss being met and counteracted by introducing 
other crops which add available plant food to the soil or at least 
draw vipon the soil materials in different proportion from the first 
crop. Whether the effect is exactly as stated or not is of secondary 
importance here, the point being that a succession of crops average 
better than a long continuance of a single one, upon a given area of 
land. Most farmers practise some type of rotation, and the choice 
of successive crops varies with the section of the State in which the 
farm may be located. 

Rotations of the Midland and Western Zones are based upon the 
maintenance of each field for at least two seasons in a clover and 
timothy sod. In the Midland Zone the typical rotation may be 
taken as starting with corn ; this is usually followed by wheat in the 
fall of the same year. After the wheat is off, the stubble is usually 
plowed, and after a period of fallowing, often omitted, may be again 
sown in wheat, with timothy and clover, the former seeded with the 
wheat, the latter the following spring. The field is allowed to re- 
main in hay for two years, being pastured to some extent after each 
mowing. After the second year of hay, the sod is usually turned 
under and corn comes again as the next crop. 

In case the farmer has a permanent pasture to develoi? at inter- 
vals, it is usually done as the natural outgrowth of the hay field, 
the use as pasture coming in as the yield of hay diminishes after a 
few years of cutting. In those sections where the pastures are nat- 
iiral and do not need to be planted the hay fields are pastured only 
sufficiently to keep down a too luxuriant aftermath. 

The conditions in parts of the Coastal Zone are such that the 
clover item is often omitted, on account of the difficulty of securing 
a crop of this plant. In some cases cow-peas or other legumes of 
similar type are substituted for the clover, or in a growing number 

:makyland weatiiek service 353 

of cases, alfalfa is the crop planted. The particular form of legume 
must be selected to suit the local conditions of soil and climate. 
Tobacco comes into the rotation in the section of the Zone along the 
western shore of the Bay, and in the rotation as given above it may 
be considered as substituted for the hay crop of the cycle, reducing 
the rotation to three instead of four years; corn, wheat, tobacco, 
being the order in this case, while corn, wheat, hay, hay was the 
order before. 

The introduction of such crops as potatoes, into the general farm 
rotation or of the several truck and canning crops in the truck areas, 
causes a variation from the rotation order as outlined. This has 
more or less importance as the area of the field is wholly involved 
or only a portion of it receives the special crop. In the truck areas 
the regular rotation of staple crops is less apparent, as the land is 
under more continuous cropping and practically every crop receives 
its share of fertilizer or manure. In the effort to keep the land in 
crop the truck farmer rarely alternates the type of plants grown to 
a degree sufficient to meet the theoretical conditions for rotation 
suggested above. The trucker has this advantage over the regular 
farmer, — ^much of his produce is green vegetation, as lettuce, 
spinach, cabbage, etc., comparatively little developing to the point 
of ripe seeds, as is the regular thing with such crops as corn and 
wheat. It is the latter type of crop that is hard on the fertility of 
a field, because of the amount of phosphoric acid taken in the ripen- 
ing of the seeds. Green crops take very little of soil fertility from 
the land, for the solid substance is largely derived from the air as 
carbonic acid, and built into the cellular tissues of leaf or stalk, 
the cells being filled with the juices of the plant, or with such other 
material as starch, of a similar character to the cells themselves, as 
regards composition. Such crops withdraw but little fertility from 
the soil, as one can determine for himself by comparing the amount 
of ashes left by a few pounds of cabbage or lettuce or some fresh 
fodder crop with that left by the same weight of wheat or corn. 

There are other sources of loss in the fertility of one's farm land, 
and one of these is the gullying and washing of plowed ground. 

When it is desirable to cultivate fields having steep slopes the 
method of plowing known as "contour plowing" can be used to ad- 


vantage. In this method the furrows are run around the hill in- 
stead of up and down the slopes. Each furrow thus acts as a terrace 
to check the rush of water, and by retaining the first accumulation 
permits a longer period for soil absorption. In a moderate rain such 
check to the beginning of the rivulets may prevent the washing, and 
the field thus escape serious cutting or gullying for a considerable 
time. The damage done by washes in the fields may be seen to some 
extent on almost any slope in Southern Maryland, the Midland 
Zone, or in the higher land westward. The damage is done not 
only by the carrying away of the soil from the field which is cut 
and gullied, but the lower fields and meadows or pastures are to 
an often serious degree injured by the deposition of the transported 
material. While the damage by sudden bursts of extreme rainfall, 
can not be avoided, the amount could be decreased, and in normal 
rains materially reduced by a little more care in methods of tillage, 
and of selection of fields for cultivation. 


The figures given in the following tables are taken from the 
United States Census for 1900. The details there available are 
more complete than in other sources at hand, and their value for 
comparison is not lost by the passing of a few years. The actual 
figures would vary considerably from one year to another, according 
to climatic factors, but the relative amounts would not be subject to 
such immediate fluctuations. Thus the amount spent for Labor 
and for Fertilizers in the several counties will not be the same in 
any two years. But the amount spent in Baltimore County will 
not vai-y much as compared with the amount spent in Calvert County 
in the same year. 

It will be noted that those counties Avhich rank high in expendi- 
ture stand high also in values of produce. Another comparison 
quickly made, is between the values of farm buildings in the dif- 
ferent counties, high total values being associated with those coun- 
ties which are so situated as to require winter shelter for crops and 
animals. By comparing the value of Farm Implements for diiferent 
counties, the type of farm practice may be judged in a general way. 






Anne Arundel. 













Montgomery . . . 
Prince George's 
Queen Anne's.. 
Saint Mary's. . . 



Washington. . . . 

















1 ,521 










Tools, &c. 





$ 669,940 

§ 136,730 

$ 58,600 

f 16,480 

Anne Ariunlel. . 














(SO, 100 

















4 773 490 

3 0-»4 8"0 





























4,1 60,360 
















Montgomery... . 






Prince George's. 






Queen Anne's. . 


















Washington .... 












AA'orcester . . . . 







































Anne Animlel. 




















Cal vert 




























































1" rederii-k 










( iarrett 










Ilarfor.l .... 






























Montgomery . . 










Pr. George's. . 










Qneen Anne's. 










Saint Mary's. . 






























Washington. . . 










Vt icomico 



























279,550 357,224 



















$ 338,974 



$ 113,577 

Anne Arundel. . . 


























Carroll . 










































































1 ,92(; 





Prince George's. 








Queen Anne's. . 





1 ,549,988 



Saint Mary's 












































589, 65t' 









' 64,040,517 



•Amount marketed 5,828,684 pounds. 


Table Siiowixg Acreage of Truck Crops. 

Baltimore District: 

Anne Arundel County 15,946 acres. 

Baltimore County 11,843 acres. 

Carroll County 2,060 acres. 

Harford County 16,750 acres. 

Howard County 670 acres. 

47,169 acres. 
Eastern Shore District: 

Caroline County 5,721 acres. 

Cecil County 1,607 acres. 

Dorchester County 5,328 acres. 

Kent County 2,495 acres. 

Queen Anne's County 1,530 acres. 

Somerset County 1,303 acres. 

Talbot County 1,887 acres. 

Wicomico County 3,718 acres. 

Worcester County 591 acres. 

24,180 acres. 

Frederick County 3,056 acres. 

Garrett County 6 acres. 

Montgomery County 201 acres. 

Prince George's County 3,507 acres. 

St. Mary's County 350 acres. 

Washington County 332 acres. 

7,452 acres. 
Table Showing Productiox a.\d Acreage of Tobacco. 

Lbs. Acres. 

Allegany County 140 .... 

Anne Arundel County 3,350,250 6,067 

Baltimore County 3.160 6 

Calvert County 4,768,180 10,137 

Carroll County 65,300 83 

Charles County 5,584,560 9,002 

Dorchester County 3,000 3 

Frederick County 125,330 161 

Harford County 73,690 70 

Howard County 89,680 115 

Montgomery County 431,960 553 

Prince George's County 5.542,080 10,466 

St. Mary's County 4,551,350 6,244 

Wicomico County 200 1 

Worcester 600 3 

24.589,480 42,911 








From the early records it is evident that at one time nearly the 
entire laud area of the State was covered with forests. The changes 
hronght about by settlement and the advance of agriculture in the 
last 250 years, have completely altered the relation between the for- 
est land and the cleared land. Whereas, formerly, the woodlands 
covered at least 90% of the land area they now occupy but 35%. 
This change has perhaps been more pronounced in Southern Mary- 
land than in any other part of the State because it was in this sec- 
tion that the first settlements were made. The clearing of land 
went on with the growth of population with increased vigor, until 
about 1860, when the maximum was reached. Since that time more 
land has been abandoned and has reverted to forests than has been 
cleared, so the woodland area is slowly growing in extent. In Cen- 
tral Maryland where the advance of settlement came later, the clear- 
ing of land has been more gradual, but has continued regularly until 
the forests have been reduced to the minimum amount commensu- 
rate with supplying the local demand. This section has the smallest 
per cent, of forest lands of any in the State. The western part of 
the State — almost entirely of a mountainous character — ^has not in- 
vited agTicultural development to the same extent as the other sec- 
tions and there is, therefore, a relatively large per cent, of woodland. 
In the second place the cutting away of the forest has brought about 
changes in the distribiition of species. This is particularly notice- 
able in the case of pine. In the original forest there was scarcely 
any pine — but now in the southern part of the State at least 30% 
of the woodland area is in pine stands. This has been brought 
about by the abandonment of cleared fields that were no longer 


productive under the existing metliods of farming. Such fields, 
particularly those of a light sandy soil, were rapidly seeded to pine 
from the scattering pine stands. On the other hand in the western 
part of the State where white pine and pitch pine originally formed 
extensive forests, there has been a marked decrease in the repre- 
sentation of pine. Forty years ago when lumbering operations on. 
a large scale began in this region the valuable white pine stands 
were the first to be cut. So complete was the cutting, and so disas- 
trous the forest fires which followed, that white pine has been prac- 
tically eliminated as a commercial timber tree. The pitch pine is 
a much less valuable tree, and consequently has fared somewhat bet- 
ter. However, practically all pure stands of this species have been 
cut, and now the tree is confined to scattered stands mixed with 
hardwoods, the latter because of greater persistence after fires, are 
gaining the supremacy until in time the pitch pine along with the 
white pine will probably exist only as isolated specimens in the for- 
est. On the fertile soils of Central Maryland pine never has been 
an important tree and since lands once cleared are seldom allowed 
to revert to forest there is little chance of the extension of pine 
areas in this section. 

In the third place there has been a significant change in the rep- 
resentation of species in the mixed hardwood stands. This is 
largely the result of the persistent culling of the forests that has 
been so universally practiced. Years ago, when lumbering began, 
only the best trees of the most valuable species had a market value 
and they were, therefore, the only ones to be cut. All defective trees 
and those of inferior species were left in undisturbed possession. 
Later on, as smaller material became valuable, the forest was again 
culled for the best and this has been repeated many times until in 
most cases there is left only defective trees and those of unmer- 
chantable species. As a result the walnut, cherry, yellow poplar 
and white oak, so largely represented in the original forest, have 
largely given away to the less desirable species such as black oaks, 
beech, black gum, red gum, red maples and underbrush such as iron 
wood, dogwood, and the like. Forest fires have also contributed 
toward changes in the representation of species by killing out those 
that are less fire resistant and creating openings which are then oc- 


cupied by some of the light seeded species such as maple, red gum, 
birch, pine, etc. These changes have come about gradually over the 
entire state and have produced forests of quite different character 
from those that originally existed. Not only do the forests vary 
within themselves, but they are of very different character in the 
various sections of the state because of the marked differences in 
elevation and soil conditions. A detailed description of the forests 
will therefore appropriately follow along the lines of natural 

Forest Regions of Maryland. 

As regards its forests, the State may be divided into three princi- 
pal divisions corresponding to the main physiographic regions — 
namely the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont Plateau and Blue Ridge, 
and the Alleghany Plateau; each presenting decided differences in 
elevation and soil conditions, giving rise to corresponding variations 
in the composition of the forests and its products. 

the coastal tlain. 

The main features of the Coastal Plain section are its even toijog- 
raphy and slight variation in soil condition resulting in few forest 
types. It is the only section of the state where pine is found abun- 
dantly. The Coastal Plain section can be sub-divided into two divi- 
sions, namely. Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland. 

The Eastern Shore. — The Eastern Shore forests consist of two 
main types, pines and hardwoods. The pines, as a rule, occupy the 
better drained soils, and especially those of a sandy character, while 
the hardwood forests in the main are confined to the swam^jy areas, 
and to the heavier clay soils. The principal pine found on the east- 
ern shore is the loboUy pine which is particularly abundant in the 
southern portion of the peninsula. In the northern counties of the 
Eastern Shore the scrub pine is found in similar locations. The 
pine stands are nearly always foimd coming in on old fields that 
have been abandoned, and indeed this appears to be the history of 
the present pine stands in all parts of Southern and Eastern Mary- 
land. The loblolly pine forms pure stands, usually of even age, and 


occupies about thirty per cent, of the forest area of this section. The 
scrub pine forests are of small extent and of little commercial im- 
portance. They occur in parts of Queen Anne's, Kent and Cecil 
counties, but are always in small areas. The pitch pine, sometimes 
called foxtail pine, is found rmly sparingly in the central counties 
of the Eastern Shore, and though superior to the scrub pine as a 
tindjer tree is of little importance because of its limited distribu- 
tion. The pine forests of the Eastern Shore cover about forty per 
cent, of the total forest area and fui-nish about seventy per cent, of 
the timber cut. The present stand of merchantable pine is 538,303,- 
000 board feet having a stumpage value of approximately $2,320,000. 

The hardwood forest may be divided into two main types, namely, 
the upland type growing on well drained soils, and the swamp type, 
occupying the swamps exclusively. The upland hardwoods are more 
valuable because of better soil conditions. Their general excellence 
is reflected in greater height growth, better development, and in- 
creased per cent, of the more valuable species. The principal com- 
mercial species are the oaks, hickory, yellow poplar, maple and red 

The swamp type occupies large areas in tlie southern counties 
as far north as Queen Anne's County, where it gives way to the 
upland type. The characteristic species are red gum, black gum, red 
maple, pin oak and willow oak. Since the water table is so near the 
surface, the root system of the swamp hardwoods is necessarily 
shallow, producing trees mostly of a low, scrubby growth and of 
relatively small per acre value as compared with the upland type. 

The eastern shore hardwood forests cover about sixty per cent, 
of the wooded area. The present merchantable stand is 408,000,000 
board feet with an approximate stumpage value of $816,000. 

Forest Products. — The loblolly pine forests furnish most of the 
timber that is cut. The principal uses are for lumber, mine props 
and cordwood. Most stands are cut as soon as they reach merchant- 
able size, that is to say, when the trees attain an average diameter 
of twelve to fifteen inches. As a rule, the stands are not allowed to 
grow large enough to make more than the poorer grades of lumber 
(chiefly used for box boards) and rougli lumber to supply the local 








demand. The timber is mostly cut by portable mills, though there 
are a few large mills on the peninsula. During the past few years 
the mine timber industry has gained considerable prominence, es- 
pecially where railroad shipping is feasible. Long sticks with a mid- 
dle diameter of from 10" to 18" are most in demand, and these are 
shipped generally by rail in the log to the anthracite coal regions of 
Pennsylvania. Several thousand cords of cordwood are cut every 
year in this section, and shipped by water and by rail to Baltimore, 
Wilmington, Philadelphia and other cities. 

There was formerly a large quantity of cypress along the Poco- 
moke Kiver, and its tributaries, but this has been almost entirely 
cut out. All hardwoods are cut to a greater or less extent, but the 
main cut is confined to but few species, namely white oak for bridge 
timber and ship building, mixed oaks for piling, red g-um for saw 
timber, and for cutting into veneer for the manufacture of berry, 
tomato and peach baskets. The swamp hardwoods, owing to the 
poor quality of material and difficulty of getting out the timber, 
have not been cut closely. On the other hand in the northern coun- 
ties where pine is less abundant, and the hardwoods of better quality, 
these stands have been cut closely for timber of all kinds, especially 
for local uses. 

The importance of the forest of the Eastern Shore section is em- 
phasized by the following facts : 

1^ — The mild climate and long growing season produce ideal con- 
ditions of growth. 

'2 — The soil is especially adapted to the growing of timber, and 
on much of the land it will be a more profitable crop than anything 

3 — The loblolly pine, a native tree of the region, is, without doubt, 
the most important timber tree of the state because of its exceedingly 
rapid gi-owth and the marketable value of its timber product. It 
forms extensive forests which, if properly managed, will insure a 
source of niiich wealth to the peninsula. 

i — The natural protection against forest fires is exceptionally 
good, and as a result forest fires are not common. This with the 


other favorable conditions enumerated above makes investment in 
timber property a safe and profitable one. 

5 — Transportation facilities, both by water and by rail, give this 
section the advantage of the best markets and therefore the best 
timber prices. 

Southern Maryland. — The forests of southern Maryland repre- 
sent 45% of the total land area and have an approximate stumpage 
value of $1,498,067. The three principal forest types are mixed 
hardvi^ood, mixed hardwood and pine, and pure pine. The mixed 
hardwood type covers the largest area and as a rule occupies the low 
ground in, and around swamps, also along the ravines. The principal 
species of this type are white oak, chestnut, black oak, maple, red 
gum, hickory and black gum. 

The mixed hardwood and jiine type occupies the higher ground 
bordering the mixed hardwood type, and represents the well drained 
areas that have never been cleared for agricultural purposes. The 
predominating species are scrub pine, white and black oaks, chestnut, 
black gum, hickory and post oak, and in the southern part of St. 
Mary's County a small amount of loblolly pine. 

The pure pine type occurs on the upland soils that were once 
cleared for farming purposes and have since been abandoned. The 
extent of pine forests is, therefore, a good index of the amount of 
land once cultivated that has since reverted to forest. Scrub pine is 
the prevailing tree of this type occupying undisputed possession of 
the pine areas in the northern and central part with the exception 
of pitch pine in a very limited way. The latter pine comes in 
slightly, on sandy places around swamps in Anne Arundel County, 
and to a less extent in Prince George's County. In the southern 
half of St. Mary's County most of the pine stands consist of pure 
scrub pine but the loblolly pine also occupies large areas, and in 
some cases there are mixtures of the two species in the same stand. 

The forests of Southern Maryland have been more severely cut 
over than those of any other section. The timber business has been 
prominent for many years, and even now the timber products are 
only exceeded by those of agriculture. The accessibility of the for- 
ests by reason of several railroads in the north and good water trans- 


portation on the south, invited early exploitation. At first the more 
valuable woods, like black walnut, yellow poplar, cherry and the 
choicest oaks were cut. Then the forest was culled again for the 
best of the remaining saw timber. Another visitation removed the 
railroad ties, telegraph and telephone poles, and now the inferior 
grades, that heretofore could not be cut profitably, are finding a ready 
market. The scrub pine and red gum, two species formerly of no 
value, are now eagerly sought, the first for pulp wood and the sec- 
ond for the ciitting of veneer. Portable mills are in operation every- 

Forest Products. — The principal products are lumber (of wliich a 
considerable portion is \ised locally), and for which nearly all species 
are cut, but more especially, the oaks, pines and poplars; railroad 
ties are of oak and chestnut ; pulpwood, of scrub pine, poplar and 
red gum ; telegraph and telephone poles almost exclusively of chest- 
nut ; piles for which a variety of oaks and pine are used ; and veneer 
made principally from red gum but also from poplar. 

The forests of Southern Maryland have been one of her main 
sources of wealth for many years, and will always be one of the most 
important assets. Excessive cutting, particularly the close cutting 
of the valuable species, has seriously impaired the productiveness 
of the woodlands, so that the present forests are totally unlike the 
original ones, or indeed those that can be made to grow under judi- 
cious treatment. The favorable conditions are good climate and soil, 
cheap land (making it possible to grow timber at a good profit), val- 
uable native species, reasonably good forest fire protection, and ease 
of getting out forest produce. 

The restoration of the forests to their maximum of production 
must proceed along three main lines. (1) Improvement cuttings, 
which have for their object the removal of inferior species and de- 
fective trees of all classes to make room for a more valuable growth. 
(2) Reproduction cuttings in old stands where there is insufficient 
young growth. This could be accomplished by thinnings in the stand 
to let in light and to favor seed production and seed germination; 
then as seeding is accomplished the parent trees may be removed 
to give the young seedlings full opportunity for their best develop- 


ment. (3) Planting seed or young seedlings where open places 
occur in the woods, and where natural seeding may not be expected. 
This should be done to thicken up the stand to the point where it 
is fully stocked, thus leaving no idle ground. (4) Protection against 
forest fires, without which conservative forest management is im- 


The forests of this section are almost exclusively hardwood in 
character, but the rolling nature of the topography producing differ- 
ences in soil and moisture conditions, gives gi'eat variety to the 
hardwood species. The soil is one well adapted for tree growth, 
and in consequence, the timber of this section is better developed 
than in any other region of the state. The good height development, 
and the general vigor of the trees themslves is an index of the fer- 
tility and depth of the soil so characteristic of the Piedmont Plateau. 
The per cent, of forest land in this section is smaller than elsewhere 
and is confined to relatively small areas, usually from 10 to 50 acres 
on farms of 200 acres or less. Land has a high agricultural value, 
and consequently the woodlots are usually restricted to the less arable 
portions of the farms. Where they do occupy good land, they are 
reduced to the minimuna acreage reqiiired to supply home needs. 
Tlie woodlands are likewise better cared for, and produce higher 
yields than is the case where land is cheap and the product of little 

Forest Types. 

The differences in forest types is largely determined by soil mois- 
ture, and does not lead to such sharp contrasts as was observed in 
swamps and uplands of the Coastal Plain area. The two principal 
types are the Ridge and Slope tyjjes. 

The Ridge Type of forest, as the name implies, occupies the ridges 
and higher locations, where absence of any considerable amount of 
soil moisture confines the species to such trees as can endure drought 
conditions. The principal tree species represented are chestnut, 
black oak, Spanish oak, chestnut oak, white oak, hickory. The Blue 


Ridge section is entirely of this t^-pe, and is the largest continuous 
area represented. In addition there are some of the higher ridges 
above stream beds, such as along Rock Creek, and the Gunpowder, 
also numerous rocky ridges and knolls scattered over the farm lands. 
The rate of growth under such \mfavorable conditions is less rapid, 
and because of the prevalence of forest fires during the dry seasons 
of the year (spring and fall), the timber is generally more or less 
scrubby and poor. This type of the forest is drawia upon largely for 
fuel wood, and to some extent for railroad ties, as well as for fur- 
nishing some of the poorer grades of saw timber. 

The slope type of forest is found on the lower slopes of ridges, the 
alluvial soil of the benches adjacent to streams, and the isolated 
slopes of easy gradient, everywhere. It embraces all forest land, not 
of the ridge type, and hence includes a relatively small area of the 
lowland type in Baltimore, Harford and Cecil counties adjacent to 
the Chesapeake Bay, where the forests approach the swamp type. 
Occupying, as it does, the rich, deep, soils of good drainage, it com- 
prises the best timber of the Piedmont Section. The predominating 
sjjecies are white oak, poplar, red maple, black gum, red oak, pin 
oak and chestnut. 

The chestnut, a common species of this region, will not thrive on 
the limestone soils and therefore it is absent from the forests of the 
valleys of Washington and Frederick counties and parts of Carroll 
County, while on the granite and sandstone soils of the other counties 
it is perhaps the most common species. The chestnut is a good illus- 
tration of the way soil regulates the distribution of tree species. 

Very little timber is shipped out, as the local demand for building 
material, fencing and fuel takes almost the entire supply. A small 
quantity of telephone poles, railroad ties and some lumber is shipped, 
but this is more than offset by the amount of lumber that is brought 
in from elsewhere. The small per cent, of forest land will not enable 
the section to much more than supply the local demand, even under 
more careful management than that now practiced, so that timber 
growing will be largely of local interest, and of a character calcu- 
lated to supply home needs. 

From the forestry standpoint this section possesses the most prom- 
ising indications of immediate progress. The main elements favor- 


ing conservative forest management are present in a greater or less 

1 — The soil is capable of prodncing the best of timber. 

2 — The land is held high enough to encourage forest management. 

3 — The woodlands are in small tracts, giving the individual own- 
ers (who are always on the ground) the opportunity of constant ob- 
servation and close supervision of the work of improvement. 

4 — There is a good local market for all forest produce. 

5 — The woodlots, located as they are in small tracts, and isolated 
by surrounding cleared land, are not subject to a considerable fire 
damage, and therefore the risk to forest capital is not a serious one. 


This section has the largest per cent (60%) of woodlands of any 
part of the State and cuts the most timber. For many years it has 
been the chief seat of the lumber industry of the State, but excessive 
cutting and destructive fires have consumed about all of the original 
stand, with the result that the production is rapidly falling off. The 
topography is mountainous, and most of the soil is unfit for any- 
thing but a forest growth. The woodlands are mostly in large tracts 
along the mountain sides, and in small tracts scattered through the 
intervening valleys. In addition to their value in prodiicing timber, 
the moimtain forests greatly aid in conserving the rainfall on im- 
portant watersheds, thereby preventing low water stages during 
period of drought, as well as preventing floods during periods of 
excessive rainfall. 

There are three classes of forest; viz. hardwood, coniferous and 
a mixture of the two, — hardwood-coniferous. 

The hardwood class is by far the most important as it covers about 
90% of the forest area. It is characterized by a variety of tree 
species, the proportion of each differing somewhat in different sec- 
tions because of local conditions. 

The hardwood class may be separated into two well defined types, 
the ridge and slope types. The Eidge Type occupies the crests of the 
main ridges, extending in a north-easterly and south-westerly direc- 


tion. The timber of this type is generally scrubby, as might be ex- 
pected on the thin soils and exposed situations, and especially is this 
true where forest fires are frequent, as is the case all through the 
mountain section. The principal species are chestnut, red oak, white 
oak, chestnut oak, maple and birch. This type is much more exten- 
sive than the slope type, being about in the proportion of 4 to 1, but 
commercially it is less important because of the poor quality of 

The slope type occupies the deeper soils of the lower slopes and 
the more favorable benches and coves where the most valuable timber 
is produced. The principal commercial species are chestnut, white 
oak, red oak, hickory, sugar maple, basswood and occasionally hem- 

The coniferous forests consist of small areas of hemlock along 
lower mountain slopes adjacent to streams, and a few scattered pitch 
pine stands on higher situations but more particularly on southern 

The mixed type of hardwood-coniferous forest is more extensive 
than the pure coniferous forest, but is of relatively little importance. 
The mixed stands of pine and hardwood usually consist of an upper 
story of hardwood. In a few cases white pine is found in mixture 
with hardwoods and nearly all hemlock stands have more or less of 
the hardwood mixture. 

The Use of the Forests. 

Before modern logging methods were as highly developed as now, 
and while timber was low in price, there was not sufficient induce- 
ment to push logging operations into the more inaccessible timber 
areas of the mountains, hence most of these areas were saved for 
future need. But not so with the white pine forests that occupied 
extensive areas, and especially where the timber was of sufficiently 
high value to warrant the construction of logging railroads and the 
equipment of large mills. This timber was cut over 35 years ago 
and the fires that followed lumbering operations (as they almost in- 
variably do, in this section) practically exterminated the species. 
White pine in this State is now a comparatively rare timber tree, 


whereas it was once an important species in the mountain forests, 
and would be today except for destructive logging methods. After 
white pine and spruce were cut out attention was then directed to 
the hardwoods, and so for thirty years there has been a thorough 
culling of the forests for the best of the hardwood timber until few 
of the original stands remain. The usual method of logging is to 
run a light narrow gauge railroad up the river and stream valleys, 
and to gather in from the adjacent slopes all of the merchantable 
timber. In the early logging operations the term merchantable tim- 
ber did not have the same significance that it has now. Then only 
the larger trees were taken, and much sound timber was left in the 
woods in tree tops and crooked logs because it would not pay for 
hauling. Under present market conditions, practically every sound 
stick big enough for a mine prop (4" at top end and 8 feet long) is 
cut, leaving little but the sprouting capacity of the stumps them- 
selves as a nucleous for a new growth. This in itself, would not be 
an unmitigated evil, but repeated forest fires usually prevent the nat- 
ural gro'wth from attaining anything like a fully stocked stand, 
thereby destroying the chance of a new forest replacing the old one. 

The principal forest products are lumber, mine props, railroad and 
mine ties and hemlock and chestnut-oak bark. Practically all species 
are cut for lumber, but the principal ones are white oak, red oak, 
chestnut, hemlock, maple basswood and spruce. The bulk of the 
lumber is cut by large mills — a number of which have a daily ca- 
pacity of forty thousand feet or more. 

An immense quantity of mine props is cut from the smaller trees 
on the timber tracts to supply the nearby coal mining regions. In 
addition to mine props a large quantity of timber is cut into mine 
rails, mine ties, etc. A few years ago, while there were still large 
areas of hemlock timber in this section, the production of hemlock 
bark was an important business, and local tanneries were numerous. 
With the exhaustion of the hemlock stands, most of the tanneries have 
gone out of business, and only a small quantity of hemlock bark is 
produced. This all comes from the local lumbering operations whei'c 
occasional stands of hemlock are lumbered. 






The Future of the Forests. 

There is in this section a large area of absolute forest land which 
will never produce anything but timber, and the j)roblein should be 
how to produce the best timber crop. The rate of growth of forests 
on mountain land is slow, and there is, therefore, a disposition to 
disregard the possibilities of a second crop, after the first crop is 
removed. Furthermore the tax rate is high and the danger from 
forest fires is very great so that the inducements for conservative for- 
est management are few. For example the present price of oak 
stumpage in a locality where average conditions exist is $2.50 per 
M. The stand of merchantable timber, per acre, is 10,000 feet B. 
M. giving a stumpage value of $25 per acre. The average age of 
the trees is 150 years. The timber crop representing 150 years of 
growth is therefore worth $25 per acre. Similar lands that have 
been cut over are worth $5 per acre. Placing the average value of 
the land for the past 150 years at $3 per acre, and the annual charge 
for taxes at 3c, the net returns on the investment including 4% com- 
poimd interest and taxes would mean a loss of over $25 per acre. 
Under such conditions forest owners are at a decided disadvantage. 
There must be a readjustment of the methods of taxing forest land, 
and a thorough system of fire protection before much can be expected 
in the way of forest improvement. With the tax burden equitably 
adjusted to encourage the holding of forest land, and efiicient fire 
protection the forest yields will be greatly increased, and then will 
timber growing become profitable and popular. 

Forest Eesoueces of Maryland. 

The forest resources of the State have been made the subject of 
a detailed study for the past three years, and as a result of the county 
forest surveys, a table has been prepared showing, in a condensed 
form, the acreage stand and value of saw timber for each county. 




(Includes all species of trees 10 inches and over in diameter meas- 
ured at breast height, 41/0 feet from the ground.) 


Total Stand. 
{10" and over in diameter.) 

M. bd. ft.} 



*Anne Arundel. 






f Charles 

♦Dorchester .... 




♦Howard . 


Prince George's 
Queen Anne. . . . 

St. Mary's 



f Washington . . . 















1 34,948 





























1.50,11 2 !i 

'.14,, si:; 






















^ 409,862 



738,550 2,875,42318,168,002 

* — Wooded area measured but stand estimated, 
t— Wooded area and stand of timber estimated. 
}— Doyle log measure used. 
g— Includes hemlock. 

The table shows that 35 per cent, of the land area of the State is 
in forest, though much of this is brush land, bearing no merchantable 
timber of value. The total stand of available saw timber is 2,875,42.3 
feet board measure of which 74 per cent, is hardwood and 26 per 
cent, pine, including a small amount of hemlock. The principal 
species of hardwoods in the merchanta,ble stands are the oaks, of 
which white oak is the most important, though there are eight others 
extensively used and together they constitute at least half of the 



stand ; next in importance are the chestnut, poplar, hickory, maples, 
gums, ash, basswood and beech. Tlie principal timber pine is the 
loblolly, often called locally the longleaf pine. The other pines are 
scrub or spruce pine, which, however, seldom attains saw timber size ; 
and the pitch, or foxtail pine, which occurs but sparingly. The 
white pine is now little represented in the forest. 


The lumber cut of Maryland for 1907 as recently reported by the 
U. S. Census Bureau was 213,786,000 feet B. M., as against 219,- 
098,000 feet B. M. for 1906. This shows a decrease of 2.4 per cent., 
notwithstanding the fact that 307 mills reported in 1907, while only 
222 miles reported for 1906. The figures show that the maximum 
j)roduction has passed, and there is a decrease in the annual output 
due to the rapid exhaustion of our forest capital. There will be a 
still further reduction until, under more conservative methods of 
lumbering and better fire protection, our forests have had a chance 
to recuperate. 



Quantity valnn 


S"?,"*"? Value, 




Yellow Poplar 


Red Gum ... . 


Basswood . . . . 


Birch .. 

Cucumber . . . . 


All others 
















,118,455 Yellow Pine 

846,157 iHemlock 

185,708 Spruce 

86,598| White Pine 

60,4581 Cypress 


29,870' Total Conifers 

10,392 Total Hardwoods. . 
7,2:!S Total lumber cut. . 
4, Ml 

3,694 Laths 



Total Value... 

















Average Value 
Per Cord. 










Matebial Used for Veneer Stock, by Species, 1907. 
Thousand feet log measure. 

Red Gum 3,183 Ash 

Yellow Pine 915 

Tupelo 759 

White Oak 750 

Yellow Poplar 650 

Red Oak 500 

"Walnut 200 

Chestnut 100 

Beech . . . . 
Spruce . . . 


Birch .... 
Maple . . . . 
All others. 


Total, 7,457,000 feet; value, $126,945. 


Lumber, 213,786,000 feet B. M., valued at $3,429,669 

Lath, 16,043,000 pieces, valued at 51,956 

Shingles, 5,467,000 pieces, valued at 22,087 

Tanbark, 14,109 cords, valued at 128,479 

Veneer, 7,457,000 feet log measure, valued at 126,945 

Total value $3,759,136 

Figures on the production of wood-pulp, cordwood, railroad ties, 
mine props, poles, piles, barrel staves, headings, etc., are not avail- 
able, but it is believed that with these added the total wood produc- 
tion for 1907 would show a valuation at the mills of over $5,000,000. 

The yearly growth on the woodlands of the State does not average 
more than 75 board feet per acre. Under conservative forest man- 
agement it could eventually be raised to at least 400 board feet per 
acre and the quality of lumber correspondingly improved. The pres- 
ent yearly cut of lumber is 213,000,000 feet board measure, and 
according to the census figures for 1907, just published, there is a 
falling off in the timber cut from previous years, which indicates 
that the maximum production has been reached due to the exhaustion 
of nearly all of our virgin timber and that from now on, or at least 


until under more conservative forest methods better production is 
secured, we must be content with a greatly diminished timber supply. 
This general survey of the forest resources of the State and the 
present consumption of timber reveals some striking facts. (1) The 
present yearly growth is not sufiBcient to supply more than one-third 
of the present consumption. This means that there is a heavy de- 
mand upon the forest capital, which now is so greatly depleted as 
to be unable to meet the demand, and consequently there is a falling 
off in the lumber production. (2) The cut-over forests have been 
left in such poor condition that their future productiveness is seri- 
ously impaired. Most of the present stand of timber is poor in 
quality and of low yield as compared with the production of forest 
judiciously managed. (3) Eepeated forest fires in most of the tim- 
bered sections of the State are accountable, in a large measure, for 
the poor quality of forest produce and the low yields, by checking 
the growth, and causing defective trees. (4) The present stumpage 
price of timber is not high enough to thoroughly encourage conserv- 
ative forest management. Prices, however, are rising rapidly, and 
the practice of conservative forestry is beginning to receive some con- 
sideration. When the price of lumber reaches the point that will 
not only cover the cost of logging and manufacture but will also in- 
clude the cost of growing the timber careful forest management will 
be the universal practice. In other words as soon as the time comes, 
• — and it is coming rapidly — when stumpage prices will represent the 
cost of replacing the trees themselves there will be suflScient induce- 
ment to care for our forests as they should be cared for. 








The preparation of a Flora of Maryland, or even the publication 
of a List of Plants Collected, was not part of the original plan of the 
work the results of which are embodied in the foregoing pages. How- 
ever, the collections and observations of the writer, together with 
those of other members of the staff who collaborated in the field 
work, have resulted in the formation of a card list of the flora which, 
incomplete as it is, is sufficiently full to be worth publishing. This 
is particularly true in view of the fact that there has never been pub- 
lished a List covering the entire State. It might have been easily 
possible to increase the number of species listed by searching for 
Maryland plants in various collections, particularly those at the 
Maryland Agricultural College and the ISTational Herbarium and 
the collection of William Canby, now at the New York College of 
Pharmacy. This has scarcely been deemed worth the labor it would 
involve, as those collections will always be quite as accessible as 
now, so the List as it stands embraces, with few exceptions, an en- 
tirely fresh set of observations. It is the opinion of the writer that 
it is more desirable at this time to increase knowledge as to the dis- 
tribution, limits of range and habitat of the commoner plants of the 
native flora than it is to prepare complete lists of the flora elaborated 
by the most refined methods of present-day taxonomy. 

The species embraced in this List are such as have been observed 
or collected by the writer either before or after the projecting of this 
volume, those collected by Dr. M. A. Chrysler in the Western Shore 
District of the Coastal Zone, and by Frederick H. Blodgett in the 
Upper Midland District. Additional occuri'ences are based on ma- 
terial in the collections of Eobert K. Miller of Baltimore and How- 
ard Shriver and George M. Perdew of Cumberland. A small num- 


ber of occurrences are based on the collections or creditable authority 
of several amateurs of Baltimore and Washington. The writer's 
numbers have been mostly determined at the United States National 
Herbarium, to the Curator and members of which grateful thanks 
are here returned. All of the collections made are deposited either 
at the National Herbarium or at the Herbarium of the Maryland 
Agricultural College at College Park. The collections of the writer 
are indicated by field numbers, those of others by the name of the 
person in whose herbarium the plant may be sought, or upon whose 
authority it is given. The writer wishes to express here his appre- 
ciation of the interest and aid of Eobert K. Miller, without whose 
assistance the List would have lacked much of its present value. 

The sequence and nomenclature follow Britton and Brown's Illus- 
trated Flora of the Northern States and Canada (New York, 1897). 
The common names given are usually those of the above Flora, or 
else such as are in much more common use in Maryland. The state- 
ments in regard to range within the State are based on the observa- 
tions of the writer and his collaborators and on such collections and 
literature as have been available. It is manifestly diificult to be 
sure that a particular plant is absent from a given area, and it is 
entirely within probability that many plants not now known from 
the Coastal Zone in Maryland will be foiind there. It is even more 
probable that many plants whose range is given as Coastal and Mid- 
land Zones will be found in the Mountain Zone when its flora is 
worked up, and indeed it may be taken that the writer is not rea- 
sonably sure of the absence of a plant from the Mountain Zone unless 
it is so stated. The habitat of each species is sometimes stated in the 
definite terminology of the descriptive text, or in the case of more 
ubiquitous plants is stated in very general terms. The profound dis- 
turbance of the natural conditions for plants in the State has made 
a more precise statement as to habitat impossible in the majority of 
cases. The frequency, which is at best a subjective matter, is ex- 
pressed in only four terms, — common, frequent, infrequent, rare, 
and these always refer to the abundance of the plant in the particular 
habitats in which it is found. 

The List includes 69 species, the occurrence of which in Maryland 
is beyond the limits given for them in Britton's Manual of the Flora 


of the jSTorthern States and Canada (New York, 1901). On the 
other hand several species have been omitted which have been re- 
ported from the State, for example Steuantliium rohustum, noted 
in Ward's List for the vicinity of Washington has not been seen by 
any recent collectors and may be considered as having been exterm- 
inated, if indeed not reported in error. Maryland is also reported 
as being the limit of range for Yucca filamentosa and Agave ameri- 
cana. While these species have been seen growing in the southern 
Eastern Shore they were in both cases too near to dwellings to be 
regarded as imdonbtedly indigenous. In like manner the numerous 
Pine Barren species mentioned in Chapter II. must be omitted from 
the flora of Maryland although they occur both to the north and the 
south of the State and are tacitly credited to it in general statements 
of their range. 

The total number of species and varieties in this List is 1100, and 
as stated in Chapter II. the total flora when fully collected will 
2H-obably approach 1900 species. 



Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Adder's tongue. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests; rare. 
Baltimore County, Pikesville (B. W. Barton). 

Botrychium matricariaefolium A. Br. 

Baltimore County, Towson (C. E. Waters). 

Botrychium ternatum (Thunb.) Sw. Ternate Grape-fern. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; most frequent 

in moist, sandy soil. 
Garrett County, Thayerville (2051). 

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Botrychium virglnianum (L.) Sw. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 

Virginia Grape-fern. 


Osmunda regalis L. Royal Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, swamps and open wet situations; 

Talbot County, Easton (238). 

Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, swamps and open wet situations; 

Osmunda claytoniana L. Interrupted Fern. 

Infrequent in the Midland Zone, common in the Mountain Zone; in moist 


Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw. 

Anne Arundel County, Millersville (P. H. Friese). 

Climbing Fern. 


Onoclea sensibilis L. Sensitive Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, swamps and open wet grounds; 


Onoclea struthiopteris (L.) Hoffm. Ostrich Fern. 

Midland Zone; moist flood plains; rare. 
Baltimore County, Warren (Robert K. Miller). 

Woodsia obtusa (L.) R. Br. 

Midland Zone; steep banks and shaded rocks; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (692); Frederick County, Sugar Loaf 

Dicksonia punctilobula (Michx.) A. Gray. Hay-scented Fern. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone, frequent in the Midland and Mountain 
Zones; in moist and dry forests. 

Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernh. 

Found just outside the state at Cedar Cliff, Mineral County, West Vir- 
ginia; on wet limestone rocks (1914). 

Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. 

Midland Zone; shaded banks and moist rocks; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (813). 

Dryopteris acrostichoides (Michx.) Kunze. Christmas Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 

Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) A. Gray. New York Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, but commoner in open wet 

Dryopteris thelypteris (L.) A. Gray. Marsh Shield-fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and swamps; common. 

Dryopteris simulata Davenp. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (C. E. Waters). 

Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray. Crested Shield-fern. 

Throughout the state; uncommon in the Eastern Shore District, infre- 
quent in the Western Shore District in moist forests and swamps, 
common in the Mountain Zone in Swamps and Bogs. 
Anne Arundel County, Leon (1552); Garrett County, Cranesville (2027). 

Dryopteris goldieana (Hook.) A. Gray. 

Baltimore County, Glyndon (C. E. Waters). 

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray. 

Throughout the state; rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland 
and Mountain Zones; in moist forests. 

Dryopteris spinulosa (Retz.) Kuntze. 
Midland and Mountain Zones; rare. 
Garrett County, Finzel (961). 


Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia (Muhl.) Underw. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, open wet grounds and bogs. 
Anne Arundel County, Leon (1553); Garrett County, Oakland (546). 

Dryopteris bootii (Tuckerm.) Underw. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnle (C. E. Waters). 

Phegopteris phegopteris (L.) Underw. Long Beech Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 
Caroline County, Watts Creek (1660). 

Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) F6e. Broad Beech Fern. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist and dry forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (830). 

PKiegopteris dryopteris (L.) F6e. Oak Fern. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Woodwardia virginica (L.) J. E. Smith. Virginia Chain-fern. 

Coastal Zone; in sandy swamps and thickets, and in bogs; infrequent. 

Woodwardia areolata (L.) Moore. 

Coastal Zone; in sandy swamps and thickets, and in bogs; frequent. 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link. Walking Fern. 

Midland Zone; on shaded rocks, more abundant on calcareous rocks but 

not confined to them; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Warren (453). 

Asplenium pinnatifidum Nutt. Pinnatifid Spleenwort. 

Washington County, Weverton, on shaded sandstone rocks (1768). 

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. Ebony Spleenwort. 

Throughout the state; In dry forests; in open situations and on rocks; 

Asplenium tricliomanes L. Maiden-hair Spleenwort. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on shaded or exposed rocks; infrequent. 
Allegany County, Flintstone (1018). 

Asplenium angustifolium Michx. Narrow-leaved Spleenwort. 

Baltimore County, moist forests along Gunpowder river near Warren 
(Robert K. Miller). 

Asplenium ruta-muraria L. 

Midland Zone; on limestone rocks; rare. 

Washington County, Cavetown, Williamsport; just outside the state at 
Cedar Cliff, Mineral County, W. Va. (1912). 

Asplenium montanum Willd. Mountain Spleenwort. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on shaded and exposed rocks, preferring 

sandstone; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (814). 


Asplenium bradleyi D. C. Eaton. 

Baltimore County, Alberton; on exposed rocks (Robert K. Miller). 

Asplenium acrostichoides Sw. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; moist forests; frequent. 
Allegany County, Braddock Run (889). 

Asplenium filix-foemina (L.) Bernh. Lady Fern. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and thickets; common. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1056); Garrett County, Swanton (558). 

Adiantum pedatum L. Maiden-hair Fern. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

in moist forests. 
Washington County, Weverton (1775). 

Pteris aquilina L. Bracken Fern. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; preferring 
light soils; common. 

Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. Cliff-brake. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on shaded and exposed rocks, — both lime- 
stone and shale, — and on steep slopes with thin soil; frequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (720). 

Cheilanthes lanosa (Michx.) Watt. Hairy Lip-fern. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on exposed rocks, infrequent. 
Frederick County, Sugar Loaf (1761). 

Polypodium vulgare L. Polypody. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

most abundant on rocks and rocky slopes. 
Caroline County, Watts Creek (1661). 

Polypodium polypodioides (L.) A. S. Hitchk. Gray Polypody. 

Montgomery County, near Great Falls on shaded rocks (1741). 


Marsilea quadrifolia L. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie; introduced at Saw Mill Pond. 


Equisetum arvense L. Field Horse-tail. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and moist open situations; 

Equisetum sylvaticum L. 

Baltimore County, flood plains of the Gunpowder River below Loch 
Raven (Robert K. Miller). 


Equisetum hyemale L. Scouring-rusli. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, thickets and open situations; 

Allegany County, Cumberland (1931). 


Lycopodium lucidulum Michx. Shining Club-moss. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

in moist forests, preferring rocky slopes. 
Baltimore County, Catonsville (1357). 

Lycopodium inundatum L. Bog Club-moss. 

Coastal Zone; in bogs, sandy swamps and open situations with moist 

sandy soil; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Herring Creek (635). 

Lycopodium obscurum L. Ground Pine. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Talbot County, Easton (1360). 

Lycopodium clavatum L. Running Pine. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on exposed rocks and in dry forests; rare. 
Baltimore County, Parkton (1369); Garrett County, Thayerville (2053). 

Lycopodium complanatum L. Christmas-green; Crow-foot. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (328). 

Lycopodium tristachyum Pursh. 

Washington County, Tonoloway Ridge, in dry sandy woods (762). 
Montgomery County, Rockville (C. E. Waters). 


Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring. Rock Selaginella. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on open rock outcrops; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Loch Raven (451). 

Selaginella apus (L.) Spring. Creeping Selaginella. 

Throughout the state; on the ground among grasses in moist open situa- 
tions; common. 


Isoetes saccharata Engelm. Quillwort. 

Coastal Zone; on mud between tiaes in estuaries and streams just above 

saline influence; rare. 
Harford County, Gunpowder River (467). 

Isoetes engelmannll var. valida Engelm. 

Midland and Mountain Zone; in open moist situations among grasses 

and sedges; rare. 
Frederick County, Myersville (1797); Garrett County, Crellin (1983). 



Pinus strobus L. White Pine. 

Absent from the Coastal Zone; occurs throughout the Mid'an;! and 

Mountain Zones. Reaches its best development in the Mountain Zone, 

is frequent in the Upper Midland District and infrequent in the Lower 

Midland District. 

Pinus virginiana Mill. Scrub Pine, Short-leaf Pine. 

Occurs throughout the Coastal and Midland Zones, is infrequent in the 
Mountain Zone. On the Talbot formation on the Eastern Shore it is 
uncommon near tide water; on the Wicomico formation it is abundant 
in company with Pinus taeda or in pure stands due to artificial re- 
forestation. In the upper portion of the Eastern Shore it is a minor 
constituent of the deciduous forest. In the sandy portion of the 
Western Shore District of the Coastal Zone it is an important constitu- 
ent in the coniferous forest chiefly made up of Pinus rigida. In other 
portions of the Western Shore District, and on the cretaceous gravels, 
it attains its greatest development in Maryland. To the north and 
west of the Fall Line belt of gravel soils it is sporadically common in 
pure stands. It is found naturally on rocky precipices or on steep 
slopes with thin soil, or on gravel hills. In the Mountain Zone it 
occurs occasionally in mixed stands to the east of Big Savage and 
Great Backbone mountains, but has not been seen on the plateau to 
the west of them. 

Pinus echinata Mill. Yellow Pine. 

Apparently occurs infrequently throughout the state. Reported by Mell 
(in MS.) for Worcester County, and by Curran for Cecil and Calvert 
counties. Also known from the rocky ledges of Wills Narrows, near 
Cumberland and from Sharptown, Wicomico County. 

Allegany County, Wills Narrows (1936). 

Pinus pungens Michx. f. Table Mountain Pine. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone. Is nowhere abundant 
usually occurring in company with Phius virginiana or Pinus rigida 
on rocky precipices or steep mountain slopes with thin soil. 
Washington County, Sideling Hill (797). 

Pinus taeda L. Loblolly Pine, Fox-tail Pine, Bull Pine. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone, but occurring for about 20 miles above 

the Fall Line along the Potomac River, and absent from Cecil and 

upper Kent counties (See map, Plate IV). Common In the southern 

Eastern Shore, particularly on the Talbot formation and on the light 


soils of the Wicomico formation south of Queen Anne's County. Is 
rare in central Queen Anne's County, and has not been seen in pure 
stand north of Cliffs Landing on Chester River in Kent County. In 
the Western Shore District Piniis taeda is common on the Talbot 
terrace and is frequent in the sandy section, but is infrequent on clay 
and gravel. 

Pinus rigida Mill. Pitch Pine. 

Occurs throughout the state, but is very rare in the Eastern Shore 
south of the Chester River, being known from the vicinity of Salisbury, 
and reported by Mell (in MS.) for Worcester County. On the sandy 
soils of the Western Shore District Pimis rigida Is one of the principal 
constituents of the forest (Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie). It is 
rare in other parts of the Western Shore District. Throughout the 
Midland and Mountain Zones It is of frequent occurrence, never in 
pure stands but in small groups or as scattered individuals together 
with Pinus virginiana or with deciduous species, usually on sandy soil. 

Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch. Tamarack. 

Mountain Zone, found only in swamp forest at Thayerville and Craues- 

Garrett County, Thayerville (2049). 

Picea mariana (Mill.) B. S. P. Black Spruce, Red Spruce. 

Mountain Zone, found only in swamp and glade forest, in the former of 

which it is the commonest species. 
Garrett County, Finzel (963). 

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Hemlock. 

Known from a single locality in the Coastal Zone (Caroline County, 
Watts Creek), and occurs throughout the Midland and Mountain 
Zones. In the Lower Midland District it is rare. In the Upper 
Midland it is frequent, particularly on rocky slopes along streams. 
In the Mountain Zone it is very abundant on the lower slopes of hills 
and Mountains, particularly in rocky soil, and also occurs in glade 
and swamp forests. 

Taxodium distichum (L.) L. C. Rich. Bald Cypress. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone. Is common in the River Swamps of the 
Pocomoke River and Dividing and Nassawango creeks, is infrequent 
on the Wicomico River. It is known in the Western Shore District 
of the Coastal Zone only from the vicinity of Marshall Hall, Charles 
County (fide Mr. William Palmer), and from Battle Creek, Calvert 

Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (11S9). 

Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B. S. P. White Cedar. 

Confined to the southern Eastern Shore, where it occurs in swamps far 
above the influence of brackish water. It is infrequent on the Poco- 
moke River and its tributaries as far north as Steves Island and 


Willard. It is abundant in several localities on the Wicomico River, 
and also in the Stream Swamps of the Nanticoke River above the 
confluence of Marshyhope creek. 
AVicomico County, Salisbury (1226). 

Juniperus virginiana L. Red Cedar, Savin. 

Common throughout the Coastal and Midland Zones, absent from the 
Mountain Zone. A tree characteristic of open situations and drier 
soils, now growing chiefly along roadsides and in abandoned fields, 
where its occurrence often forms the first stage in reforestation. The 
natural habitats in which it is most abundant are Serpentine Barrens 
and limestone cliffs. 


Taxus minor (Jlichx.) Britton. Yew. 

Confined to the Mountain Zone, where it occurs in swamp and glade 

Forests and along streams in Hemlock forests. 
Garrett County, Cranesville (2032). 




Typha latifolia L. Cat-tail. 

Throughout the state, in marshes and swamps, along streams, and about 
the margins" of ponds, being most common in open situations and 
often forming pure stands. 

Typha angustifolia L. 

Throughout the Coastal Zone, and in a few localities in the Lower 
Midland. Is more abundant than the preceding in the lower Eastern 
Shore, but the two often occur together. 


Sparganium eurycarpum Engel. Bur-reed. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps and along the margins of 

streams and ponds, growing in saturated soil or as an emersed 

aquatic; common. 
Anne Arundel County, Hills Bridge (1548). 

Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Morong. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 


Ruppia maritima L. 
Coastal Zone. 

Potamogeton natans L. Pondweed. 

Throughout the state; in quiet and running water; common. 

Potamogeton pulcher Tuck. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in quiet and running water; frequent. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (1597). 

Potamogeton nuttallii Cham. Sch. 

Throughout the state; in streams and jionds; common. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1065). 

Potamogeton lonchites Tuck. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in streams and ponds; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (742). 

Potamogeton perfoliatus L. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in the Midland; commonest 
in the fresh waters at the heads of tidal estuaries. 


Potamogeton mysticiis Jlorong. 

Worcester County, Ocean City (H. L. Clark). 

Potamogeton crispus L. 

Coastal Zone, common in the fresh waters at the heads of tidal estuaries. 

Potamogeton zosteraefolius Schum. 

Harford County, Gunpowder River (Robert K. Miller). 

Potamogeton pusillus L. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in ponds aud streams; frequent. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1087). 

Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. 

Throughout the state; in ponds and streams; common. 
Dorchester County, Hurlock (1C21). 

Potamogeton pectinatus L. 

Coastal Zone; in ponds and fresh tidal streams, frequent. 
Kent County, Cliffs Landing (1697). 

Naias flexilis (Willd.) Rost. & Schm. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in streams; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (742). 

Naias gracillima (A. Br.) Morong. 

Wicomico County, Shad Point (1200). 

Zostera marina L. Eel Grass. 

Coastal Zone; in shallow salt waters of Chincoteague and Chesapeake 
Bays; frequent. 


Triglochin striata R. & P. Arrow-grass. 

Confined to the lower Eastern Shore; in salt and brackish marshes; 

Worcester County, Greenbackville (1117). 


Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Water Plantain. 

Throughout the state; in marshes and all open wet situations; common. 

Lophotocarpus spongiosus (Engelm.) J. G. Smith. 

Wicomico County, marshes of the Nanticoke River near Vienna (1296). 

Sagittaria engelmanniana J. G. Smith. 
Wicomico County near Vienna (1309). 

Sagittaria latlfolia Willd. (variaMlis Engelm.) Arrowhead. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and open moist situations; common. 
Worcester County near Wagram (1162). 

'M)Ci thj: plant life of jiakylaxd 

Sagittaria latifolia var. pubescens (Muhl.) J. G. Smith. 
Throughout the state; growing with the type. 

Sagittaria lancifolia L. Lance-leaved Arrow-head. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone; in swamps and marshes; infrequent. 
Somerset County, Mattaponl Landing (1145). 

Sagittaria graminea Michx. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; on muddy flats, about ponds and along 

lai'ger streams; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (73G). 

Sagittaria subulata (L.) Buchenau. 

Coastal Zone; in mud between tides, along fresh estuaries; rare. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1263). 


Philotria canadensis (Michx.) Britton. Water-weed, Ditch Moss. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in ponds and fresh streams; common. 
Kent Count.v, Tolchester (1698). 

Valllsneria spiralis L. Eel Grass, Wild Celery. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in ponds and fresh and brackish streams; 

Cecil Countj', Furnace Creek (403). 


Tripsacum dactyloides L. Gama Grass. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in fresh marshes and open moist ground; 

Worcester County, Ocean City (1253). 

Erianthus compactus Nash. Plume Grass. 

Coastal Zone; in marshes and moist sandy soil in open situations; 

Talbot County, Easton (605). 

Andropogon scoparius Michx. 

Throughout the state; in dry or rock soil. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Andropogon argyraeus Schultes. 

Wicomico County, Salisbury (Robert K. Miller). 

Andropogon furcatus Muhl. 

Throughout the state; in dry soil. 

Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (1955). 

Andropogon virginicus L. Beard Grass. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and waste grounds; common. 


Andropogon glomeratus (Walt.) B. S; P. 

Throughout the state; in moist soil and open situations; common. 

Chrysopogon avenaceus (Michx.) Benth. Indian Grass. 

Jlidland and Mountain Zones; dry soil. 
Garrett County, Oakland (1916). 

Paspalum setaceum Michx. 

Baltimore County, Bare Hills (W. Ralph Jones). 

Paspalum ciliatifolium Michx. 

Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Paspalum laeve Michx. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; moist soil, in open situations. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1102). 

Paspalum floridanum Michx. 
Eastern Shore District. 

Syntherlsma linearis (Krock.) Nash. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Syntherlsma sanguinalis (L.) Nash. Finger-grass. 

Coastal Zone. 

Syntherlsma flliformis (L.) Nash. 

Baltimore County near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 
Panlcum crus-galll L. Cockspur Grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Panicum walterl Pursh. 

Coastal Zone; In marshes and open moist situations; frequent. 
Worcester County, near Franklin City (1127). 

Panicum rostratum Muhl. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; common. 

Panicum aqrostidiforme Lam. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests and meadows. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (1260).* 

Panicum lonqifolium Torr. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 
Panicum microcarpon Muhl. 

Throughout the state; in dry woods and open Tituations. 

Wicomico County, near Vienna (1322). 

•This number was determined by the United States National Ilerbai-ium, as Panii 
condensiim Nash. 


Panicum porterianum Nash. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Panicum amarum Ell Seabeach Panicum. 
Anne Arundel County. 

Panicum macrocarpon Le Conte. 

Caroline County, Greensborough (1643). 

Panicum clandestinum L. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in open situations; common. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Panicum oligosanthes Schultes. 

Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1175). 

Panicum nitidum Lam. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Panicum dichotomum L. 

Throughout the state; in dry woods and fields; common. 

Panicum barbulatum Michx. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1092). 

Panicum viscidum Ell. 

Baltimore County, Cylburn (Robert K. Miller). 

Panicum pubescens Lam. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Panicum columbianum Scribn. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Panicum depauperatum Muhl. 

Coastal and Midland Zones: in dry woods and fields; frequent. 

Panicum linearifollum Scribn. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver); Baltimore County, 
near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Panicum virgatum L. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Midland Zone; most abundant 

along the inner edges of fresh and brackish marshes. 
Somerset County, near Marion (1257). 

Panicum miliaceum L. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Panicum proliferum Lam. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in open moist situations; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Panicum capillare L. 

Throughout the state; in dry soil and cultivated grounds; common. 


Panicum minus (Muhl.) Nash. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Panicum digitarioides Carpenter. Narrow Panicum. 

Wicomico County. 

Panicum verrucosum Muhl. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (Robert K. Miller). 

Ixophorus glaucus (L.) Nash. Foxtail-grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Ixophorus viridis (L.) Nash. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Ixophorus italicus (L.) Nash. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; frequent. Introduced from 

Cenchrus tribuloides L. Bur-grass. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; common in dry sandy soil. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1228). 

Zizania aquatica L. Wild Rice; Water Oats. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in the Midland Zone; in fresh 
- marshes; often forming pure stands. 
Dorchester County, Drawbridge (1611). 

Homalocenchrus virginlcus (Willd.) Britton. White Grass. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist forests. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll. Rice Cut-grass. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, marshes and open moist situations; 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Phalaris arundinacea L. Reed Canary-grass. 

Baltimore County, near Lake Roland (Robert K. Miller). 

Phalaris caroliniana Walt. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Phalaris canariensis L. Canary Grass. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Sweet Vernal-grass. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and meadows; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (1513). 

Aristida dichotoma Michx. Poverty Grass. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Stipa avenacea L. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1456). 


Oryzopsis melanocarpa Muhl. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Milium effusum L. 

Garrett County, Oakland (561). 

Muiilenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin. 

Baltimore County, near Warren (Robert K. Miller). 

Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin, 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist open situations; common. 
Baltimore County, Warren (Robert K. Miller). 

Muhlenbergia tenuifiora (Willd.) B. S. P. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Muhlenbergia diffusa Schreb. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 
Frederick County, Hamburg (1748). 

Phleum pratense L. Timothy. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth. 

Baltimore County, Loch Raven (Robert K. Miller). 

Sporobolus vaginaeflorus (Torr.) 

Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Sporobolus neglectus Nash. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. Beard Grass. 

Dorchester County, Castle Haven (1590). 

Cinna arundinacea L. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swamps and open moist situations; 

Agrostis alba L. Red-top. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckerm. Thin-grass. 

Midland Zone; in moist soil; frequent. 

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. Rough Hair-grass. 

Baltimore County, near Lutherville (Robert K. Miller). 

Agrostis altissima (Walt.) Tuckerm. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 


Agrostis intermedia Scribn. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Calamagrostis cinnoides (Muhl.) Scribn. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; swamps and open moist situations; 

Ammophlla arenaria (L.) Link. Sea Sand-reed. Marram Grass. 

Coastal Zone; confined to the Strand. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1246). 

Holcus lanatus L. Velvet Grass. 

Allegany County, Wills Creek (979). 

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. Hair Grass. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Washington County, Hancock (801). 

Arrhenatherum eiatius (L.) Beauv. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver) ; Baltimore County 
Mt. Washington (Robert K. Miller). 

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Wild Oat-grass. 

Throughout the state; in dry woods; common. 
Dorchester County, Bestpitch Ferry (1615). 

Danthonia sericea Nutt. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; infrequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze. Bermuda-grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Spartina polystachya (Michx.) Ell. Salt Reed-grass. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in the Midland Zone; character- 
istic of brackish and salt marshes, often occurring in pure stands. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1298). 

Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Salt Meadow-grass. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1126). 

Spartina stricta var. maritima (Walt.) Scribn. Marsh Grass. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes, often forming extensive 

pure stands. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1104). 

Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) B. S. P. 

Coastal Zone; in sandy pine forests; frequent. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1344). 

Bouteloua curtipendula (Michx.) Torr. 

Baltimore County, Loch Raven (Robert K. Miller). 


Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. Wire-grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Phragmites phragmites (L.) Karst. Reed. 

Coastal Zone; In fresh marshes; frequent. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1310). 

Sieglingia seslerioides (Michx.) Scribn. 

Baltimore County, near Baltimore (W. Ralph Jones). 

Eragrostis capillaris (L.) Nees. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Eragrostis frankii Steud. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Eragrostis pllosa (L.) Beauv. 

Wicomico County, near Vienna (1277). 

Eragrostis purshii Schrad. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (928). 

Eragrostis eragrostis (L.) Karst. 

Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Eragrostis major Host. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B. S. P. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Eatonia pennsylvanica (DC.) A. Gray. 

Dorchester County, near Cambridge (1G04). 

Eatonia nitlda (Spreng.) Nash. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and fields; common. 
Garrett County, Swanton (491). 

Melica mutica Walt. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1450). 

Unlola laxa (L.) B. S. P. Spike Grass. 

Coastal Zone; in dry pine forests. 
Talbot County, Easton (612). 

Uniola latlfolia Michx. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (802). 

Distlchlis spicata (L.) Greene. Marsh Spike-grass. 

Coastal Zone; in salt marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1121). 



Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard Grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Poa annua L. Meadow Grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Poa compressa L. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Blue-grass. 

Throughout the state; being more frequent in the Midland and Mountain 

Poa trivialis L. 

Midland and Mountain Zones. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Panicularia obtusa (Muhl.) Kuntze. 

Worcester County, Snow Hill (1095). 


Panicularia elongata (Torr.) Kuntze. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist woods and open situations; 

Washington County, Smoketown (798). 

Panicularia nervata (Willd.) Kuntze. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in swamps and bogs. 
Garrett County, Oakland (1977). 

Panicularia pallida (Torr.) Kuntze. 

Dorchester County, Bucktown (1616). 

Panicularia fluitans (L.) Kuntze. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Festuca octofiora Walt. Slender Fescue-grass. 

Coastal Zone; in dry woods and open sandy situations; infrequent. 
Prince George's County, Mt. Calvert (1555). 

Festuca myuros L. 

Coastal Zone; in dry pine forests and open sandy situations; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1130). 

Festuca elatior L. 

Throughout the state; 
duced from Europe. 

in waste and cultivated grounds; common. Intro- 

Festuca nutans Willd. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver) ; Baltimore County, 
(Robert K. Miller). 


Bromus ciliatus L. Brome-grass. 

Throughout the state; in dry woods and open situations. 
Baltimore County, Western Run (Robert K. Miller). 

Bromus hordeaceus L. 

Caroline County, Greensborough (1642). 

Bromus secalinus L. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver) ; Baltimore County, 
Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Bromus racemosus L. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Bromus brizaeformis Fisch. & Mey. 

Dorchester County, Castle Haven (1.591). 

Lolium perenne L. Rye-grass. 

Throughout the state: in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Lolium temulentum L. Darnel. 

Throughout the state: in cultivated grounds; frequent. 
Caroline County, Tuckahoe Neck (1656). 

Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Couch Grass. 

Throughout the state; in forests and fields; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (1016). 

Hordeum pusillum Nutt. 

Charles County, Cox (1526). 

Hordeum jubatum L. 

Dorchester County, Castle Haven (15S4). 

Elymus striatus Willd. Slender Wild Rye. 

Baltimore County, Western Run (Robert K. Miller). 

Elymus virginicus L. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood-plains; frequent. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1170). 

Elymus canadensis L. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests. 

Baltimore County, Western Run (Robert K. Miller). 

Hystrix hystrix (L.) Millsp. Bottle-brush Grass. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Deer Park (709). 

Arundlnaria tecta (Walt.) Muhl. Small Cane. 

Anne Arundel County, Stony Run (Robert K. Miller). 



Cyperus flavescens L. Yellow Cyperus. 

Throughout the state; in marshes and open wet situations; common. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1178). 

Cyperus diandrus Torr. 

Throughout the state; in meadows and open wet situations; common. 
Wicomico County, Shad Point (1205). 

Cyperus rivularis Kunth. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; frequent. 
Talbot County, Easton (197). 

Cyperus nuttallii Eddy. 

Coastal Zone; brackish and fresh marshes; frequent. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1236). 

Cyperus pseudovegetus Steud. 

Coastal Zone; open moist situations; rare. 

Wicomico County, Quantico (1352) ; Charles County, Rock Point (M. A. 

Cyperus dentatus Torr. 

Wicomico County, near Salisbury (Robert K. Miller). 

Cyperus esculentus L. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (1011). 

Cyperus speciosus Vahl. 

Throughout the state; in meadows and open vv-et situations; common. 

Cyperus strlgosus L. 

Throughout the state; in meadows and open wet situations; common. 

Cyperus refractus Engelm. 

Baltimore, Druid Hill Park (Robert K. Miller). 

Cyperus retrofractus (L.) Torr. 

Coastal Zone; dry sandy pine forests; rare. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (1169). 

Cyperus lancastriensis Porter. 

Harford County, Gunpowder (Robert K. Miller). 

Cyperus cylindricus (Ell.) Britton. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 

Cyperus ovularis (Michx.) Torr. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry situations; common. 


Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; open dry situations. 
Washington County, Hancock (819). 

Cyperus grayi Torr. 

Coastal Zone; strand and dry pine forests. 
AVorcester County (Robert K. Miller). 

Kyllinga pumila Michx. 

Charles County, Allen Fresh (Robert K. Miller). 

Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britton. 

Throughout the state; m swamps, marshes, bogs and around the edges 

of ponds; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (320). 

Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. 
Coastal Zone. 

Eleocharis mutata (L.) R. & S. Spike-rush. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (1605). 

Eleocharis olivacea Torr. 

Worcester County, Turville Creek (Robert K. Miller). 

Eleocharis obtusa Schultes. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (535). 

Eleocharis engelmanni Steud. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland and Mountain 

Zones; in open wet situations, preferring clay soil. 
Dorchester County, Castle Haven (1587); Garrett County, Oakland 

Eleocharis palustris var. glaucescens (Willd.) A. Gray 
Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (IGOG). 

Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michx.) R. & S. 

Throughout the state; in wet soil; common. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1129). 

Eleocharis albida Torr. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; rare. 

Queen Anne's County, Kent Island Narrows (Robert K. Miller). 

Eleocharis tricostata Torr. 

Coastal Zone; in marshes and wet situations; rare. 
Caroline County, Denton (1648). 

Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schultes. 

Throughout the state; in moist woods, swamps and open wet situations. 
Allegany County, Flintstone (1031). 


Eleocharis acuminata (JIuhl.) Nees. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (1608). 

Eleocharis rostellata Torr. 

Coastal Zone; in brackish and fresh marshes; frequent. 
Kent County, Chestertown (Robert K. Jliller). 

Stenophyllus capillaris (L.) Britten. 

Throughout the state; in dry sandy soil; common. 
Caroline County, Watts Creek (1622). 

Fimbristyiis castanea (Michx.) Vahl. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; frequent. 
Worcester County. Snow Hill (1037). 

Fimbristyiis laxa Vahl. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in the Midland Zone: in 

marshes and open wet situations. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1042). 

Fimbristyiis autumnalls (L.) R. & S. 

Throughout the state; in open moist situations. 
Allegany County, Flintstone (1025). 

Scirpus nanus Spreng. Club-rush. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes: common. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1333). 

Scirpus planifolius Muhl. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and meadows. 
Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Scirpus subterminalis Torr. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swift running streams; frequent. 
Dorchester County, Cabin Creek (1619). 

Scirpus debllis Pursh. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in open moist situations: infrequent. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1292). 

Scirpus americanus Pers. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps and ponds; common. 

Scirpus oineyi A. Gray. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes, often forming extensive pure stands. 
Dorchester County, Keene Ditch (1609). 

Scirpus cylin(dricus (Torr.) Brltton. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1218). 


Scirpus lacustris L. 

Throughout the state; in fresh and brackish marshes, swamps and 

ponds; common. 
Washington County, Hancock (778). 

Scirpus robustus Pursh. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh and brackish marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Herring Creek (652). 

Scirpus fluviatills (Torr.) A. Gray. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes; rare. 

Anne Arundel County, Hills Bridge (1649); Talbot County, Tu:kahoe 
Bridge (1652). 

Scirpus atrovlrens Muhl. 

Throughout the state; in marshes and open wet situations; common. 

Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; frequent. 

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 

Eriophorum virginicum L. Cotton-grass. 

Throughout the state; in bogs and swamps; infrequent. 

Fuirena squarrosa var. hispida (Ell.) Chapm. 
Coastal Zone; in moist sandy soil. 
Wtfrcester County, Greenbackville (1115). 

Rynchospora corniculata (Lam.) A. Gray. Horned Rush. 

Coastal Zone; in swamps and wet sandy soil. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1099). 

Rynchospora alba (L.) Vahl. Pale Beaked Rush. 

Throughout the state; in bogs and wet sandy soil; frequent. 
Carroll County, Westminster (1720). 

Rynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland and Mountain 

Zones; in moist and sandy soil. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1315). 

Rynchospora gracllenta A. Gray. 

Anne Arundel County, Benfield (Robert K. Miller). 

Rynchospora cymosa Ell. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in open wet situations; rare. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (Robert K. Miller). 

Cladium marlscoides (Muhl.) Torr. Twig-rush. 

Coastal Zone; In fresh marshes: rare. 
Worcester County, near Cedar Hall (1164). 

maeyla:>^d weather service 409 

Scleria triglomerata Michx. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (Robert K. Miller). 

Scleria pauciflora Mulil. Nut-rush. 

Baltimore County, Soldiers Delight (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex folliculata L. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist foicsts; common. 
Caroline County, Federalsburg (1632). 

Carex intumescens Rudge. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in marshes, swamps and wet woods; 

Wicomico County, near Vienna (1314). 

Carex lupulina Muhl. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swamps and wet forests; common. 
Worcester County, Wagram (1167). 

Carex lupuliformis Sartwell. 

Coastal Zone; in swamps; infrequent. 

Worcester County, Steves Island (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex bullata Schk. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in wet forests and or en situations; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Bengies (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex lurida Wahl. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and open wet situations; common. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1293). 

Carex baileyi Britton. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in swamps and bogs; frequent. 
Garrett County, Oakland (1976). 

Carex hystricina Muhl. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in swamps and moist forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (537). 

Carex comosa Boott. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swamps and open wet situations; 

Wicomico County, Salisbury (1290). 

Carex frankii Kunth. 

Baltimore County, Beaver Dam Run (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex squarrosa L. 

Baltimore County, Cylbum (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex vestita Willd. 

Coastal Zone; in moist pine forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Bengies (Robert K. Miller). 


Carex hirta L. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests and open situations; 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex stricta Lam. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist forests; common. 
Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex stricta var. angustata (Boott.) Bailey. 

Baltimore County, Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex torta Boott. 

Midland Zone; in swamps; common. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex prasina Wahl. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and swamps; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Soldiers Delight (1413). 

Carex crinita Lam. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and open wet situations. 
Wicomico County, Vienna (1311). 

Carex virescens Muhl. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests. 
Caroline County, near Greensborough (1644). 

Carex costellata Britton. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests; frequent. 
Talbot County, near Easton (1.509). 

Carex triceps Miclix. 

Baltimore County, near Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex caroliniana Schwein. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swamps and moist forests; common. 
Dorchester County, Bucktown (1610). 

Carex tenuis Rudge. 

Baltimore County, near Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex grisea Wahl. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1444). 

Carex amphibola Steud. 

Talbot County, near Easton (lolO); Baltimore County, Cylburn (Robert 
K. Miller). 

Carex granuiaris Muhl. 

Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 


Carex laxiflora Lam. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; common. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (1447). 

Carex laxiflora var. blanua (Dewey) Boott. 
Jlontgoniery County, Great Falls (1427). 

Carex laxiflora var. varians Bailey. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (14.52). 

Carex laxiflora var. divaricata Bailey. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1467). 

Carex styloflexa Buckley. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1441). 

Carex albursina Sheldon. 

Baltimore County, Warren (Robert K Miller). 

Carex laxiculmis Schwein. 

Coastal Zone; in sandy swamps and flood plains; frequent. 
Caroline County, Federalsburg (1630). 

Carex platyphylla Carey. 

Midland and Mountain Zones: in moist and dry forests; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Western Run (1396). 

Carex pedicellata (Dewey) Britton. 

Baltimore County, Western Run (13S9). 

Carex pennsylvanica Lam. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 
Baltimore County, Parkton (1367). 

Carex varia Muhl. 

Midland Zone; in dry forests; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Parkton (1366). 

Carex varia var. colorata Bailey. 

Baltimore County, Western Run (1390). 

Carex nigro-marginata Schwein. 

Baltimore County, Parkton (1365). 

Carex leptalea Wahl. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. aiiller). 

Carex conjuncta Boott. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K, Miller). 

Carex stipata Muhl, 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1437). 


Carex vulpinoidea Michx. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist forests; common. 
Talbot County, near Easton (15071. 

Carex xanthocarpa Bicknell. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and open wet situations; common. 
Washington County, near Hancock (785). 

Carex rosea Schk. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (1925). 

Carex rosea var. radiata Dewey. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and open wet situations; common. 
Talbot County, near Easton (1512). 

Carex retroflexa Muhl. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1468). 

Carex cephalophora Muhl. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1440). 

Carex muhlenbergii Schk. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex atlantica Bailey. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in bogs and swamps; infrequent. 
Garrett County, near Oakland (511). 

Carex tribuloides Wahl. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 
Washington County, near Hancock (786). 

Carex scoparia Schk. 

Baltimore County, near Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex cristatella Britton. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex silicea Olney. 

Worcester County, Ocean City, on sand dunes (Robert K. Miller). 

Carex tenera Dewey. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1464). 

Carex albolutescens Schwein. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh and brackish marshes; frequent. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1323). 


Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Torr. Jack-in-the-pulpit. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 

Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott. Green Dragon. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and flood plains; rare. 
Harford County, near Glenville (1571). 

Peltandra virginica (L.) Kunth. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes and about the edges of ponds; common. 

Spathyema foetida (L.) Raf. Skunk Cabbage. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open wet situations; common. 

Orontium aquaticum L. Golden Club. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

most abundant in fresh marshes along the upper waters, of tidal 

streams; infrequent in swamps. 
Anne Arundel County, Hills Bridge (1544); Garrett County, near Finzel, 

altitude 2700 ft. (George M. Perdew). 

Acorus calamus Ij. Sweet Flag. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland Zone; in fresh 

marshes and about the edges of ponds. 
Anne Arundel County, Hills Bridge (1546). 


Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Duclcweed. 

Throughout the state; in ponds and quiet waters; common. 

Lemna minor L. Duckweed. 

Throughout the state; in ponds and slow streams; common. 


Xyris flexuosa Muhl. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests and open situations; 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Xyris communis Kunth. 

Throughout the state, being common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in 
the Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist sandy forests and open 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1047). 


Xyris caroliniana Walt. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in marshes, swamps and open wet situa- 
tions; frequent. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1043) ; Wicomico County, Shad Point 


Eriocaulon septangulare With. Pipewort. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland, being most 

abundant in the shallow water and fresh estuaries about the head 

of the Chesapeake Bay. 
Cecil County, Furnace Creek (402). 

Eriocaulon decangulare L. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes and bogs; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1300). 


Commelina nudiflora L. Day-flower. 

Throughout the state; in moist cultivated grounds; common. 

Commelina hirtella Vahl. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone; in swamps and moist forests; rare. 
Worcester County, Steves Island (669). 

Tradescantia virginiana L. Spiderwort. 

Throughout the state; in moist waste grounds; common. 


Pontederia cordata L. Pickerel-weed. 

Throughout the state; in marshes and swamps and about the edges of 
ponds; common in the Coastal Zone, less frequent in the Midland and 
Mountain Zones. 

Heteranthera renlformis R. & P. 

Costal and Midland Zones; in shallow water, about the edges of ponds 
and in the estuaries at the head of the Chesapeake Bay. 

Cecil County, Furnace Creek (399). 

Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Water Star-grass. 

Washington County, near Hancock (790). 

•This number was determined by the United States National Herbarium as Xijiis 
flmiriata Ell. 



Juncus effusus L. Bulrush. 

Throughout the state; in wet open situations, ditches and ponds; 

Juncus roemerianus Scheele. 

Coastal Zone; in brackish marshes; infrequent. 

St. Mary's County, St. Georges Island (M. A. Chrysler). 

Juncus bufonius L. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, Castle Haven (1.592). 

Juncus gerardi Lois. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 
Somerset Countj', Marion (1255). 

Juncus tenuis Willd. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry waste situations; common. 

Juncus secundus Beauv. 

Midland Zone; in dry open situations; infrequent. 
Frederick County, Catoctin Mountain (1745). 

Juncus dichotomus Ell. 

Coastal Zone: in moist sandy soil, in open situations; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, Castle Haven (1593).* 

Juncus marginatus Rostk. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; common. 
Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Juncus repens Michx. 

Coastal Zone; in wet sandy soil; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, near Quantico (1351). 

Juncus pelocarpus E. Meyer. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (2063). 

Juncus scirpoides Lam. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations; common. 

Juncus canadensis J. Gray. 

Throughout the state; in open moist situations; common. 

Juncus acuminatus Michx. 

Throughout the state; in open wet grounds; common. 

Juncoides campestre (L.) Kuntze. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 
Garrett County, Oakland (518). 

•This number was determined as Juncus ilmUcui Weigand. by tlie United States 
National Herbarium. 



Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray. Blazing-star. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (536). 

Chrosperma muscaetoxicum (Walt.) Kuntze. Fly-poison. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests; rare. 
Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (Robert K. Miller). 

Melanthium virginicum L. Bunch-flower. 

Wicomico County, Salisbury (12S8). 

Melanthium latifoiium Desr. Crisped Bunch-flower. 

Baltimore County, near Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Veratrum viride Ait. American White Hellebore. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and swamps; common. 

Uvularia perfoliata L. Bellwort. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 

Uvularia grandiflora J. B. Smith. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. (Joseph E. Harned.) 

Uvularia sessilifolia L. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 

Tofieldia glutinosa (Mx.) Pers. 
Midland Zone. 


Hemerocallis fulva L. Day Lily. 

Throughout the state; in roadsides and waste places; frequent. 

Allium cernuum Roth. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; on moist cliffs and banks; 

Washington County, Hancock (SIO). 

Allium vineale L. Garlic. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Lilium canadense L. 

Throughout the state; in open moist situations; infrequent. 

Lilium superbum L. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; frequent. 

Erythronium americanum Ker. Adder's-tongue. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones 
in moist forests. 


Erythronium albidum Nutt. 

Montgomery County, near Great Falls (Frederick H. Blodgett). 

Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Star-of-Bethlehem. 

Througbout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Ornithogalum nutans L. 

Howard County, Patapsco River (Robert K. Miller). 

Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Muscari racemosum (L.) Mill. 

Througbout the state; in cultivated grounds; frequent. Introduced from 

Aletris farinosa L. 

Throughout the state; in dry and moist sandy soil; infrequent. 
Queen Anne's County, near Sudlerville (1683). 


Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus. 

Coastal Zone; in waste situations near tide water; frequent. 

Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests and swamps; rare. 
Garrett County, Oakland (Joseph E. Harned). 

Clintonia umbellulata (Michx.) Torr. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests and swamps; frequent. 
Garrett County, Swanton (2004). 

Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong. Wild Spikenard. 

Througbout the state; in moist forests; common. 

Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (459). 

Unifolium canadense (Desf.) Greene. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; comnion. 

Disporum lanuginosum (Michx.) Nichols. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1957). 

Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. 

Garrett County, Oakland (Joseph E. Harned). 

Streptopus roseus Michx. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; rare. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1958). 


Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Solomon's Seal. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 

Polygonatum commutatum (R. & S.) Dietr. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, Williamsport (1808). 

Medeola virginiana L. Indian Cucumber-root, 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and swamps; common. 

Trillium nivale Riddell. Early Wake-robin. 

Garrett County, Oakland (.loseph E. Harned). 

Trillium erectum L. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist rocky places; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (811). 

Trillium cernuum L. 

Midland and Jlountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 

Trillium undulatum Willd. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; moist forests. 
Garrett County, Big Savage Mountain (833). 


Smilax herbacea L. Greenbrier. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; infrequent. 

Smilax tamnifolia Michx. 

Anne Arundel County. Severn River (Robert K. Miller). 

Smilax glauca Walt. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (1269). 

Smilax rotundifolia L. Catbrier. 

Throughout the state; in dry and moist forests and swamps; common. 

Smilax laurifolia L. 

Coastal Zone; in upland swamps and river swamps; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (1283). 

Smilax walteri Pursh. 

Anne Arundel County, Patapsco River (Charles C. Plitt). 

Smilax hispida Muhl. 
Mountain Zone. 


Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville. Star-grass. 

Throughout the state; In dry forests and open situations; common. 
Harford County, Fallston (1576J. 



Dioscorea villosa L. Wild Yam-root. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 


Iris versicolor L. 

Throughout the state; being most common in fresh marshes and swamps 

in the Coastal Zone. 
Charles County, Allen Fresh (1536). 

iris verna L. 

Coastal Zone; in moist forests, on sandy soil; infrequent. 
Anne Arundel County, Glenbumie (Robert K. Miller). 

SIsyrlnchlum gramlnoldes Bicknell. 

Coastal and Midland Zone; in moist forests and open situations; 

Talbot County, Easton (1495). 


Cypripedlum acaule Ait. Moccasin Flower. 

Coastal and Midland Zone; in dry forests; preferring sandy soil; 
common in the Coastal Zone, less frequent in the Midland Zone. 

Cypripedlum hirsutum Mill, (pubescens Willd.) Large Yellow Ladies' Slipper. 
Mountain Zone; in moist forests; frequent. 
Garrett County. Oakland (Joseph E. Harned). 

Cypripedlum parviflorum Salisb. Small Yellow Ladies' Slipper. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; moist forests, being rare in the Midland 

Zone, frequent in the Mountain Zone. 
Garrett County, Oakland (Joseph E. Harned). 

Orchis spectabills L. Showv Orchis. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; infrequent. 

Habenaria orblculata (Pursh.) Torr. Large Round-leaved Orchis. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist forests; rare. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1970). 

Habenaria bracteata (Willd.) R. Br. Long-bracted Orchis. 

Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1969). 

Habenaria clavellata (Michx.) Spreng. Small Green Wood Orchis. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, swamps and bogs; common. 


Habenaria cristata (Michx.) R. Br. Crested Yellow Orchis. 

Coastal Zone; in upland swamps and open situations with moist sandy 

Worcester County, Boxiron (1055). 

Habenaria ciliaris (L.) R. Br. Yellow Fringed Orchis. 

Coastal and Midland Zones: in moist forests, preferring sandy soil; 

Washington County, near Smoketown (1793). 

Habenaria blephariglottis (Willd.) Torr. White Fringed Orchis. 

Coastal Zone; in moist sandy forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Bengies (Robert K. Miller). 

Habenaria lacera (Michx.) R. Br. Ragged Orchis. 

Queen Anne's County. Sudlerville (1669). 

Habenaria grandiflora (Bigel.) Torr. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (555). 

Habenaria psycodes (L.) A. Gray. 

Garrett County, Oakland (Joseph E. Harned). 

Habenaria peramoena A. Gray. Fringeless Purple Orchis. 

Allegany County. Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Pogonia ophioglossoldes (L.) Ker. Rose Pogonia. 

Queen Anne's County, near Sudlerville (1674). 

Pogonia verticillata (Willd.) Nutt. Whorled Pogonia. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests, preferring sandy soil. 
Washington County, near Smoketown (1796). 

Gyrostachys cernua (L.) Kuntze. Nodding Ladies' Tresses. 

Throughout the state: in moist forests and open situations: frequent. 
Cecil County, Calvert (41S). 

Gyrostachys praecox (Walt.) Kuntze. Grass-leaved Ladies' Tresses. 

Throughout the state; in open moist situations; frequent. 

Gyrostachys simplex (A. Gray) Kuntze. Little Ladies' Tresses. 

Coastal Zone; in moist forests, preferring sandy soil. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1068). 

Gyrostachys gracilis (Bigel.) Kimtze. Slender Ladies' Tresses. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist open situations; common. 

Peramium pubescens (Willd.) MacM. Rattlesnake Plantain. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (2043). 


Achroanthes unifolia (Michx.) Raf. Green Adder's-mouth. 

Mountain Zone; in dry forests; rare. 
Garrett County, near Crellin (1979). 

Leptorchis liliifolia (L.) Kuntze. Large Twayblade. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Corallorhiza wisteriana Conrad. Wister's Coral-root. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Crellin (1980). 

Corallorhiza multiflora Nutt. Large Coral-root 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Corallorhiza corallorhiza (L.) Karsts. Early Coral-root. 

Midland Zone. 

TIpularIa unifolia (Muhl.) B. S. P. Crane-fly Orchis. 

Coastal Zone; in moist and dry forests; infrequent. 
St. Mary's County, Piney Point (M. A. Chrysler). 

Limodorum tuberosum L. Grass-pink. 

Queen Anne's County, near Sudlerville (1673). 

Aplectrum spicatum (Walt.) B. S. P. Adam-and-Eve. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 



Saururus cernuus L. Lizard's Tail. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swamps and marshes and about the 
margins of ponds; being common in the Coastal Zone and infrequent 
in the Midland Zone. 


Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. 

Throughout the state in upland forests, preferring deep loam soil; rare 
in the Coastal Zone, apparently being absent out of cultivation in the 
lower Eastern Shore; frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 

Juglans cinerea L. Butternut. 

Throughout the state in upland forests, preferring the rich humus soils 
of the lower slopes of mountain ridges; apparently absent from the 
Eastern Shore, rare in the Western Shore District of the Coastal Zone, 
infrequent in the ]-.ower Midland District, frequent in the Upper Mid- 
land District and the Mountain Zone. 


Hicoria minima (Marsh.) Britton. Bitternut Hickory. 

Throughout the state; in moiot forests and flood plains, being most 

abundant in the flood plains of the Midland Zone. 
Frederick County, near Sugar Loaf (1762). 

Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britton. Shagbark Hickory. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry Upland forests; rare in the Lower 
Midland District, frequent in the Upper Midland and the Mountain 

Hicoria alba (L.) Britton. Mockernut Hickory. 

Throughout the state; in dry Upland forests; most abundant in the 
northern counties of the Eastern Shore and in the Midland Zone. 

Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) Britton. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist Upland forests, preferring 
mountain slopes; rare. 

Hicoria glabra (Mill.) Britton. Pignut Hickory. 

Throughout the state; in Upland forests; common. 


Myrica cerifera L. Wax Myrtle. 

Coastal Zone, being confined to the southern counties of the Eastern 

Shore; is most abundant in river swamps and sandy-loam upland 

swamps, also occurring in upland forests. 
Caroline County, Dover Bridge (2067). 

Myrica carolinensis Mill. Bayberry. 

Coastal Zone, apparently being absent from the remainder of the state; 

frequent on dunes and in other open situations with dry sandy soil, 

also in clay upland forests. 
Worcester County, Berlin (645). 

Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter. Sweet Fern. 

Throughout the state, being most abundant in the Midland and Mountain 
Zones; in dry upland forests and open situations, flourishing in 
cleared and burnt-over forests. 


Populus alba L. Silver Poplar. 

Throughout the state in cultivated grounds; introduced from Europe. 

Populus heter'ophylla L. Swamp Poplar. 

Coastal Zone; in river swamps and upland swamps, frequent in occur- 
rence but never numerous in individuals. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1090). 


Populus grandidentata i\Iichx. Large-toothed Poplar. 

Rare in the Eastern Shore District, infrequent throughout the remainder 
of the state. 

Populus tremuloides Michx. American Poplar. 

Jlountain Zone; infrequent about the margins of forests and swamps. 

Populus dilatata Ait. Lombardy Poplar. 

Throughout the state in cultivated grounds. Introduced from Europe. 

Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow. 

Throughout the state: in flood plains and along streams; common. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (1602). 

Salix wardii Bebh. 

Midland Zone; frequent at several localities along the Potomac River. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (1014). 

Salix alba var. vitellina (L.) Koch. White Willow. 

Throughout the state; in flood plains and along streams; common. 

Salix babylonica L. Weeping Willow. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds. Introduced from Europe. 

Salix humilis Marsh. Prairie Willow. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 

Salix tristis Ait. Sage Willow. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations and on thin rocky soil; 

Cecil County, near Elkton (376). 

Salix discolor Muhl. Pussy Willow. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; along streams; infrequent. 

Salix sericea Marsh. Silky Willow. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; along streams; frequent. 
Allegany County, Braddock Run (905). 


Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Hornbeam, Blue Beech. 

Throughout the state, being most common in flood plains and along 
streams in the Midland Zone; also frequent in moist forests and 
infrequent in swamps throughout the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
infrequent in the southern, and frequent in the northern Eastern 

Ostrya virginiana (Jlill.) Willd. Hop-hornbeam, Ironwood. 

Midland and Jlountain Zones; in moist forests and on rocky slopes; 


Corylus americana Walt. riazel-nut. 

Throughout the state; being rare in the Coastal Zone, and frequent in 
the Midland Zone in dry forests and open situations. 

Corylus rostrata Ait. Beaked Hazel-nut. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist and dry forests on 

mountain slopes; infrequent. 
Frederick County, Thurmont (1753). 

Betula nigra L. River Birch. 

Throughout the state; frequent in the Coastal Zone in flood plains and 
stream swamps, common in the Midland Zone in flood plains and along 
streams. Also infrequent in dry situations. 

Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch. 

Apparently absent from the Eastern Shore, rare in the Western Shore 

District of the Coastal Zone, frequent in the Upper Midland District 

and Mountain Zone; preferring mountain slopes, in deep or rocky soil. 

Betula lutea Michx. Yellow Birch. 

Mountain Zone; in swamp and glade forests and along streams; 

AInus Incana (L.) Willd. Hoary Alder. 

Mountain Zone; in swamps and bogs; infrequent. 
Garrett County, near Oakland (1990). 

AInus rugosa (Du Roi) K. Koch. Alder. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and flood plains and along streams in 
open wet situations; common. 

AInus maritima (Marsh.) Muhl. 

Coastal Zone; confined to the stream swamps of the Wicomico and 

Nanticoke rivers, where it is invariably associated with Chamaecy- 

paris; rare. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1191). 


Fagus americana Sweet. Beech. 

Throughout the state; in the Coastal Zone it is infrequent in moist 
upland forests and swamps, and most common on the slopes leading 
from streams and swamps to the upland; in the Midland Zone it is 
frequent in moist forests and flood plains; in the Mountain Zone it is 
infrequent in the forests of mountain slopes. 

Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Chestnut. 

Rare on the Eastern Shore south of Queen Anne's County, being con- 
fined to the gravel slopes, common in Cecil County and the Western 
Shore District of the Coastal Zone, preferring gravel soil; common in 


the Lower Midland District, where it is one of the cliaracteristic 
Upland forest trees, less common in the Upper Midland District and 
Mountain Zone, where it prefers mountain ridges and thin rocky soil. 

Castanea pumila (I..) Mill. Chinquapin. 

Locally common throughout the state, as in northern Dorchester County, 

near East New Market, in Anne Arundel County near Glenburnie, in 

Charles County, near Bel Alton, and on the summits of Catoctin and 

Blue Ridge; prefers open situations in sand or thin rocky soil. 

Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, frequent in the Lower Midland District but 

most abundant in the Upper Midland District and the Mountain Zone, 

where it prefers the lower slopes of mountain ridges or occurs less 

abundantly in dry forests. 

Quercus palustris Du Roi. Swamp Oak. 

Throughout the state, absent from the river and stream swamps of the 

Eastern Shore, common In the upland swamps and flood plains; 

common in flood plains and along streams throughout the Midland 

and Mountain Zones. 

Quercus coccinea Wang. Scarlet Oak. 

Throughout the state, being frequent in the Coastal Zone, and common 
in the Midland and Mountain Zones, where it is one of the character- 
istic forest trees; most abundant in the dry forests of slopes and 

Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. 

Throughout the state; being one of the three commonest oaks in the 

Coastal Zone and one of the two commonest in the remainder of the 

state; an important constituent of all upland forests and frequent in 

flood plains. 

Quercus digitata (Marsh.) Sudw. Spanish Oak. 

Throughout the Coastal Zone, extending beyond the "Pall-line" up the 

Potomac River as far as Seneca Creek, and infrequently elsewhere; 

is one of the two commonest oaks in the southern Eastern Shore, 

where it prefers dry upland soils. 

Quercus nana (Marsh.) Sarg. Scrub Oak. Bear Oak. 

Apparently absent from the Eastern Shore District of the Coastal Zone, 
infrequent in the Western Shore District, being common in the Upper 
Midland District and the Mountain Zone, where it prefers open situa- 
tions with thin rocky soil, as the summits of the Catoctin mountains 
and the cut-over forests of Garrett County. 

Quercus marylandica Muench. Black Jack Oak. 

Throughout the Coastal and Midland Zones, apparently being absent 

from the Mountain Zone. Its relative abundance is greatest on the 


Serpentine Barrens of the Lower Midland District; it is locally 
common in sandy soil and on thin rocky slopes throughout the Coastal 
and Midland Zones, being least frequent in the Upper Midland 

Quercus nigra L. Water Oak. 

Confined to the Southern Eastern Shore where it has not been observed 
north of Greensborough, Caroline County; It is most abundant in 
sandy-loam upland swamps and in flood plains with sandy soil, is 
infrequent in clay upland and in well-drained sandy soils. 

Worcester County, near Berlin (656). 

Quercus phellos L. Willow Oak. 

Throughout the Coastal Zone and beyond the "Pall-line" along the 

Potomac River as far as Seneca Creek; is infrequent in river swamps 

and stream swamps, common in upland swamps and flood plains and 

in clay upland, frequent in sandy-loam upland. 

Quercus imbricaria Michx. Shingle Oak. 

Confined to the vicinity of Barnesville, Gaithersburg and Great Palls in 
Montgomery County, and Zekiali Swamp in Charles County. 

Quercus alba L. White Oak. 

Throughout the state, being the commonest of the oaks and one of the 

commonest forest trees; it grows in swamps and on the upland in 

soils of every character in every county of the state, attaining its best 

development in the deep well-drained upland soils. 

Quercus minor (Marsh.) Sarg. Post Oak, Iron Oak. 

Coastal and Midland Zones, apparently absent from the Mountain Zone; 

frequent in the Coastal Zone on light, well-drained soil, is relatively 

most abundant on the Serpentine Barrens, is frequent elsewhere in 

Lower Midland District, infrequent in the Upper Midland. 

Quercus lyrata Walt. Overcup Oak. 

Charles County, Zekiah Swamp (M. A. Chrysler). 

Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Bur Oak. 

Throughout the state; in flood plains and moist forests; the rarest of 

the oaks. 
Queen Anne's County, Starr (1666). 

Quercus platanoides (Lam.) Sudw. Swamp White Oak. 

Coastal and Midland Zones, not noted in the Mountain Zone; in flood 

plains and along streams; rare. 
Howard County, near Mt. Airy (1723). 

Quercus michauxii Nutt. Cow Oak. 

Coastal Zone; in flood plains and upland swamps, being most abundant 

in the upland clay swamps of the Eastern Shore. 
Anne Arundel County, Galesville (M. A. Chrysler). 


Quercus prinus L. Chestnut Oak. 

Absent from the southern counties of the Eastern Shore; rare in 
Caroline and Talbot counties, frequent in Upper Queen Anne's, Kent 
and Cecil, preferring gravel soil; common throughout the Midlaiid 
and Mountain Zones, preferring gravel soil and rocky slopes and 

Quercus acuminata (Michx.) Sarg. Yellow Oak. 

Upper Midland District; in upland soils; rare. 
Montgomery County, Barnesville (Frederick H. Blodgett). 

Quercus prlnoides Willd. Scrub Chestnut Oak. 

Western Shore District of the Coastal Zone, Lower Midland District in 

sand or the thin soil of rocky slopes; infrequent. 
Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (M. A. Chrysler). 


Ulmus americana L. American Elm. 

Throughout the state; being rare in the southern Eastern Shore, 

frequent in other portions of the Coastal Zone, preferring flood plains; 

frequent throughout the Midland Zone in flood plains and along 

streams, absent from the Mountain Zone. 

Ulmus fulva Michx. Slippery Elm. 

Distributed as is the preceding, the two often growing together. This 
species is somewhat the commoner of the two in the Upper Midland 
District, often growing in relatively dry soil. 

Celtis occidentalls L. Hackberry. 

Rare in the southern Eastern Shore, frequent in the remainder of the 
Coastal Zone and in the Midland, growing in moist and dry soil along 
streams, on the Upland and in the crevices of rocks. 

Celtis crassifolla Lam. Hackberry. 

Throughout the Midland Zone, being commoner than the preceding in 

the Upper Midland District, but similar in its tolerance of diverse 

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry. 

Rare in the Southern Eastern Shore, infrequent throughout the remainder 
of the state, being most abundant in flood plains and rich upland 

Toxylon pomlferum Raf. Osage Orange. 

Coastal and Midland Zones, a frequent escape from cultivation. 
Apparently not hardy in the Mountain Zone. 

Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent. Paper Mulberry. 

Throughout the state, in cultivated grounds, introduced from Europe. 


Humulus lupulus L. Hop. 

Upper Midland District, in dry thicl?ets, infrequent. 
Washington County, Weverton (1770). 


Urtica dioica L. Nettle. 

Throughout the state; in waste grounds; common. 

Urticastrum divaricatum (L.) Kuntze. Wood Nettle. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, flood plains and moist forests; 

Cecil County, North East (394). 

Adicea pumila (L.) Raf. Richweed. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist forests; common. 

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Willd. False Nettle. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations. 
Cecil County, North East (391). 

Parietaria pennsylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvania Pellitory. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist and dry forests; 

Washington County, Hancock (831). 


Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh.) Nult. American Mistletoe. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Midland Zone; parasitic on 

deciduous trees, preferring oaks and Red Maple. 
Somerset County, near Pocomoke City (1150). 


Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Bastard Toad Flax. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zones 

In dry forests and open situations, preferring sandy soil. 
Washington County, near Hancock (800). 


Asarum canadense L. Wild Ginger. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Jlidland and Mountain Zones 
in moist forests. 

Aristolochia serpentaria L. Virginia Snakeroot. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; rare. 
Caroline County, near Denton (1646). 



Rumex acetosella L. Sheep Sorrel. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Rumex verticillatus L. Swamp Dock. 

Coastal Zone; in moist swamps and ponds; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (159S). 

Rumex crispus L. Curled Dock. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Polygonum pennsylvanicum L. Pennsylvania Knotweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist cultivated grounds; common. 

Polygonum hydroplperoides Michx. Mild Water Pepper. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps and open wet situations; 

Polygonum punctatum Ell. {acre H. B. K.) Water Smart-weed. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; common. 

Polygonum virginianum L. Virginia Knot-weed. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 

Polygonum aviculare L. Knot-grass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Polygonum amphibium L. 
Coastal Zone. 

Polygonum maritimum L. Seaside Knotweed. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1230). 

Polygonum erectum L. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; common. 

Polygonum tenue Michx. Slender Knotweed. 

Baltimore County, Bare Hills (Robert K. Miller). 

Polygonum convolvulus L. Black Bindweed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Polygonum scandens L. Climbing False Buckwheat. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; frequent. 

Polygonum sagittatum L. Arrow-leaved Tear-thumb. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps and open wet situations; 

Polygonum arifolium L. Halberd-leaved Tear-thumb. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps and open wet situations; 


Polygonum hydropiper L. Smartweed. 

Coastal Zone. 

Polygonum persicaria L. 

Coastal Zone, naturalized from Europe. 

Polygonella articulata (L.) Melsn. Coast Jointweed. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests, preferring sandy soil. 
Worcester County, near Wagram (1159). 


Chenopodlum album L. Lamb's Quarters. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Chenopodlum murale L. Nettle-leaved Goosefoot. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds frequent. Introduced from 

Chenopodlum anthelminticum L. Worniseed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Atrlplex hastata L. Halberd-leaved Orache. 

Coastal Zone; growing on the strand and in salt and brackish marshes; 

Atrlplex rosea L. Red Orache. 

Baltimore County, Canton; on ballast (Robert K. Miller). 

Salicornia herbacea L. Slender Grasswort. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 

Salsola kail L. 

Coastal Zone; on dunes and strand; frequent. 


Amaranthus retroflexus L. Rough Pigweed. 

Throughout the state; in waste grounds; common. Introduced from 
South America. 

Amaranthus splnosus L. Spiny Amaranth. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 
South America. 

Amaranthus blltoldes S. Wats. Prostrate Amaranth. 

Baltimore County, Canton; on ballast (Robert K. Miller). 

Acnida cannabina L. Water-hemp. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; frequent. 
Caroline County, Dover Bridge (2066). 



Phytolacca decandra L. Poke. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 


Mollugo verticillata L. Carpet-weed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 


Talinum teretifolium Pursh. Fame-flower. 

Midland Zone; confined to the serpentine barrens. 

Claytonia virginica L. Spring Beauty. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones 
in moist forests. 

Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds. Introduced from Europe. 


Agrostemma githago L. (Lychnis githago Scop.) Corn Cockle. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Silene stellata (L.) Ait. Starry Campion. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 
Washington Coimty, Sideling Hill (1793). 

Silene alba Muhl. Western White Campion. 

Baltimore County, Gunpowder River (Robert K. Miller). 

Silene vulgaris (Moench.) Garcke. Bladder Campion. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (494). 

Silene antirrhina L. Sleepy Catehfly. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (1467a). 

Silene noctiflora L. Night-flowering Catehfly. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Silene dichotoma Ehrh. Forked Catehfly. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Lychnis alba Mill. White Campion. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; infrequent. 
Caroline County, Denton (1638). 


Saponaria officinalis L. Soapwort. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds: common. Introduced from 

Vaccaria vaccaria (L.) Britten. Cow-herb. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; infrequent. Introduced 

from Europe. 
Anne Arundel County, Odenton (1473). 

Dianthus prolifer L. Proliferous Pink. 

Anne Arundel County, Annapolis (M. A. Chrysler). 

Alsine ullginosa (Murr.) Britton. Bog Starwort. 

Cecil County, Port Deposit (J. K. Small). 

Alsine media L. Common Chickweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 

Alsine pubera (Michx.) Britton. Great Chickweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 
Baltimore, Walbrook (429). 

Alsine longifolia (Muhl.) Britton. Long-leaved Stichwort. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open wet situations; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Towson (474). 

Cerastlum longipedunculatum Muhl. Nodding Chickweed. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Cerastlum arvense L. Field Chickweed. 

Midland Zone; confined to the serpentine barrens. 
Baltimore County, Soldiers Delight (1409). 

Cerastlum arvense var. oblonglfolium (Terr.) Holl. 
Midland Zone; in dry forests and open situations. 
Cecil County, Conowingo (413). 

Sagina procumbens L. 

Throughout the state; in dry cultivated and waste grounds; frequent. 
Baltimore (W. Ralph Jones). 

Arenaria serpylllfolla L. Thyme-leaved Sandwort. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations. 
Allegany County, Braddock Run (S90). 

Moehrlngia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl. Blunt-leaved Moehringia or Sandwort. 

Garrett County, Oakland (563). 

Ammodenia peploides (L.) Ruper. Sea-beach Sandwort. 

Coastal Zone; on the strand; rare. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (M. A. Chrysler). 

Tissa marina (L.) Britton. Salt-marsh Sand Spurry. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes and in cultivated grounds 
subject to tidal overflow; frequent. 


Anychia dichotoma Michx. Forked Chickweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1195). 

Anychia canadensis (L.) B. S. P. 

Baltimore, Druid Hill Park (W. Ralph Jonesi. 


Brasenia purpurea (Michx.) Casp. Water-shield. 

Throughout the state; in ponds and slow streams; infrequent. 

Nymphaea advena Soland. Yellow Pond Lily. 

Throughout the state; in ponds and slow streams, being particularly 
characteristic of the margins of marshes on the upper waters of tidal 
rivers in the Coastal Zone. 

Castalia odorata (Dryand.) Woodv. & Wood. White Water Lily. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in ponds and slow streams; frequent. 


Ceratophyilum demersum L. Hornwort. 

Coastal Zone; in slow streams and the upper waters of tidal rivers 

Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (1596). 


Magnolia tripetala L. Umbrella Tree. 

Known only from the Midland Zone, where it grows singly or in small 
groups on flood plains or on rich mountain slopes; rare. 

Magnolia virginiana L. Laurel Magnolia. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone; in river swamps, stream swamps and 
upland swamps, being more abundant in wet sandy soil and found also 
in wet clay; common. 

Magnolia acuminata L. Cucumber-tree. 

Occurs rarely in the Coastal Zone, is occasional in the lower Midland 
District and frequent in the upper Midland District and Mountain Zone, 
preferring deep soils of lower mountain slopes. 

Liriodendron tulipifera L. Tulip-tree. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, where it is infrequent in the river swamps, 
frequent in flood plains and infrequent in moist upland forests; com- 
mon in the Midland Zone in ths flood plains and swamps, rare in the 
Mountain Zone. 



Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. Paw Paw. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; being rare in the Coastal Zone in flood 
plains, infrequent in the Midland Zone. 


Caltha palustris L. Marsh-marigold. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in swamps; infrequent. 
Garrett County near Oakland (484). 

Caltha flabellifolia Pursh. Mountain Marsh-marigold. 

Mountain Zone; in swamps; rare. 
Garrett County near Finzel (George M. Perdew). 

Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. Gold-thread. 

Mountain Zone; In moist forests near the edges of bogs; rare. 
Garrett County, Thayervile (2058). 

Actaea alba (L.) Mill. White Baneberry. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (2040). 

Cimlcifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. Black Snakeroot. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
in moist and dry forests. 

Cimicifuga americana Michx. American Bugbane. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; rare. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (2038). 

Aquilegia canadensis L. Wild Columbine. 

Rare In the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zones 

in moist forests and on rocky slopes. 
Garrett County, Oakland (485). 

Delphinium consolida L. Field Larkspur. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Delphinium ajacis L. 

In cultivated grounds; infrequent. Introduced from Europe. 
Charles County, Chapel Hill (M. A. ChiTsler). 

Delphinium urceolatum Jacq. Tall Larkspur. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (706). 

Aconitum uncinatum L. Wild Monkshood. 

Mountain Zone; in open moist situations; frequent. 
Garrett County near Oakland (2015). 


Anemone virginiana L. Tall Anemone. 

Rare in the lower Midland District, common in the upper Midland Dis- 
trict and Mountain Zone, in moist forests. 

Anemone quinquefolia L. Wind-flower. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 

Anemone trifolia L. Mountain Anemone. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Oakland (George M. Perdew). 

Hepatica hepatica (L.) Karst. Hepatica. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Jlidland and Mountain Zones; 
in moist and dry forests. 

Hepatica acuta (Pursh.) Britton. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; rare. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (2044). 

Syndesmon thalictroides (L.) Hotfmg. Rue-anemone. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
in moist forests. 

Clematis virginiana L. Virgin's Bower. 

Common throughout the state; in moist and dry forests and open situa- 
Cecil County. Elkton (419). 

Clematis viorna L. Leather-flower. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent in the Lower 
Midland District; frequent in the Upper Midland District and Moun- 
tain Zone. 

Washington County, Round Top (724). 

Trautvetteria carolinensis (Walt.) Vail. False Bugbane. 

Known from the Midland Zone only in the vicinity of the Great Falls, 

Montgomery County, frequent in the Mountain Zone; in moist soil and 

clefts of rock along streams. 
Garrett County, Swallow Falls (566). 

Ranunculus obtusiusculus Raf. Water Plantain Spearwort. 

Queen Anne's County, near Sudlerville (1668). 

Ranunculus abortivus L. Kidney-leaved Crowfooi. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 

Ranunculus abortivus L. Celery-leaved Crowfoot. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open wet situations: common. 
Talbot County, near Easton (1514). 

Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. Hooked Crowfoot. 

Calvert County, Chesapeake Beach (Joseph H. Painter). 


Ranunculus acris L. Tall or Meadow Buttercup. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Ranunculus bulbosus L. Bulbous Buttercup. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Ranunculus pennsylvanicus L. f. 

Baltimore, Druid Hill Park (W. Ralph Jones). 

Ranunculus septentrionalis Poir. Swamp or Marsh Buttercup. 

Baltimore County, Gunpowder River (Robert K. Miller). 

Batrachlum hederaceum (L.) S. F. Gray. Ivy-leaved Crowfoot. 

Prince George's County, Mt. Calvert (1556). 

Thalictrum dioicum L. Early Meadow-Rue. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 

Thalictrum polygamum Muhl. Tall Meadow-Rue. 

Anne Arundel County, Annapolis (M. A. Chrysler). 

Thalictrum purpurascens L. Purple Meadow-Rue. 

Coastal Zone. 


Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. Blue Cohosli. 

Rare in the Midland Zone; common in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

Garrett County, Boiling Spring (19^4). 

Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers. Twin-leaf. 

Rare in the Midland Zone; infrequent in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

Podophyllum peltatum L. May Apple. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 


Menispermum canadense L. Canada Moonseed. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; frequent in the Midland Zone; in moist forests. 


Sassafras sassafras (L.) Karst. Sassafras. 

Common in the Coastal and Midland Zones; rare in the Mountain Zone. 
Talbot County, Easton (1371). 

Benzoin benzoin (L.) Coulter. Spice-bush. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, flood plains and moist forests; com- 



Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot. 

Jlidland Zone. 

Papaver somniferum L. Opium or Garden Poppy. 

Baltimore, waste lots (Robert K. Miller). 

Papaver dubium L. Long Smooth-fruited Poppy. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; infrequent. Introduced. 

Argenmone mexicana L. Mexican or Prickly Poppy. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in waste grounds; rare. 

Caroline County, Denton (Forrest Shreve) ; Prince George's County, 
Nottingham (Robert K. Miller). 

Chelidonium majus L. Celandine. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
in flood plains and moist forests. 

Bicuculla cucullaria (L.) Millsp. Dutchman's Breeches. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
in forests and open situations. 

Bicuculla canadensis (Goldie) Millsp. Squirrel Corn. 

Mountain Zone; in the crevices of rocky cliffs; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (1937). 

Bicuculla eximia (Ker.) Millsp. Wild Bleeding Heart. 

Mountain Zone. 

Adiumia fungosa (Ait.) Greene. Climbing Fumitory. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; on rocky slopes; infrequent. 
Frederick County, Thurmont (1758) 

Capnoides sempervirens (L.) Borck. Pink Corydalis. 

Rare in the Midland Zone; infrequent in the Mountain Zone; grownig 
on rocky boulders. Garrett County, near Swanton (2007). 

Capnoides flavulum (Raf.) Kuntze. Pale Corydalis. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in the Midland and Mountain 
Zones; in moist forests. Montgomery County, Great Falls (1412). 
Glaucium glaucium (L.) Karst. Sea Poppy. 

Coastal Zone. 


Lepidium campestre (L.) MR. Br. Field Cress. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced. 
Lepidium virginicum L. Wild Peppergrass. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. Hedge Mustard. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced. 


Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. American Sea Rocket. 

Coastal Zone: on the strand; frequent. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1252). 

Sinapis alba L. Wliite Mustard. 

Througtiout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Black Mustard. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Brassica arvensis (L.) B. S. P. Charlock. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; frequent. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Barbarea barbarea (L. ) MacM. Yellow Cress. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Barbarea praecox (J. E. Smith) R. Br. Early Winter. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Roripa sylvestrix (L.)Bess. Creeping Yellow Water Cress. 

Baltimore County, Middle River iM. A. Chrysler). 

Roripa nasturtium (L.) Rushy. Water-cress. 

Throughout the state; in streams and open wet situations; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvania Bitter-cress. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Joseph H. Painter). 

Cardamine purpurea (Torr.) Britton. Purple Cress. 

Throughout the state; in flood plains and moist forests. 
Baltimore County, Soldiers Delight (1419). 

Cardamine rotundifolia Michx. Round-leaved Water-cress. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Dentaria laciniata Muhl. Cut-leaved Toothwort. 

Infrequent in the Midland Zone; frequent in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

Baltimore County, Western Run (1404). 

Dentaria diphylia Michx. Two-leaved Toothwort. 

Rare in the Midland Zone; frequent in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

Garrett County, Kelso Gap (564). 


Dentaria heterophylla Xutt. Slender Toothwort. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, near Bare Hills (W. Ralph Jones). 

Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton. Shepherd's Purse. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Draba verna L. Vernal Whitlow-grass. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; commou. 
Talbot County, Easton (1.358). 

Draba ramosissima Deav. Branching Whitlow-grass. 

Washington County, Round Top (717). 

Stenophragma thaliana (L.) Celak. Mouse-ear or Thale-cress. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; frequent. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Arabis lyrata L. Lyre-leaved Rock-cress. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situation.^; common. 
Baltimore County, Soldiers Delight (1410). 

Arabis dentata T. & G. Toothed Rock-cress. 

Montgomery County, Cabin John (Joseph H. Painter). 

Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. Smooth Rock-cress. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Arabis canadensis L. Sickle-pod. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist fields; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (567). 

Erysimum cheiranthoides L. Worm-seed or Treacle Mustard. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Hoary Alyssum. 

Baltimore County, Frederick Road (Jos. H. Brummell). 


Cleome spinosa L. Spider-flower. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Polanisia graveolens Raf. Clammy-weed. 

Kent County, Lloyds Creek (1704). 


Reseda lutea L. Yellow Cut-leaved Mignonette. 

Baltimore County, Canton; on ballast (Robert K. Miller). 



Sarracenia purpurea L. Pitcher Plant, Side-saddle Flower. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (M. A. Chrysler). 


Drosera rotundifolia L. Round-leaved Sundew. 

Common in moist sandy forests in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in moist 
sandy forests and bogs in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 

Drosera intermedia Hayne. Spatulate-leaved Sundew. 

Growing with the former plant and more common than it. 


Podostemon ceratophyllum Michx. River-weed. 

Baltimore County, Western Riin (Robert K. Miller). 


Sedum telephium L. Orpine. 

Midland Zone; on open rocky slopes; infrequent. Introduced from 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Sedum telephioides Michx. American Orpine. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on open rocky slopes; common. 
Allegany County, Flintstone (102Ca). 

Sedum acre L. Wall-pepper. 

Washington County, Williamsport (1809a). 

Sedum ternatum Michx. Wild Stonecrop. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and on rocky slopes; 

Washington County, Round Top (707). 

Penthorum sedoides L. Virginia Stonecrop. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; frequent. 


Tiarella cordifolia L. False Mitrewort. 

Mountain Zone. 

Saxifraga pennsylvanica L. Swamp Saxifrage. 

Rare in the Midland Zone; frequent in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

forests and along streams. 
Garrett County, near Finzel (George M. Perdew), 

Saxifraga micranthidifolia (Haw.) B. S. P. Lettuce Saxifrage. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests and along streams. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (4S8). 


Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. Early Saxifrage. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone. In ravine slopes; common in the Midland and 

Mountain Zones; in dry forests and on boulders. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (507). 

Heuchera americana L. Alumroot. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zones 
in moist and dry forests. 

Heuchera pubescens Pursh. Downy Heuchera. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 

Mitella diphylla L. Bishop's Cap. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 

Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. Golden Saxifrage. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and flood plains; common. 

Hydrangea arborescens L. Wild Hydrangea. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
in moist forests and along streams. 
Itea virginica L. Virginia Willow. 

Coastal Zone. 

Ribes cynosbati L. Wild Gooseberry. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist and dry forests; frequent. 

Allegany County, Piney Mountain (910). 
Ribes rotundifolium Michx. Eastern Wild Gooseberry. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; frequent. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (868). 


Hamamelis virginiana L. Witch Hazel. 

Throughout the state; being rare in the Coastal Zone, common in the 
Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and flood plains. 
Liquidambar styraciflua L. Sweet Gum. 

Confined to the Coastal Zone; where it is one of the commonest ot the 
forest trees, growing in a variety of situations, but being most abund- 
ant in upland swamps. It reproduces readily by suckers as well as by 
seeds, and is one of the most prominent species in the reforesting ot 
abandoned areas. 


Platanus occidentalis L. Button wood. 

Throughout the Coastal and Midland Zones; along streams and on flood 
plains; common. In the upper Midland Zone it is occasionally found 
on slopes and in relatively dry situations. 



Opulaster opulifolius (L.)Kuntze. Ninebark. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; along streams. 
Washington County, Hancoclt (745). 

Spiraea salicifolia L. Willow-leaved Meadow-Sweet. 

Throughout the state; along streams and in open moist situations, being 

common in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 
Montgomery County, Gaithersburg (1735). 

Spiraea tomentosa L. Hardback. 

Throughout the state; along streams and in open moist situations; 

Worcester County, Boxiron (1064). 

Spiraea corymbosa Raf. Corymbed Spiraea. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, near Rohrersville (176S). 

Porteranthus trifoliatus (L.) Britten. Indian Physic. 

In Cecil County and throughout the Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry 
forests and open situations; common. 

Rubus odoratus L. Purple-flowering Raspberry. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in dry forests, preferring 

rocky slopes among sandstone boulders; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (S67). 

Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; common. 

Rubus alleghaniensis Porter. Mountain Blackberry. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in dry forests and open 
situations; frequent. 

Rubus cuneifolius Pursh. Sand Blackberry. 

Coastal Zone; in open dry situations; preferring sandy soil; common in 

the southern counties of the Eastern Shore, not observed north of 

G-reensborough, Caroline County. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1051). 

Rubus villosus Ait. Bush Blackberry. 

Coastal Zone. 

Rubus hispidus L. Swamp Blackberry. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; swamps and bogs; common. 

Rubus canadensis L. Low Running Blackberry. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; common. 

Dalibarda repens L. Dalibarda. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests and swamps; frequent. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1965). 


Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. Wild Strawberry. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations; common. 

Duchesnea indica (Andr.) Focke. Indian Strawberry. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; infrequent. Introduced 
from India. 

Potentilla monspeliensis L. Rough Cinquefoil. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations, being most frequent in 
the Coastal Zone. 

Potentilla canadensis L. Five-finger. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 
Garrett County, Oakland (480). 

Waldsteinia fragarioldes (Michx.) Tratt. Dry Strawberry. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1960). 

Geum canadense Jacq. White Avens. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 
Washington County, Sideling Hill (798). 

Geum virginianum L. Rough Avens. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and swamps; frequent. 
Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Ulmaria rubra Hill. 

Baltimore County, Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Agrimonia pumila Muhl. Small-fruited Agrimony. 

Washington County, near Hancock (Frederick H. Blodgett). 

Agrimonia parviflora Soland. Many-flowered Agrimony. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; common. 

Sangulsorba sangulsorba (L.)Britton. Salad Burnet. 

Midland Zone; in waste situations; infrequent. 
Prince George's County, Upper Marlborough (Robert K. Miller). 

Sangulsorba canadensis L. American Great Burnet. 

Midland Zone; in open moist situations; rare. 

Rosa Carolina L. Swamp Rose. 

Throughout the state; in moist swamps and open moist situations, being 

most common in the Coastal Zone. 
Dorchester County, Little Blackwater River (1601). 

Rosa humllls Marsh. Low or Pasture Rose. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; frequent. 
Anne Arundel County, Odenton (Joseph H. Painter). 


Rosa canina L. Dog Rose. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in open situations; frequent. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (876). 


Sorbus americana Marsh. Mountain Ash. 

Confined to the Mountain Zone; in swamps and on rocky slopes; frequent. 
Garrett County, near S wanton (2009). 

Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. Red Choke-berry. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and swamps; common. 

Aronia atropurpurea Britton. 

Mountain Zone; in open wet situations. 
Garrett County, Big Savage Mountain (852). 

Aronia nigra (Willd.) Britton. Black Choke-berry. 

Mountain Zone; in swamps and bogs; frequent. 
Garrett County, Thayerville (20.54). 

Amelancliier canadensis (L.) Medic. June-berry. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests, preferring rocky slopes and 
being most common in the Midland Zone. 

Crataegus crus-galli L. Cockspur Thorn. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Crataegus coccinea L. Scarlet Haw. 

Upper Midland District. 

Crataegus brownii Britton. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (875). 

Crataegus punctata Jacq. 

Allegany County, Braddock Run (90.'J). 

Crataegus oxyacantha L. Hawthorn. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; being most common in the 
Mountain Zone. Introduced from Europe. 

Crataegus tenuifolla Britton. 

Allegany County near Flintstone (1021). 

Crataegus uniflora Muench. Dwarf Thorn. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests, preferring sandy soil; infrequent. 


Prunus pennsylvanica L. f. Wild Red Cherry. 

Throughout the state; usually growing as single trees in open situations; 

Prunus serotina Ehrh. Wild Black Cherry. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 



Cercis canadensis L. Red-bud. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, where it is found on gravel slopes underlaid 
by clay; common in the Midland Zone, where it grows chiefly on slopes 
bordering streams and on rocky slopes. It is particularly abundant in 
the forests of the limestone region. It is apparently absent from the 
Mountain Zone. 

Cassia nictitans L. Sensitive Pea. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations; common. 

Cassia chamaecrlsta L. Partridge Pea. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations: being most common in the 
light soils of the Coastal Zone. 

Cassia marylandica L. Wild or American Senna. 

Throughout the state; in flood plains and along streams; frequent. 
Cecil County, Charlestown (400). 

Gleditsia triacanthos L. Honey or Sweet Locust. 

Throughout the state; being most frequent in the Upper Midland Dis- 
trict. Introduced from Europe. 


Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. Blue Wild Indigo. 

Washington County, flood plain of the Potomac at Williamsport (1805). 
Baptisia tinctoria (L.t R. Br. Wild Indigo. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations, being most 
common in sandy soil. 

Crotalaria sagittalis L. Rattle-box. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone, not observed elsewhere in the state; in 

open dry situations. 
Anne Arundel County, Annapolis (M. A. Chrysler). 

Lupinus perennis L. Wild Lupine. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests, being most abundant on the light 
soils of the Western Shore District of the Coastal Zone. 
Cytisus scopariaus (L.) Link. Scotch Broom. 

In cultivated grounds; introduced from Europe. 
Anne Arundel County, Annapolis (M. A. Chrysler). 
IVIedicago saliva L. Purple Medic. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Medicago lupulina L, Black or Hop Medic. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 


Melilotus alba Desv. White Melilot. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow Melilot. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; frequent. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Trifollum agrarium L. Yellow or Hop Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Trifollum procumbens L. Low Hop Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Trifollum arvense L. Rabbit-foot Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Trifollum pratense L. Red Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Trifollum hybridum L. Alslke, or Alsatian Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 

Trifollum repens L. White Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 

Lotus cornlculatus L. Bird's-foot Trefoil. 

Baltimore County, Canton, on ballast (Robert K. Miller). 

Cracca virginiana L. • Cat-gut. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests, preferring light soils. 

Cracca splcata (WaU.)Kuntze. Goat's Rue. 

Coastal Zone; in dry, open forests; rare. 
Wicomico County. Salisbury (1276). 

Roblnia pseudacacia L. Yellow Locust. 

Throughout the state; an introduced tree which is particularly abundant 

in cut-over forests and in waste grounds, biit has spread so abundantly 

in the forests, particularly of the Midland Zone, as to appear to be 


Astragalus carolinianus L. Milk Vetch. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests and open situations; infre- 
Washington County, Round Top (725). 

Coronilla varia L. Coronilla. 

Baltimore County, Worthington Valley (Dr. B. W. Barton). 

:maetlaxd weather service 447 

Aeschynomene virginica (L.) B. S. P. Joint Vetch. 

Coastal Zone; in the fresh marshes of tidal rivers; infrequent. 
"Wicomico County, near Vienna (1297). 

Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B. S. P. Pencil flower. 

Throughout the state in dry forests, preferring sandy soil; common in 
the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 

Nleibomia nudiflora (L.) Kuntze. Tick Trefoil. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1220). 

Meibomia grandiflora (Walt.) Kuntze. 

Throughout the state: in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (872). 

Meibomia arenlcola Vail. 

Calvert County, Solomons (M. A. Chrysler). 

Meibomia michauxii Vail. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests; common in the Coastal Zone, 

infrequent in the Midland Zone. 
St. Mary's County, Leonardtown (M. A. Chrysler). 

Meibomia canescens (L.) Kuntze. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (1000). 

Meibomia paniculata (L.) Kuntze. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Meibomia viridiflora (L.) Kuntze. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland Zone; in dry 

forests and open situations. 
Prince George's County, Upper Marlborough (M. A. Chrysler). 

Meibomia dillenii (Darl.) Kuntze. 

Frequent in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland; in dry forests. 
Anne Arundel County, West River (M. A. Chrysler). 

Meibomia marylandica (L.) Kuntze. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland Zone; in dry 

Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1185). 

Meibomia obtusa (Muhl.) Vail. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests and open situations; common. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1342). 

Lespedeza repens (L.) Bart. Bush Clover. 

Throughout the state, being most abundant in the light soils of the 
Coastal Zone. 

Lespedeza stuvei Xutt. 
Coastal Zone. 


Lespedeza procumbens Michx. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland Zone; in dry 
Upland forests. 

Lespedeza nuttallii Darl. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations: infrequent. 
Allegany County, Flintstone (1030). 

Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 

Lespedeza virginica (L.) Britton. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 
Harford County, Havre De Grace (M. A. Chrysler). 

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Ell. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland and Mountain 

Zones, preferring dry sandy soil. 
■VVicomico County, Salisbury (126S). 

Lespedeza capitata Michx. 

Calvert County, Chesapeake Beach (M. A. Chrysler). 

Lespedeza angustlfolia (Pursh.) Ell. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone, in dry sandy soil. 
Wicomico County, opposite Vienna (1339). 

Lespedeza striata (Thumb.) H. & A. Japan Clover. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and along roadsides; com- 
mon. Introduced from Asia. 

Vicia caroliniana Walt. Carolina Vetch. 

Montgomery County, Great Fails (Robert K. Miller). 

Vicia sativa L. Common Vetch, Tare. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and roadsides; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Vicia angustlfolia Roth. Smaller Common Vetch. 

Infrequent throughout the state in cultivated grounds. Introduced from 

Baltimore, Walbrook (W. Ralph .Tones). 

Lathyrus venosus Muhl. Veiny Pea. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (464). 

Bradburya virglnlana (L.) Kuntze. Spurred Butterfly Pea. 

Coastal Zone. 

Clitorla mariana L. Butterfly Pea. 

Frequent in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Jlidland Zone; in dry forests, 

preferring sandy soil. 
Washington County, near Rohrersville (17S4). 

Falcata comosa (I..) Kuntze. Wild Pea-nut. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; common. 


Apios apios (L. ) MacM. Ground-nut. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests and open situations; fre- 

Galactia regularis (L.) B. S. P. Milk Pea. 

Anne Arundel County, near Elvaton (Robert K. Miller). 

Galactia volubilis (L.) Britton. Downy Milk Pea. 

Anne Arundel County, Odenton (M. A. Chrysler). 

Rhynchosia erecta (Walt.) DC. 

Coastal Zone; in dry sandy forests and open situations; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1196). 

Strophostyles helvola (L.) Britton. Trailing Wild Bean. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Midland; in dry open situations. 

Strophostyles umbellata (Muhl.) Britton. Pink Wild Bean. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; infrequent in the Midland; in dry open 


Geranium maculatum L. Wild Crane's-bill. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 
in moist and dry forests. 

Geranium columbinum L. Long-stalked Crane's-bill. 

Infrequent in the northern Eastern Shore and Lower Midland District, 

in forests and open situations. 
Queen Anne's County, near Sudlersville (1679). 

Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina Crane's-bill. 

Throughout the state in dry open situations and cultivated grounds; 


Oxalis acetosella L. White Wood-sorrel. 

Throughout the state in moist forests and in open situations; common. 
Garrett County, Swanton (499). 

Oxalis stricta L. Upright Yellow Wood-sorrel. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 

Oxalis cymosa Small. Tall Yellow Wood-sorrel. 

Calvert County, Chesapeake Beach (Joseph H. Painter). 

Oxalis stricta L. Upright Yellow Wood-sorrel. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests and open situations; frequent along the 

Potomac river. 
Washington County, Hancock (744). 



Linum virginianum L. Slender Yellow Flax. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry situations; being most common 

in the Midland District. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (9GS). 

Linum medium (Planch.) Britten. StiiT Yellow Flax. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; being most common in 
the Coastal Zone and apparently absent from the Upper Midland Dis- 
trict and Mountain Zone. 

Worcester County, Herring creek (641). 


Ptelea trifoliata L. Hop Tree. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in the deep soil of mountain slopes and in 

moist rocky slopes; infrequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (707a). 


Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Ailanthus, Tree of Heaven. 

Commonly escaped from cultivation throughout the state. Naturalized 
from Asia. 


Polygala lutea L. Orange Milkwort. 

Coastal Zone; in moist sandy situations; frequent. 
Worcester County, Berlin (662). 

Polygala cruciata L. Cross-leaved Milkwort. 

Throughout the state; in moist sandy situations; frequent. 
Cecil County, Hog Hills (370). 

Polygala verticillata L. Whorled Milkwort. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 

Polygala ambigua Nutt. Loose-spiked Milkwort. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 
Cecil County, Elkton (371). 

Polygala incarnata L. Pink Milkwort. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry open situations; infrequent. 
Cecil County, Elkton (369). 

Polygala viridescens L. Purple Milkwort. 

Throughout the state in moist open situations; common. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (945). 


Polygala mariana Mill. Maryland Milkwort. 

Throughout the state; in open forests and dry situations; common. 
Cecil County, Elkton (368). 

Polygala nuttallil T. & G. Nuttall's Milkwort. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 
Cecil County, Hog Hills (367). 

Polygala senega L. Seneca Snakeroot. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; rare. 
Baltimore, Gwynn Oak (W. Ralph Jones). 

Polygala paucifolla Willd. Fringed Milkwort. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 


Phyllanthus carolinensis Walt. Phyllanthus. 

Midland Zone; in dry situations; rare. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver). 

Crotonopsis linearis Michx. Crotonopsis. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests and open situations; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1222). 

Acalypha virglnica L. Three-seeded Mercury. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and cultivated grounds; common. 

Acalypha graciliens A. Gray. 

Throughout the state; in forests and cultivated grounds; frequent. 

Euphorbia polyganifolia L. Seaside Spurge. 

Coastal Zone; on the strand and dunes of the ocean front and at several 

localities on Chesapeake Bay. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1244). 

Euphorbia maculata L. Spotted Spurge. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and open dry situations; 

Euphorbia nutans Lag. Large Spotted Spurge. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 

Euphorbia marylandica Greene. 

Anne Arundel County, Odenton (Uobert K. Miller). 

Euphorbia corollata L. Flowering Spurge. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests and open situations, being 
most abundant in the light soils of the Coastal Zone. 

Euphorbia dentata Michx. Toothed Spurge. 

Throughout the state; in waste grounds; infrequent, 
Allegany County, Cumberland (191S). 


Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L. Ipecac Spurge. Wild Ipecac. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests and open situations, being most abundant on 

sandy soil; common. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1045). 

Euphorbia darlingtonii A. Gray. Darlington's Spurge. 

Baltimore, Walbrook (Maud E. Safford). 

Euphorbia commutata Engelm. Tinted Spurge. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and flood plains, being 
known only along the Potomac river. 


Caliitriche austini Engelm. Water Starwort. 

Harford Coimty, Edgewood (Robert K. Miller); Calvert County, Chesa- 
peake Beach (Joseph H. Painter). 

Caliitriche palustris L. 

Baltimore County, Gunpowder river (Robert K. Miller). » 

Caliitriche heterophylla Pursh. 

Throughout the state; in ponds and slow running streams: common. 
Wicomico County, Shad Point (USD. 


Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. False Mermaid. 

Midland Zone; in flood plain forests; rare. 

Baltimore County, Western Run (1395); Patapsco river, near Ellicott 
City (W. S. Cooper). 


Rhus copallina L. Black Sumac. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw. Staghorn Sumac. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and thickets; frequent. 

Rhus glabra L. Scarlet Sumac. 

Throughout the state; in dry thickets and open situations; common. 

Rhus aromatica Ait. Fragrant Sumac. 

Infrequent in the Upper Midland District in dry forests and open situa- 
Washington County, Hancock (693). 

Rhus vernix L. Poison Sumac. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in bogs and swamps; infrequent. 

Rhus radicans L. Poison Ivy. 

Throughout the state; in all sorts of situations; common. 



Ilex opaca Ait. Holly. 

Common in the Coastal Zone in upland forests, rare as a shrub in the 

Midland Zone. 
Charles County, Zekiah Swamp (1527). 

Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray. Inkberry. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests on sandy soil; locally abundant but not 
widely diffused. 

Ilex vertlclllata (L.) A. Gray. Wiuterberry. 

Throughout the state; being common in the Coastal Zone in stream 
swamps and frequent in sandy upland swamps, infrequent in the Mid- 
land and Mountain Zones in sandy swamps. 

Garrett County, Thayerville (2055). 

Ilex bronxensis Britton. 

Washington County, ravine near Tonoloway Ridge (771). 

Ilex laevigata (Pursh.) A. Gray. Smooth Winterberry. 

Worcester County, Steves Island (Robert K. Miller). 

Illcloldes mucronata (L.) Britton. Mountain Holly. 

Mountain Zone; in swamps and bogs; frequent. 
Garrett County, Thayerville (2057). 


Euonymus americanus L. Strawberry Bush. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (1505). 

Euonymus atropurpureus Jacq. Burning Bush, Wahoo. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and on rocky cliffs; fre- 
Washington County, Williamsport (1800). 

Celastrus scandens L. Bittersweet, Waxwork. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and thickets; common. 
Anne Arundel County, Brooklyn (427). 


Staphylea trifolia L. Bladder Nut. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in flood plains; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (734). 



Acer saccharinum L. Silver Maple. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland Zone; absent from the 
Mountain Zone; one of the most abundant and characteristic trees in 
flood plains and along streams. 

Acer rubrum L. Red Maple, Swamp Maple. 

Throughout the state; is most common in the Coastal Zone, where it is 

one of the characteristics trees of stream swamps and upland swamps, 

and frequent in upland forests; is less frequent in the Midland Zone, 

and in the Mountain Zone is nearly confined to moist sandy soil. 

Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple, Rock Maple. 

Midland and Mountain Zones: being one of the characteristic trees of 
the lower slopes of the mountain ridges; infrequent in the Lower Mid- 
land District. 

Acer nigrum Michx. Black Sugar Maple. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on rocky slopes and cliffs; infrequent. 
Frederick County, Thurmont (1755) 

Acer pennsylvanicum L. Striped Maple, Goosefoot Maple. 

Mountain Zone; in moist and dry forests of mountain slopes; frequent. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (870). 

Acer spicatum Lam. Mountain Maple. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; on rocky slopes and cliffs; 

Garrett County, near Swanton (498). 

Acer negundo L. Box Elder. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, along streams in Anne Arundel and Prince 
George's counties; frequent in the Midland Zone in flood plains; appar- 
ently absent from the Mountain Zone. 


Impatiens biflora Walt. Spotted Touch-me-not. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, swamps, fresh marshes and other 
open wet situations; common. 

Impatiens aurea Muhl. Pale Touch-me-not. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in flood plains and along streams; fre- 


Rhamnus frangula L. Alder Buckthorn. 

Baltimore County, Pikesville (B. W. Barton). 

Ceanothus americanus L. New Jersey Tea. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry forests and thickets; common. 



Vitis labrusca L. Fox Grape. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests and occasionally on trees 
in the open; common. 

Vitis aestivalis Michx. Summer Grape. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 

Vitis cordifolia Michx. Chicken Grape, Frost Grape. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 

Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Bullace Grape. 

Coastal Zone; in the river swamps of Worcester County; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Steves Island (664). 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia Creeper. 

Throughout the state; in all situations; one of the commonest climbers. 


Tilia americana L. Linden, Basswood. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone in ravine slopes; infrequent in the Lower Mid- 
land District, common in the Upper Midland District and Mountain 
Zone in deep well-drained soils of the lower slopes of mountain ridges. 


Malva sylvestris L. High Mallow. 

Midland Zone; in forests and open situations; infrequent. Introduced 
from Europe. 

IVIalva rotundifolia L. Low Mallow, Cheeses. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; common. Intro- 
duced from Europe. 

Sida spinosa L. Prickly Sida. 

Throughout the state; in waste and cultivated grounds; frequent. Intro- 
duced from the southern states. 

Abutilon abutilon (L.) Rusby. Velvet Leaf. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from India. 

Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) A. Gray. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 

Hibiscus moscheutos L. Swamp Rose-Mallow. 

Coastal Zone; in brackish and fresh marshes; common. 
Caroline County, Dover Bridge (206S). 


Hibiscus miiitaris Cav. Halberd-leaved Rose-Mallow. 

Montgomery County. Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Hibiscus trionum L. Bladder Ketmia. 

Wicomico County, Salisbury (W. Ralph Jones). Introduced. 


Ascyrum stans Michx. St. Peter's-wort. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests, being most abundant on sandy soil. 
Worcester County, Berlin (660). 

Ascyrum hypericoides L. St. Andrew's Cross. 

Common in the Coastal Zone in dry forests and open situations, rare in 

the Midland Zone in dry sandy soil. 
Worcester County, Berlin (661). 

Hypericum prolificum L. Shrubby St. John's-wort. 

Midland Zone; in moist open situations; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (730). 

Hypericum densiflorum Pursli. Bushy St. John's-wort. 

Throughout the state; infrequent in bogs and open wet situations in the 

Coastal Zone and Midland Zone; common in the Mountain Zone. 
Queen Anne's County, Sudlerville (1670). 

Hypericum perforatum L. St. John's-wort. 

Throughout the state; in fields and waste situations; common. Intro- 
duced from Europe. 

Hypericum maculatum Walt. Spotted St. John's-wort. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; frequent. 
Cecil County, Leslie (421). 

Hypericum mutilum L. Dwarf St. John's-wort. 

Throughout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps, moist forests and open 
wet situations; common. 

Hypericum canadense L. Canadian St. John's-wort. 

Throughout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps and open wet situations; 

Wicomico County, near Vienna (1327). 

Sarothra gentianoides L. Pine Weed, Orange Grass. 

Throughout the state, being common on the lighter soils of the Coastal 
Zone, and frequent in dry open situations in the Midland and Mountain 
Allegany County, Cumberland (922). 

Triadenum virglnicum (L.) Raf. Marsh St. John's-wort. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; iufreqiient in the Midland Zone in fresh 
marshes, swamps and open wet situations. 


Triadenum petiolatum (Walt.) Britton. Larger Marsh St. John's-wort. 

Coastal Zone, Worcester, Wicomico and Charles Counties; in river 

swamps and stream swamps; infrequent. 
V.'orcester County, Mattaponi Landing (1142). 


Elatine americana (Pursh.) Am. Water-wort. Mud Purslane. 

Wicomico County, tidal flats of the Wicomico river near Salisbury 


Helianthemum majus (L.) B. S. P. Hoary Frostweed. 

Throughout the state; being most abundant on the light soils of the 

Coastal Zone. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1179). 

Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx. Long Branched Frostweed. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations, being most 

abundant in the Coastal Zone. 
Washington County, near Hancock (S24). 

Lechea minor L. Pin AVeed. 

Throughout the state; In dry forests and open situations; common. 
Cecil County Egg Hill (395). 

Lechea racemulosa Michx. 

Cecil County, Hog Hills (392). 

Lechea villosa Ell. 

Anne Arundel County, open sandy situations near Benfield (Robert K. 

Lechea leggettii Britton & Hollick. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; infrequent. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (929) ; Wicomico County, near Vienna 

Hudsonia tomentosa Nutt. Wooly Hudsonia. 

Coastal Zone. 


Viola palmata L. Early Blue Violet. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; common. 

Viola obliqua Hill. Thin-leaved Wood Violet. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Talbot County, near Trappe (1516). 

Viola cucullata Ait. Marsh Blue Violet. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 
Baltimore County, Lorely (Robert K. Miller). 


Viola sagittata Ait. Arrow-leaved Violet. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 

Viola ovata Xutt. Ovate-leaved Violet. 

Midland Zone; in dry forests; frequent. 

Viola pedata L. Bird's-foot Violet. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Viola rotundifolia Michx. Round-leaved Violet. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (2039). 

Viola blanda Willd. Sweet White Violet. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; common. 

Viola primulaefolia L. Primrose-leaved Violet. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; common. 
Wicomico County, near Vienna (1340). 

Viola lanceolata L. Lance-leaved Violet. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 
Talbot County, Easton (1373). 

Viola scabriuscula (T. & G.) Schwein. Smoothish Yellow Violet. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (823). 

Viola canadenis L. Canada Violet. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests; common. 
Garrett County, Kelso Gap (531). 

Viola striata Ait. Pale Violet. 

Midland Zone; in flood plains; rare. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (4G3). 

Viola labradorica Schrank. American Dog Violet. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in forests; common. 
Baltimore County, Parkton (1363). 

Viola tricolor L. Heart's Ease. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in forests; infrequent. Introduced. 

Cubelium concolor (Forst.) Raf. Green Violet. 

Midland Zone; In moist forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (722). 


Passiflora lutea L. Yellow Passion-flower. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; rare. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (Howard Shriver) ; Calvert County. Chesa- 
peake Beach (Joseph H. Painter). 



Opuntia opuntia (L.) Prickly Pear. 

Apparently nearly confined to the Coastal Zone, where it is common in 

forests and open situations on sandy soil. 
Caroline County, Federalsburg (1G31). 


Dirca palustris L. Moose-wood, Leather-wood. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (Joseph H. Painter). 


Ammania koehnei Britten. 

Worcester County. Greenbackville (1109). 

Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne. 

Apparently confined to the Coastal Zone; in moist open situations, pre- 
ferring sand. 
Worcester County, Wagram (1161); St. Mary's County. Piney Point 
(M. A. Chrysler). 

Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. Swamp Loosestrife, Willow Herb. 

Throughout the state, being common in the Coastal Zone, and infrequent 
in the Midland and Mountain Zones; in swamps and marshes and 
about the margins of ponds. 

Lythrum alatum Pursh. Loosestrife. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Lythrum lineare L. Loosestrife. 

Coastal Zone; in brackish marshes; common. 
Talbot County, Skipton Creek (109). 

Lythrum salicaria L. Purple Loosestrife. 

Calvert County, fresh marshes of the Patuxent River (Robert K. Miller). 

Parsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby. Tar-weed, Wax-weed. 

Throughout the state; In moist and dry open situations; common. 


Rhexia mariana L. Meadow Beauty. 

Coastal and Midland Zones, being common in the former, infrequent in 

the later; in moist sandy situations. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1119). 

Rhexia virginica L. Deer Grass. 

Coastal Zone; in moist sandy situations; frequent. 
Talbot County, Easton (116). 



Isnardia palustris L. Marsh Purslane. 

Througbout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps and open wet situa- 
tions; common. 

Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Ell. Globe-fruited Ludwigia. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; frequent in the Coastal and rare in the 

Midland; in fresh marshes and swamps. 
Talbot County, Baston (126). 

Ludwigia linearis Walt. Linear-leaved Ludwigia. 

Coastal Zone; in wet sandy situations; infrequent. 
Worcester County, near Berlin (637). 

Ludwigia alternifolia L. Seed Box. 

Throughout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps and open wet situa- 
tions; common. 

Jussiaea decurrens (Walt.) DC. Upright Primrose-willow. 

Coastal Zone; in fresh marshes; rare. 

Charles County, Marshall Hall (M. A. Chrysler); Caroline County, 
near Tuckahoe Bridge (1650). 

Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. Fire Weed. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests, clearings and open situations; 

Garrett County, Swallow Falls (543). 

Epiiobium coloratum Muhl. Purple-leaved Willow-herb. 

Throughout the state; in fresli marshes and open wet situations; 

Cecil County, Leslie (363). 

Epiiobium adenocaulon Haussk. Northern Willow-herb. 

Throughout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps and open wet situa- 
tions; frequent. 
Allegany County, Braddock Run (91S). 

Onagra biennis (L.) Scop. Evening Primrose. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds and dry situa- 
tions generally; common. 

Oenothera humifusa Nutt. Seaside Evening Primrose. 

Coastal Zone; on the strand of the ocean front: frequent. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1251). 

Oenothera laciniata Hill. 

Caroline County, near Greensborough (1640).* 

♦This number was determined by the United States National Herbarium as Raiman- 
nia humifusa (Nutt.) Rose. 


Kneiffia longipediciilata Small. Sundropt;. 

Throughout the state: in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 
Cecil County, Conowingo (406). 

Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spach. Small Sundrops. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 
Garrett County, Oakland (541). 

Kneiffia fruticosa (L.) Raimann. Common Sundrops. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; frequent. 
Garrett County, Big Savage Mountain (850). 

Gaura biennis L. Gaura. 

Throughout the state; in waste grounds; locally common. 
Cecil County, Elkton (377). 

CIrcaea lutetiana L. Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; common. 

CIrcaea alpina L. Smaller Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Rare in the Midland Zone, common in the Mountain Zone in moist 

Garrett County, Swallow Falls (549), 


Proserpinaca palustrls Jj. Mermaid Weed. 

Coastal Zone; in marshes, swamps and wet situations with sandy soil, 

also in shallow ponds; frequent. 
Caroline County, Dover Bridge (2069). 

Myrlophyijum vertlclllatum L. Whorled Water Milfoil. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in quiet streams and ponds; frequent. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1208). 

Myrlophyllum humlle (Raf.) Morong. Low Water Milfoil. 

Throughout the state; in ponds as an aquatic, or on mud about ponds 
and along streams; common. 

Myrlophyllum pinnatum (Walt.) B. S. P. Pinnate Water Milfoil. 

Coastal Zone; in ponds and streams; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1061). 


Aralia splnosa L. Hercules' Club. 

Coastal Zone; in upland swamps and moist forests, being most abundant 
on the Talbot formation on the Eastern Shore. 

Aralia racemosa L. Spikenard. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

in moist forests. 
Washington County, near Rohrersville (1791). 


Aralia nudicaulis L. Wild Sarsaparilla. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in tlie Midland and Mountain Zones; 

in moist and dry forests. 
Baltimore County, Western Run (1402). 

Panax quinquefollum L. Ginseng. 

Rare in the Lower Midland District, infrequent in the Upper Midland 

District and Mountain Zone; in moist forests of mountain slopes. 
Washington County, Round Top (749). 

Panax trifolium L. Dwarf Ginseng. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Western Run (1391). 


DaucuE carota L. Wild Carrot, Queen Anne's Lace. 

Tliroughout the state; in waste grounds and fields; common. Introduced 
from Europe. 

Angelica vlllosa (Walt.) B. S. P. Pubescent Angelica. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain 

Zones; in dry open forests, being most frequent in the cut-over 

forests of the mountain ridges. 
Cecil County, Hog Hills (389). 

Oxypolis rigldus (L.) Britton. Cowbane. 

Throughout the state, being common in the fresh marshes and swamps 

of the Coastal Zone, and frequent in swamps and open wet situations 

in the Midland. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (976). 

Heracleum lanatum Michx. Cow Parsnip. 

Midland Zone; in open situations in moist flood plains; frequent. 
Harford County, Glenville (1568). 

Pastinaca sativa L. Wild Parsnip. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Thasplum barblnode (Michx.) Nutt. Meadow Parsnip. 

Throughout the state; in open moist situations; frequent. 

Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) Britt. Purple Meadow-Parsnip. 

Upper Midland District. 

Lllaeopsis lineata (Michx.) Greene. Lilaeopsis. 

Coastal Zone; being confined to shallow water and tidal flats in the 
brackish and fresh water of the upper Chesapeake Bay and its tribu- 
taries; frequent. 

Kent County, near Chestertown (1708). 

Eryngium aquaticum L. Rattlesnake-master. 

Montgomery County, Cabin John (Robert K. Miller). 


Eryngium virginianum Lam. Eryngio. 

Coastal Zone; common and characteristic in the brackish and fresh 
marshes of the Chesapeake and its tributaries, and of the coastal 
inlets; not growing elsewhere. 
Worcester County, Herring Creek (643). 

Sanicula marylandica L. Sanicle. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; frequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (705). 

Sanicula gregaria Bicknell. Clustered Snakeroot. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; frequent 

Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) Karst. Fennel. 

Throughout the state; in waste and cultivated grounds; frequent. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Pimpinella integerrima (L.) A. Gray. Yellow Pimpernel. 

Throughout the state, being infrequent in the Coastal Zone and common 

in the Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests. 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (525). 

Bupleurum rotundifolium L. Hare's Ear. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 

Chaerophyllum procumbens (L.) Crantz. Chervil. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests and flood plains; infrequent. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (143S). 

Washingtonia claytoni (Michx.) Britton. Wooly Sweet Cicely. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; frequent. 

Washingtonia longistylis (Torr.) Britton. Smooth Sweet Cicely. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 
Kent County, near Chestertown (1709). 

Slum cicutaefolium Gmel. Hemlock Water Parsnip. 

Common in the Coastal Zone in fresh marshes and infrequent in 
swamps; rare in the Midland Zone. 

Zizia aurea (L.) Koch. Golden Meadow-Parsnip. 

Garrett County, Oakland (Joseph E. Harned). 

Zizia cordata (Walt.) DC. Heart-leaved Alexanders. 

Throughout the state; infrequent in the Coastal Zone; common in the 
Midland and Mountain Zones. 

Cicuta maculata L. Water Hemlock. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps and open wet situations; 


Cicuta bulbifera L. Bulb-bearing Water Hemlock. 

Midland Zone; frequent along the Potomac River in open wet situa- 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Deringa canadensis (L.) Kuntze. Honewort. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and flood plains; frequent. 
Garrett County, S wanton (508). 

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Hollick. Mock Bishop-weed. 

Throughout the state; common in fresh marshes in. the Coastal Zone, 
frequent in open wet situations in all parts of the state. 

Aegopodium podagraria L. GoutweeJ. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Marsh Pennywort. 

Throughout the state; in all moist situations; common. 

Hydrocotyle canbyi C. & R. 

Worcester County, Ocean City, in fresh marshes (Robert K. Miller). 

Hydrocotyle verticlllata Thumb. Whorled Marsh Pennywort. 

Coastal Zone; in marshes and other wet situations; infrequent. 

Hydrocotyle americana L. American Marsh Pennywort. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

in moist forests. 
Washington County, near Rohrersville (17S5). 

Hydrocotyle ranunculoldes L. f. Floating Marsh Pennywort. 

Coastal Zone; in pools and streams; frequent. 
Anne Arundel County, near Leon (1551). 

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. 

Coastal Zone; in open moist sandy situations; rare. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1254a). 

Erigenla bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. Harbinger of Spring. 

Montgomery County, near Great Falls (Frederick H. Blodgettj. 


Cornus canadensis L. Dwarf Cornel, Bunch-Berry. 

Mountain Zone; about the margins of bogs; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Thayerville (2050). 

Cornus florida L. Dogwood. 

Coastal and Midland Zones, absent from the Mountain Zone; in moist 
and dry upland forests, being one of the commonest small trees in all 


Cornus amomum Jlill. Kinnikinnik. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in swamps and along streams; common. 
Worcester County. Snow Hill (lOSO). 

Cornus candidissima Marsh. Panicled Dogwood. 

Infrequent in the Midland Zone, common in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

and dry forests. 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (539). 

Cornus siternifolia L. f. Alternate-leaved Dogwood. 

Rare in the Midland Zone, common in the Mountain Zone; in moist 

Garrett County, Crellin (1993). 

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Black Gum, Sour Gum, Tupelo. 

Throughout the state; in the Coastal Zone it is one of the commonest 
trees in swamps, both along streams and in the upland, and is an 
important constituent of all types of forest; in the Midland Zone it is 
common in flood plains, but infrequent in the upland; in the Mountain 
Zone it is infrequent, in wet sandy soil and glade and swamp forest. 

Nyssa biflora Walt. Southern Tupelo. 

Coastal Zone; confined to the river swamps of the Pocomoke, where it is 

Worcester County, Snow Hill (107S); Somerset County, near Pocomoke 

City (1149). 


Clethra ainifolia L. Sweet Pepper-bush. 

Coastal Zone; in swamps, moist forests and open wet situations; com- 
Talbot County. Easton (55). 


Pyrola rotundifolia L. Round-leaved Wintergreen. 

Throughout the state, being most common in dry forests of the Midland 

Pyrola chlorantha Sw. Greenish-flowered Wintergreen. 

Prince George's County, Lanham (Joseph H. Painter). 

Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Shin-leaf. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Garrett County, Oakland (519). 

Pyrola secunda L. Serrated Wintergreen. 

Charles County, Cox; Prince George's County, Bowie (M. A. Chrysler). 

Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Spotted Wintergreen. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 


Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. Pipsissewa. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 


Monotropsis odorata Ell. Sweet Pine-sap, Schweinitzia. 

Anne Arundel County, near Annapolis (Lawrence G. Painter) ; Baltimore 
County, near Towson (Forrest Shreve). 

Monotropa uniflora L. Indian Pipe. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 

Hypopitys hypopitys (L.) Small. Pine-sap. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, particularly of the Midland 
Zone; frequent. 


Azalea nudiflora L. Wild Azalea, Wild Honeysuckle. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, being most frequent in the 

Coastal Zone and Lower Midland District. 
^Montgomery County, Great Falls (1379). 

Azalea lutea L. Flame Azalea, 

^lountain Zone; in dry forests; rare. 

Azalea viscosa L. White Azalea. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist forests; frequent. 
Dorchester County, Castle Haven (1595). 

Azalea viscosa var. glauca Michx. 

Queen Anne's County, near Schenk Corners (16S5); Montgomery 
County, near Rockville (Joseph H. Painter) ; Baltimore County, near 
Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Rhododendron maximum L. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone, and on Egg Hill, Cecil 

County; common on rocky slopes, along the borders of mountain 

streams and in the swamps of the Mountain Zone. 
Garrett County, near Finzel (962). 

Menziesia pilosa (Michx.) Pers. Menziesia. 

Mountain Zone; on rocky slopes; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Swanton (492). 

Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Jloench. Leather-leaf. 

Coastal Zone. 

Kalmia angustifolia L. Sheep Laurel, Wicky. 

Western Shore District of the Midland Zone; in dry thickets; infre- 
Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (268). 


Kalmia latifolia L. Mountain Laurel, Calico-bush. 

Throughout the state; rare in the southern Eastern Shore, common 

throughout the remainder of the state in dry forests and clearings, 

preferring gravel or thin rocky soil. 
Talbot County, near Easton (1524). 

Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A. Gray. Swamp Leucothoe. 

Coastal Zone; in swamps and moist thickets; common. 
Anne Arundel County, Odenton (1475). 

Pieris mariana (L.) Benth. & Hook. Stagger-bush. 

Coastal Zone; in swamps and moist forests, preferring sandy soil; 

Talbot County, Easton (181). 

Xolisma ligustrina (L.) Britton. Privet Andromeda. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, moist forests and open situations; 

Prince George's County, near Halls Bridge (1543). 

Epigaea repens L. Trailing Arbutus. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests, preferring rocky slopes or sandy 
soil; common. 

Gaultheria procumbens L. Creeping Wintergreen. 

Throughout the state; common in portions of Worcester, Wicomico and 
Anne Arundel Counties and in the Mountain Zone, infrequent else- 

Washington County, Tonoloway Ridge (764). 


Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) T. & G. Tangleberry. 

Throughout the state in moist foi'ests and thickets; common. 

Gaylussacia resinosa (Ait.) T. & G. High-bush Huckleberry. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 

Gaylussacia resinosa var. glaucocarpa Robinson. 

Washington County, Tonoloway Ridge (763). 

Gaylussacia dumosa (Andr.) T. & G. Bush Huckleberry. 

Mountain Zone. 

Vaccinlum corymbosum L. High-bush Blueberry. 

Throughout the state; most common in the Coastal Zone, frequent in 

the Midland and Mountain Zones. 
Washington County, near Smoketown (1794). 


Vaccinium pennsylvanicum Lam. Dwarf Blueberry. 

Throughout the state; in dr.v forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Big Savage Mountain (841). 

Vaccinium vacillans Kalm. Blue Huckleberry. 

Midland and Mountain Zones, being most abundant in the latter. 
Garrett County, Swanton (479). 

Vaccinium stamineum L. Deerberry. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and thickets; common. 
Charles County, Cox (1538). 

Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ait.) Pers. Cranberry. 

Escaped from cultivation near Salisbury; indigenous in the bogs of the 

Mountain Zone. 
Garrett County, Thayerville (2062). 


Samolus floribundus H. B. K. Water Pimpernel. 

Coastal Zone; in brackish and fresh marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1108). 

Lysimachia vulgaris L. Golden Loosestrife. 

Harford County, Bush River Neck (M. A. Chrysler). Introduced. 

Lysimachia quadrifolia L. Crosswort. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 

Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B. S. P. Bulb-bearing Loosestrife. 

Frequent in the Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Midland Zone; in fresh 

marshes and about the margins of ponds. 
Wicomico County, Shad Point (1199). 

Lysimachia nummularia L. Moneywort. 

Throughout the state; in ditches and about the margins of ponds; 

infrequent. Introduced from Europe. 
Baltimore (W. Ralph Jones). 

Steironema ciliatum (L.) Raf. Fringed Loosestrife. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain 

Zones; in moist forests and meadows. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (992). 

Steironema lanceolatum (Walt.) A. Gray. Lance-leaved Loosestrife. 

Anne Arundel County, Annapolis (M. A. Chrysler). 

Trientalis americana Pursh. Star-flower. 

Garrett County, near Finzel (George M. Perdew). 

Anagallis arvensis L. Scarlet Pimpernel. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 


Dodecatheon meadia L. Shooting Star. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist forests; infre- 


Limonium carolinianum (Walt.) Britten. Sea Lavender. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 


Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon. 

Throughout the Coastal and Midland Zones, absent from the Mountain 

Zone. Is abundant in the upland forests of the Coastal Zone, and 

frequent in the Midland Zone, but more often as an isolated tree in 

open situations. 


Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Her. Sweet-Leaf. 

Worcester County (H. H. Rusby). 


Fraxinus americana L. White Ash. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and ravines and along streams; 

Fraxinus lanceolata Borck. Green Ash. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; common in the river and stream swamps 

of the Coastal Zone, frequent in flood plains and along streams in the 

Midland Zone. 
Somerset County, near Mattaponi Landing (1147). 

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Red Ash. 

Throughout the state; in flood plains and along streams; infrequent. 

Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Black Ash. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and flood plains; infrequent. 

Chionanthus virginica L. Fringe-tree. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; being most abundant in moist sandy flood 
plains and sandy-loam upland swamps in the Coastal Zone; is in- 
frequent in moist sandy soil in the Midland Zone; has been observed 
in apparently dry situations on the gravel hills of Cecil County and 
on rocky slopes in Montgomery County. 


Polypremum procumbens L. 

Confined to the southern counties of the Eastern Shore; in open fields 

and waste grounds; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1069). 



Erythraea pulchella (Sw.) Pries. Branching Centaury. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1111). 

Sabbatia angularis (L.) Pursh. Rose Pink. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in open situations; infrequent. 

Sabbatia stellaris Pursh. Marsh Pink. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1114). 

Sabbatia dodecandra (L.) B. S. P. Large Marsh Pink. 

Coastal Zone; in brackish and fresh marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (1060). 

Gentiana crinita Froel. Fringed Gentian. 

Throughout the state; in fields and open meadows; infrequent. 

Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Closed Gentian. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Gentiana linearis Froel. Narrow-leaved Gentian. 

Mountain Zone; in hogs and moist sandy forests; common. 
Garrett County, Thayerville (2060). 

Gentiana villosa L. Striped Gentian. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Obolaria virginica L. Pennywort. 

Midland Zone; in rich forests; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Catonsville (Robert K. Miller). 

Bartonia virginica (L.) B. S. P. 

Frequent In moist sandy forests in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Midland 

Worcester County, Snow Hill (1033). 


Limnanthemum aquaticum (Walt.) Britton. Floating Heart. 

Coastal Zone; in ponds and slow streams; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1224). 


Mpocynum androsaemifolium L. Dogbane. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Apocynum cannibinum L. Indian Hemp. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations; infrequent. 
Kent County, Lloyds Creek (1705). 



Asclepias tuberosa L. Butterfly Weed. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations, preferring sandy soil; 

Asclepias decumbens L. Decumbent Butterfly Weed. 

Baltimore County, Loch Raven (Robert K. Miller). 

Asclepias lanceolata Walt. Few-flowered Milkweed. 

Coastal Zone; in moist sandy open situations; rare. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (124S). 

Asclepias rubra L. Red Milkweed. 

Throughout the state; in open moist situations; infrequent, 
Carroll County, near Westminster (1719). 

Asclepias purpurascens L. Purple Milkweea. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; infrequent. 
Talbot County, Easton (1712). 

Asclepias incarnata L. Swamp Milkweed. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 

Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. Hairy Milkweed. 

Throughout the state, being most abundant in the fresh marshes of the 
Coastal Zone, frequent in open wet situations throughout the state. 

Asclepias obtusifolia Michx. Blunt-leaved Milkweed. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, frequent in the Midland Zone; in dry open 

situations, preferring sandy soil. 
Caroline County, Federalsburg (1627). 

Asclepias exaltata (L.) MuhJ. Tall Milkweed. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and open situations; 

Garrett County, Deer Park (195G). 

Asclepias variegata L. White Milkweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests and open situations; 

Caroline County, Greensborough (liUl). 

Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. Four-leaved Milkweed. 

Throughout the state: in moist forests; common. 
Harford County, Deer Creek (1575). 

Asclepias syriaca L. (cornuti Dec.) Common Milkweed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; common. 

Asclepias verticillata L. Whorled Milkweed. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations; infrequent. 
Montgomery County, Laytonsville (1729). 


Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eaton. Green Milkweed. 

Washington County, Hancock (6SS). 

Vincetoxicum hirsutum (Michx.) Britten. 

Charles County, Port Tobacco (M. A. Chrysler). 

Vincetoxicum shortli (A. Gray) Britten. 

Allegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 


Quamoclit cocclnea (L.) Moencli. Red Morning-glory. 

Throughout the state; in thickets and open situations; frequent. 

Ipomoea lacunosa L. White Morning-glory. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and open situations; common. 

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. Common Morning-glory. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 
South America. 

Ipomoea hederacea Jacq. Ivy-leaved Morning-glory. 

Throughout the state; in fields and waste situations; common. Intro- 
duced from South America. 

Convolvulus arvensis L. Bindweed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 


Cuscuta epithymum Murr. 

Midland Zone; parasitic on clover. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Cuscuta arvensis Beyrich. Dodder. 

Throughout the state; parasitic on various fiowering plants. 
Cecil County, Elkton (381). 

Cuscuta gronovil Willd. 

Throughout the state; parasitic on flowering plants. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (971). 

Cuscuta compacta Juss. 

Prince George's County, Hyattsville (Joseph H. Painter). 

Cuscuta polygonorum Engelm. Smartweed Dodder. 

Coastal Zone. 


Phlox paniculata L. Garden Phlox. 

Midland Zone; in waste situations; a frequent escape from gardens. 

Phlox maculata L. Wild Sweet-William. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 


Phlox ovata L. Mountain Phlox. 

Allegany County, near Cumberland (George M. Perdewj. 

Phlox dlvaricata L. Wild Blue Phlox. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Phlox subulata L. Moss Pink. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; on open banks and rock outcrops; 

Montgomery County, Great Fall's (458). 

Polemonium van bruntiae Britton. Jacob's Ladder. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, frequent in the Midland Zone in moist forests. 
Baltimore County, Western Run (1400). 

Polemonium reptans L. Greek Valerian. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
.\llegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 


Hydrophyilum virginicum L. Water-leaf. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests and flood plains; 

Garrett County, Swanton (497). 

Macrocalyx nyctelea (L.) Kuntze. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests and flood plains; rare. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (1464) ; Allegany County, Cumberland 
(George M. Perdew). 

Phacelia dubia (L.) Small. Phacelia. 

Throughout the State; In moist and dry forests; being infrequent in the 

Coastal Zone, frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (1422). 

Phacelia covillei S. Wats. 

Montgomery County, near Cabin John (Robert K. Miller). 

Phacelia purshii Buckl. 

Montgomery County, near Great Falls (1386). 


Heliotropium europaeum L. European Heliotrope. 

Baltimore County, Canton, on ballast (Robert K. Miller). 

Cynoglossum officinale L. Hound's Tongue. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and waste situations; common. 


Cynoglossum virginicum L. Wild Comfrey. 

Throughout the state: in waste situations; infrequent in the Coastal 

Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 
Washington County, Round Top (719). 

Lappula virginiana (L.) Greene. Stickseed. 

Throughout the state; In cultivated and waste grounds; infrequent in 
the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain Zones. 

Mertensia virginica (L.) DC. Virginia Cowslip. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests, being most abundant in 

the flood plains of smaller streams; infrequent. 
Baltimore County, Western Run (1398). 

Myosotis laxa Lehm. Forget-me-not. 

Throughout the state; in wet shaded or open situations; frequent. 
Anne Arundel County, Leon (1554). 

Myosotis virginica (L.) B. S. P. Spring Scorpion-Grass. 

Midland Zone; in dry soil; frequent. 

Lithospermum arvense L. Corn Gromwell. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 

Lithospermum canescens (Michx.) Lehm. Hoary Puccoon. 

Baltimore, Arlington (Robert K. Miller). 

Symphytum officinale L. Comfrey. 

Midland Zone; in waste situations; infrequent. Introduced from 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Echium vulgare L. Viper's Bugloss, Blue-weed. 

Throughout the state; in fields and waste places, preferring thin soil. 
Introduced from Europe. 


Verbena officinalis L. European Vervain. 

Baltimore County, Canton (Robert K. Miller). 

Verbena urticifolia L. White Vervain. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 

Verbena hastata L. Blue Vervain. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; common. 

Verbena angustifolia Michx. Narrow-leaved Vervain. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and waste situations; common, 

particularly in the Coastal Zone. 
Dorchester County, near Cambridge (1582). 


Lippia lanceolata Miclix. Fog-fruit. 

Throughout the state; abundant in the Coastal Zone in fresh marshes, 
and in the Midland Zone in the low flood plains of the larger streams. 
Washington County, Hancock (695). 


Ajuga reptans L. Bugle. 

Baltimore County, introduced (Dr. B. W. Barton). 

Teucrium canadense L. Germander. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and fields; common. 
Washington County, Round Top (755). 

Isanthus brachiatus (L.) B. S. P. False Pennyroyal. 

Washington County, Antietam River (Frederick H. Blodgett). 

Trichostema drchotomum L. Bluecurls. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and open situations; common. 

Scutellaria lateriflora L. Mad-dog Skullcap. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; frequent. 

Scutellaria incana Muhl. Downy Skullcap. 

Found just outside the state at Takoma Park, D. C. (Joseph H. Painter). 

Scutellaria cordifolla Muhl. Heart-leaved Skullcap. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; rare in the Coastal Zone, 
frequent in the Midland Zone. 

Scutellaria pilosa Michx. Hairy Skullcap. 

Midland Zone; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (704). 

Scutellaria Integrifolia L. Hyssop Skullcap. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations and forests; particularly 
abundant in the Coastal Zone. 

Scutellaria parvula Michx. Small Skullcap. 

Prince George's County, Upper Marlborough (Joseph H. Painter). 

Nlarrubium vulgare L. White Horehound. 

Washington County, Antietam River (M. A. Chrysler). 

Agastache nepetoides (L.) Kuntze. Giant Hyssop. 

Throughout the state; in waste places and roadsides; frequent. 
Cecil County, Elkton (373). 

Agastache scrophularaefolia (Willd.) Kuntze. Giant Hyssop. 

Howard County, near Mt. Airy (Frederick H. Blodgett). 

Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. 

Throughout the state; in waste places; infrequent. Introduced from 


Glechoma hederacea L. Gill-over-the-ground. 

Throughout the state; in moist cultivated grounds and waste places; 

Prunella vulgaris L. Heal-all. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds, waste places and forests; 
common. Introduced from Europe. 

Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. Lion's Heart. 

Midland Zone; in moist open situations; infrequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (747). 

Leonurus cardlaca L. Motherwort. 

Throughout the state; in waste places; locall.v abimdant. 

Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; frequent. Introduced from 

Lamium maculatum L. Spotted Dead-nettle. 

Baltimore County, Glyndon (B. W. Barton). 

Stachys aspera Michx. Rough Hedge Nettle. 

Prince George's County, Laurel (M. A. Chrysler). 

Stachys cordata Riddell. Light Green Hedge Nettle. 

Allegany County, near Cumberland (974). 

Stachys ambigua (A. Gray) Britten. Dense flowered Hedge Nettle. 

Wicomico County, near Vienna (1304).* 

Salvia lyrata L. Lyre-leaved Sage. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, frequent in the Midland and Mountain Zones; 

in moist forests. 
Montgomery County, Great Falls (1424). 

Monarda didyma L. Oswego Tea. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests about springs and along streams; 

Garrett County, Kelso Gap (2037). 

Monarda cllnopodia L. Basil Balm. 

Baltimore County, Ashland (Robert K. Miller). 

Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot. 

Throughout the state; in open forests and waste situations; frequent. 

Monarda punctata L. Horse Mint. 

Throughout the state; being frequent in the Coastal Zone; frequent in 

the Midland and Mountain Zones in moist and dry forests. 
Montgomery County, Seneca Creek (1739). 

•This number was determined by the United States National Herbarium as Stachija 
paluslris L. 


Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. Pennyroyal. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and forests; common. 

Melissa officinalis L. Bee Balm. 

Washington County, North Mountain (S06). 

Clinopodium vulgare L. Wild Basil. 

Jlidland Zone; in forests and open situations; common. 

Clinopodium calamintha (L.) Kuntze. Calamint, Basil Thyme. 

Throughout the state; in old yards and waste situations; frequent. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Clinopodium nepeta (L.) Kuntze. Field Balm. 

Coastal Zone. 

Koellia flexuosa (Walt.) MacM. Narrow-leaved Mountain Mint. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations and dry forests; common. 
Washington County, Round Top (757). 

Koellia virginiana (L.) MacM. Virginia Mountain Mint. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Koellia aristata (Michx.) Kuntze. Awned Mountain Mint. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests and open situations; infrequent. 
Worcester County, near Wagram (1157). 

Koellia Incana (L.) Kuntze. Hoary Mountain Mint. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; common. 
Washington County, Sideling Hill (799). 

Koellia mutica (Michx.) Britton. Short-toothed Mountain Mint. 

Coastal Zone; in open dry situations; infrequent. 
Kent County, near Fairlee (1702). 

Cunila origanoides (L.) Britton. Dittany. Stone Mint. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 

Lycopus virginicus L. Bugle Weed. 

Throughout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps and other wet situa- 
tions; common. 

Lycopus rubellus Moench. Stalked Water-Horehound. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 

Lycopus americanus Muhl. Cut-leaved Water-Horehound. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; infrequent. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (937). 

Mentha spicata L. Spearmint. 

Throughout the state; in moist fields and open situations; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Mentha piperita L. Peppermint. 

Throughout the state; in moist waste situations; frequent. Introduced 
from Europe. 


Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds. Round-leaved Mint. 

Prince George's County, Beltsville (W. Ralph Jones). 

Mentha aquatica L. Water Mint. 

Coastal Zone; in wet open situations; locally abundant. Introduced 
from Europe. 

Mentha sativa L. Marsh Whorled Mint. 

Prince George's County, Nottingham (Robert K. Miller j. 

Collinsonia canadensis L. Citronella. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; frequent. 

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton. Perilla. 

Calvert County, Parkers Creek (M. A. Chrysler). 


Physalodes physalodes (L.) Britton. Apple-of-Peru. 

Throughout the state; in waste places; infrequent. Introduced from 
South America. 

Physalis pruinosa L. Tall Hairy Ground-Cherry. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Physalis virglnlana Mill. Virginia Ground-Cherry. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Physalis heterophylla Nees. Ground Cherry. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; frequent. 
Caroline County, Pederalsburg (1624). 

Solanum nigrum L. Black Nightshade. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 

Solanum carollnense L. Horse Nettle. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; common. 

Solanum dulcamara L. Nightshade. 

Throughout the state; in moist waste situations; infrequent. Intro- 
duced from Europe. 

Lyclum vulgare (Ait. f.) Dunal. Matrimony Vine. 

Midland Zone; in waste situations; infrequent. Introduced from 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Datura stramonium L. Jimson Weed, Jamestown Weed. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations and cultivated grounds; 
common. Introduced from Europe. 

Datura tatula L. Purple Jimson Weed. 

Baltimore, Forest Park (W. Ralph Jones). 



Verbascum thapsus L. Mullein. 

Throughout the state; in fields and waste places; common. 

Verbascum blattaria L. Moth Mullein. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Elatinoides spuria (L.) Wettst. Round-leaved Toad-flax. 

Calvert County, Chesapeake Beach (Joseph H. Painter). 

Elatinoides elatine (L.) Wettst. Toad-flax. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in dry fields; infrequent. Introduced. 

Linarla linarla (L.) Karst. Butter-and-eggs. 

Throughout the state; In cultivated grounds; common. 

Linarla canadensis (L.) Dumort. Blue Toad-flax. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and forests; common, particularly 
on the light soils of the Coastal Zone. 

Scrophularia marylandica L. Figwort. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; frequent. 

Chelone glabra L. Turtle Head. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, flood plains and open wet situations. 

Pentstemon digitalis (Sweet) Nutt. Beard-tongue. 

Midland Zone; in fields and along roadsides; infrequent. 

Pentstemon pentstemon (L.) Britton. Smooth Beard Tongue. 

Midland Zone; in forests and open situations; frequent. 

Paulownia tomentosa (Thunb.) Baill. Paulownia. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; sparingly escaped from cultivation. Intro- 
duced from Asia. 

MImulus ringens L. Monkey-flower. 

Throughout the state; in fresh marshes, swamps and open wet situa- 
tions; common. 

MImulus alatus Soland. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and open wet situations; common. 

Gratlola virglnlana L. Clammy Hedge-hyssop. 

Throughout the state; in swamps, flood plains and open wet situations; 

Charles County, Zekiah Swamp (1532). 

Gratlola aurea Muhl. Goldenpert. 

Throughout the state; being common in open wet situations in the 

Coastal Zone, infrequent in the Jlidland and Mountain Zones. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1272). 

Gratlola sphaerocarpa Ell. 
Coastal Zone. 


Gratiola pilosa Michx. Hairy Hedge-hyssop. 

Coastal Zone; in moist sandy soil in both forests and open situations; 

Ilysanthes gratioloides (L.) Benth. False Pimpernel. 

Throughout the state; in open wet stuations, preferring bare mud; 

Ilysanthes attenuata (Muhl.) Small. False Pimpernel. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Micranthemum micranthemoides (Nutt.) Wettst. 

Coastal Zone; on mud flats subject to tidal overflow; rare. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (1264). 

Limosella tenuifolia Hoffm. Mudwort. 

Coastal Zone; gravelly shores of fresh tidal estuaries; rare. 
Kent County, Lloyds Creek (1703). 

Veronica amerlcana Schwein. American Brooklime. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests and flood plains; frequent. 

Veronica officinalis L. Speedwell. 

Throughout the state; in dry fields and open situations; common. 

Veronica serpylllfolla L. Thyme-leaved Speedwell. 

Midland Zone; in dry open situations; frequent. 

Veronica peregrlna L. Purslane Speedwell. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations and in swamps; common. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1180). 

Veronica arvensis L. Corn Speedwell. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests, fields and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Leptandra virglnica (L.) Nutt. Culvers-root. 

Infrequent in the Upper Midland District, common in the Mountain 

Zone; in wet and moist open situations, 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (1948). 

Buchnera americana L. Blue-hearts. 

Harford County, Edgewood (Robert K. Miller). 

Dasystoma pedlcularia (L.) Benth. Fern-leaved False Foxglove. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain 
Zones; in dry forests. 

Dasystoma laevigata Raf. Entire-leaved False Foxglove. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 


Dasystoma virginrca (L.) Britton. Smooth False Foxglove. 

Infrequent In the Midland Zone, common in the Mountain Zone; in dry 

Garrett County, Jlountain Lake Park (1954). 

Gerardia purpurea L. Purple Gerardia. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Gerardia maritima Raf. Marsh Gerardia. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; frequent. 

Gerardia tenulfolia Vahl. Slender Gerardia. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. 

Mountain Zone; in moist and dry forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Mountain Lake Park (545). 

Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. Swamp Lousewort. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in open wet situations; rare. 
Talbot County, Tuckahoe Bridge (1653); Baltimore County, near 
Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Pedicularis canadensis L. Betony. 

Infrequent in the Coastal Zone, common in the Midland and Mountain 
Zones; in dry and moist forests. 

iVIelampyrum lineare Lam. Cow-wheat. 

Throughout the state; In dry forests; common. 
Queen Anne's County, near Sudlerville (1681). 


Utricularia cornuta Michx. Horned Bladderwort. 

Anne Arundel County, near the head of the Magothy River (Robert K. 

Utricularia juncea Vahl. Rush Bladderwort. 

Worcester County, Greenbackville (1110). 

Utricularia inflata Walt. Swollen Bladderwort. 

Coastal Zone; in ponds and slow streams; infrequent. 
Dorchester County, near Hurlock (1620). 

Utricularia vulgaris L. Greater Bladderwort. 

Common in the Coastal Zone in ponds and slow streams, apparently 

absent from the Midland Zone. 
Kent County, near Betterton (1707). 

Utricularia clandestina Nutt. Hidden-fruited Bladderwort. 

Harford County, near Bengies (Robert K. Miller). 


Utricularia fibrosa Walt. Fibrous Bladderwort. 

Anne Arundel County, Glenburnie (Robert K. Miller). 

Utricularia qlbba L. Humped Bladderwort. 

Coastal and Midland Zones; in ponds and streams; frequent. 
Worcester County, Boxiron (101)7). 


Thalesia uniflora (L.) Britton. Cancer-Root. 

Throughout the state; in rich forests; being most frequent In the 

Midland Zone. 
Harford County, Glenville (1567). 

Conopholis amerlcana (L. f.) Wallr. Squaw-Root. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in rich forests; infrequent. 

Leptamnium virglnlanum (L.) Raf. Beech-Drops. 

Throughout the state; in rich forests; parasitic on Fagus amerlcana. 


Bignonia cruclgera L. Cross-vine. 

Coastal Zone; in river swamps of the Pocomoke; rare. 
Somerset County, near Pocomoke City (1144). 

Tecoma radicans (L.) DC. Trumpet Creeper. 

Coastal Zone, and along the Potomac River for about 20 miles above 
Washington; in forests and open situations; common 


Ruellla strepens L. Smooth Ruellia. 

Montgomery County, Cabin .John (Robert K. Miller). 

Ruellia cillosa Pursh. Hairy Ruellia. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; infrequent. 
Kent County, near Chestertown (1696). 

Dianthera americana L. Water-willow. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone (wliere it is known only from the sandy shores 
of the Sassafras River near Betterton), common in the Midland and 
Mountain Zones, where it is confined to saturated gravel or stony soil 
in stream beds. 

Washington County, Hancock (69S). 


Phryma leptostachya L. Lopseed. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone, and in tlie Lower Midland District, common in 
the Upper Midland District and the Mountain Zone; in moist and dry 
Washington County, near Hancock (804). 



Plantago major L. Common Plantain, White-man's-foot. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced 
from Europe. 

Plantago rugelii Dec. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. 

Plantago lanceolata L. Rib-grass, English Plantain. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste places; common. 

Plantago aristata INIichx. Large-bracted Plantain. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste places; locally common. 
Introduced from the western states. 

Plantago virginica L. Dwarf Plantain. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; frequent. 


Houstonia coerulea L. Bluets. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Houstonia purpurea L. Large Houstonia. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 
Talbot County, near Easton (1523). 

Houstonia longifolia Gaert. Long-leaved Houstonia. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 
Washington County, Hancock (696). 

Oldenlandia unlflora L. Clustered Bluets. 

Wicomico County, Salisbury (Robert K. Miller). 

Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Button-bush. 

Common in the Coastal and Midland Zones, infrequent in the Mountain 
Zone; in swamps and open wet situations and along streams. 

Mitchella repens L. Partridge-berry. 

Throughout the state; in moist sandy forests in the Coastal Zone and 
Midland Zones, and on shaded sandstone cliffs; common. 

DIodia teres Walt. Rough Button-weed. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

DiodIa virginiana L. Larger Button-weed. 

Coastal Zone; in upland swamps and open wet situations, preferring 

sandy soil; common in Worcester County. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1041). 

Galium verum L. Yellow Bedstraw. 

Garrett County. Oakland (477). 


Galium aparine L. Cleavers. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. Intro- 
duced from Europe. 

Galium pilosum Ait. Hairy Bedstraw. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (697). 

Galium pilosum var. punctlculosum (Michx.) T. & G. 
Wicomico County, Quantico (1353). 

Galium lanceolatum Torr. 

Jlidland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; frequent. 
Washington County, near Hancock (818). 

Galium circaezans Michx. Wild Liquorice. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry woods; common. 
Washington County, Hancock (713). 

Galium triflorum Michx. Fragrant Bedstraw. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; frequent. 
Garrett County, Oakland (548). 

Galium latifolium Michx. Purple Bedstraw. 

Washiugon County, near Blue Ridge Summit (Robert K. Miller). 

Galium tinctorium L. Wild Madder. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (986). 

Galium tinctorium var. filifolium Wiegand. 
Garrett County, Gorman (528). 

Galium claytoni Michx. 

Throughout the state; in wet situations; frequent. 
Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1192). 

Galium concinnum Torr. & Gray. Shining Bedstraw. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 
Washington County, Hancock (756). 

Galium hispidulum Michx. Coast Bedstraw. 

Coastal Zone; in sandy forests and open situations; infrequent. 
Wicomico County, near Salisbury (Robert K. Miller). 


Sambucus canadensis L. Elder. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations and along streams; 

Sambucus pubens Michx. Red-berried Elder. 

Mountain Zone; in moist forests of lower mountain slopes; infrequent. 
Allegany County, Wills Mountain (866). 


Viburnum ainifolium Marsh. Hobble-bush. 

Mountain Zone; in moist rocky forests, being most abundant in the 

shade of hemlocks. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1P66). 

Viburnum acerifollum L. Maple-leaved Viburnum. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 
Balttoore, Walbrook (428). 

Viburnum pubescens (Ait.) Pursh. Downy-leaved Viburnum. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Allegany County, near Flintstone (1020). 

Viburnum dentatum L. Viburnum. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and moist forests; common. 
Garrett County, near Oakland (527). 

Viburnum molle Michx. Soft-ieaved Viburnum. 

Baltimore County, near Ashland (Robert K. Miller). 

Viburnum venosum Britton. Coastal Viburnum. 

Wicomico County, Tonytank Creek (1187). 

Viburnum cassinoides L. Appalachian Tea. 

Rare in the Midland Zone, common in the Mountain Zone; in swamps 

and bogs. 
Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller) ; Garrett County, 

Thayerville (2056). 

Viburnum nudum L. Withe-rod. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, known from a single locality in the Mid- 
land Zone; in swamps and open wet situations, being most abundant 
in sandy swamps. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller) ; Worcester County, 
near Rehoboth (1153). 

Viburnum prunifolium L. Black Haw. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests and in open situations; 

Somerset County, Marion (1259). 

Triosteum perfoliatum L. Fever-wort, Horse-gentian. 

Midland Zone; in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 
Washingon County, Hancock (702) ; Dorchester County, near Bucktown 

Triosteum angustifolium L. Yellow Horse-gentian. 

Baltimore, Walbrook (W. Ralph Jones). 

♦Both of these numbers were detei-mineJ b.v the United .States National Herbarium 
as Triosteum aurantiacum Blcknell. 


Symphoricarpos symphoricarpos (L.) MacM. Coral-Berry. 

Midland Zone; near cultivated grounds. An escape from cultivation. 
Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Lonicera sempervirens L. Coral Honeysuckle. 

Coastal Zone; in moist and dry thickets; common. 

Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese Honeysuckle. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in open situations; common. Introduced 
from Asia. 

Lonicera ciliata Muhl. Fly Honeysuckle. 

Mountain Zone; along streams in hemlock forests; rare. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (2045). 

Diervilla diervilla (L.) MacM. Bush Honeysuckle. 

Rare In the Midland Zone, frequent in the Mountain Zone; on rocky 

Garrett County, Swanton (2014). 


Valerianella locusta (L.) Bettke. European Corn Salad. 

Midland; in waste situations; infrequent. Introduced from Europe. 

Valerianella chenopodifolia (Pursh.) DC. Goose-foot Corn Salad. 

Montgomery Countv, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr, Beaked Corn Salad. 

Baltimore Countv, Loch Raven (Robert K. Miller). 


Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. Wild Teasel. 

Throughout the state; in waste grounds; most common in the Midland 
Zone. Introduced from Europe. 


Micrampelis lobata (Michx.) Greene. Mock Apple. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; infrequent. 

Sicyos angulatus L. Bur-cucumber. 

Throughout the state; in thickets and open situations; frequent. 
Cecil County, Barksdale (397). 


Campanula rotundifolia L. Harebell. 

Found Just outside the state at Cedar Cliff, Jlineral Countv, West 
Virginia (1913). 


Campanula aparinoides Pursh. Marsh Bellflower. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; infrequent. 
Queen Anne's County, near Sudlerville (1675). 

Campanula americana L. Tall Bellflower. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; frequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (726). 

Legouzia perfoliata (L.) Britton. (Specitlaria.) Venus's Looking-glass. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations, preferring sandy soil; 
common, particularly in the Coastal Zone. 

Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal Flower. 

Throughout the state; in swamps and along streams; common. 

Lobelia syphilitica L. Great Lobelia. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests and open situations; frequent. 

Lobelia puberula Michx. Downy Lobelia. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; infrequent. 

Lobelia spicata Lam. Spiked Lobelia. 

Throughout the state, being more abundant in the Midland and Mountain 

Zones; in moist and dry forests. 
Garrett County, Oakland (551). 

Lobelia inflata L. Indian Tobacco. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 

Lobelia nuttallii R. & S. Nuttall's Lobelia. 

Coastal Zone; in open situations, preferring sandy soil; frequent. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1124). 

Lobelia elongata Small. 

Worcester County, Wagram (1166). 


Cichorium intybus L. Chicory. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; locally common. 

Adopogon dandelion (L.I Kuntze. Dwarf Dandelion. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; infrequent. 
Jlontgomery County, Great Falls (1429). 

Adopogon carolinlanum (Walt.) Britton. Carolina Dwarf Dandelion. 

Throughout the state; in open dry situations; common, particularly on 
sandy soil in the Coastal Zone. 

Chondrilla juncea L. Gum Succory. 

Coastal Zone: in dry forests and waste situations; common in the 
Western Shore District of the Coastal Zone, rare in the Eastern 
Shore. Introduced from Europe. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1173). 


Taraxicum taraxicum (L.) Karst. Common Dandelion. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste situations; 
common. Introduced from Europe. 

Sonchus oleraceus L. Hare's Lettuce. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; common. 

Sonchus asper (L.) All. Spiny Sow-Thistle. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; frequent. 

Lactuca scariola L. Prickly Lettuce. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; locally common. Introduced 
from Europe. 

Lactuca canadensis L. Wild Tall Lettuce. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common. 
Cecil County, Conowingo (407). 

Lactuca hirsuta Muhl. Hairy Wood-Lettuce. 

Baltimore County, near Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Lactuca sagittifolia Ell. Arrow-leaved Lettuce. 

Washington County, Hancock (W. Ralph Jones). 

Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaert. Florida Lettuce. 

Baltimore (W. Ralph Jones). 

Lactuca spicata (Lam.) Hitchcock. Blue Lettuce. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; frequent. 
Allegany County, near Cumberland (1919). 

Lactuca villosa Jacq. 
Coastal Zone. 

Hieracium venosum L. Veined Hawkweed. Rattlesnake Weed. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Cecil County, Conowingo (40S). 

Hieracium marianum Willd. Maryland Hawkweed. 

Baltimore County, Timonium (Robert K. Miller). 

Hieracium paniculatum L. Panicled Hawkweed. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist and dry forests; 

Frederick County, Thurmont (1757). 

Hieracium scabrum Michx. Rough Hawkweed. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; frequent. 
Talbot County, Easton (614). 

Hieracium gronovii L. Hairy Hawkweed. 

Common in the Coastal Zone; frequent in the Midland Zone; in dry 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Nabalus albus (L.) Hook. Rattlesnake-root. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 


Nabalus serpentarius (Pursh.) Hook. Lion's-foot. 

Cecil County, Conowingo (407). 

Nabalus trifoliatus Cass. Tall Rattlesnake-root. 

Baltimore County, Warren tliobert K. Miller). 


Iva frutescens L. Marsh Elder. 

Coastal Zone; along the margins ol: salt and brackish marshes, and 
along the banks of estuaries; common. 

Ambrosia trifida L. Great Ragweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist waste situations; common. 

Ambrosia trifida var. Integrlfolia (Muhl.) Torr. & Gray. 
Throughout the state; in waste situations; frequent. 

Ambrosia artemisiaefolia L. Ragweed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; one of the most 
common weeds. 

Xanthium spinosum L. Spiny Clotbur. 

Throughout the state; in waste situations; infrequent. Introduced from 

Cecil County, Charlestown (398). 

Xanthium glabratum (DC.) Britton. Smooth Clotbur. 

Baltimore (W. Ralph Jones). 

Xanthium canadense Mill. Cocklebur. 

Throughout the state; in dry waste grounds; common. 


Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Willd. Iron Weed. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps, open wet situations and 
cultivated grounds; common. 

Elephantopus carolinianus Willd. Carolina Elephant's-foot. 

Common in the Coastal Zone, rare in the Midland Zone; in dry forests. 

Elephantopus nudatus A. Gray. Smoothish Elephant's-foot. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests of the southern Eastern Shore; frequent. 
Worcester County, Snow Hill (1049). 

Sclerolepis uniflora (Walt.) Porter. 

Coastal Zone; sandy lake margins; rare. 
Wicomico County, Humphrey Pond (1348). 

Eupatorium purpureum L. Joe-pye Weed. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; common. 

Eupatorium verbenaefolium Michx. 
Coastal and ;\Iidland Zones. 


Eupatorium hyssopifolium L. Hyssop-leaved Thoroughwort. 

Coastal Zone: in moist open situations; frequent. 
Worcester County, Herring Creek (659). 

Eupatorium altissimum L. Tall Thoroughwort. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in dry forests; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (1009a). 

Eupatorium sessilifolium L. Upland Boneset. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; infrequent. 
Allegany County, Piney Mountain (919). 

Eupatorium rotundifolium L. Wild Horehound. 

Throughout the state; in marshes, swamps, and moist open situations; 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Boneset. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations marshes and swamps; 

Eupatorium ageratoides L. White Sanicle. 

Throughout the state, being most common in the Mountain Zone; in 
dry forests. 

Eupatorium coelestinum L. Mist-Flower. 

Cecil County, Chesapeake City (404). 

Willughbaeya scandens (L.) Kuntze. Climbing Boneset. 

Throughout the state; in marshes and moist open situations; common. 

Lacinaria squarrosa (L.) Hill. Scaly Blazing Star. 

Charles County, Marshall Hall (M. A. Chrysler). 

Lacinaria scariosa (L.) Hill. Large Button-snakeroot. 

Mountain Zone; in dry forests; frequent. 
Allegany County, Wills Mountain (1935). 

Lacinaria graminifolia var. pilosa (Ait.) Britton. 
Coastal Zone and Lower Midland District. 

Grindelia squarrosa (Pijrsh.) Dunal. Gum Plant. 

Alleganj' County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 

Heterotheca subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusby. 
Wicomico County, Salisbury (1172). 

Chrysopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Nutt. Golden Aster. 

Wicomico County, Salisbury (1273). 

CPirysopsis mariana (L.) Nutt. Maryland Golden Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Solidago stricta Ait. 
Midland Zone. 


Solidago caesia L. Blue-stemmed Golden Rod. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; common. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (1959). 

Solidago flexicaulis L. Zig-zag Golden Rod. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests; common. 
Baltimore County, near Warren (2069). 

Solidago bicolor L. White Golden Rod. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (37). 

Solidago monticola T. & G. Mountain Golden Rod. 

Mountain Zone; moist forests and open wet situations; frequent. 
Garrett County, Crellin (1986). 

Solidago speciosa Nutt. Showy Golden Rod. 

Garrett County, Oakland (2016). 

Solidago sempervirens L. Seaside Golden Rod. 

Coastal Zone; in marshes and swamps and on the strand; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (47). 

Solidago odora Ait. Anise-scented Golden Rod. 

Coastal Zone; in dry forests; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (36). 

Solidago rugosa Mill. Bitter Weed. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Solidago patula Muhl. Rough-leaved Golden Rod. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Solidago juncea Ait. Sharp-toothed Golden Rod. 

Midland Zone; in moist forests: infrequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (949). 

Solidago serotina Ait. Late Golden Rod. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Solidago canadensis L. Canada Golden Rod. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Solidago nemoralis Ait. Field Golden Rod. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations: common. 
Cecil County, Conowingo (410). 

Solidago concolor T. & G. Hairy Golden Rod. 

Midland Zone. 

Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. Bushy Golden Rod. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; common. 
Talbot County, Easton (40). 

Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) B. S. P. White-topped Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist sandy soil; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1240). 


Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B. S. P. 

Tlirougliout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Washington County, Hancock (S17). 

Aster divaricatus L. White Wood Aster. 

Throughout the state; being infrequent in the Coastal Zone, common in 

the Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist and dry forests. 
Garrett County, Boiling Spring (19C7). 

Aster schreberi Nees. 

Baltimore County, near Cookeys villa (Robert K. Miller). 

Aster cordifolius L. Common Blue Wood Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests; common. 
Garrett County, Swanton (1997). 

Aster sagittifolius Willd. Arrow-leaved Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 
Garrett County, Oakland (1941). 

Aster undulatus L. Wavy-leaved Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; common. 
Baltimore County, Roland Park (272). 

Aster patens Ait. i^ate Purple Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; common. 

Aster novae-angliae L. New England Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; common. 

Aster puniceus L. Red-stalked Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests, tlood plains and swanrpj; 

Garrett County, Oakland (1940). 

Aster prenanthoides Muhl. Crooked-stem Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry situations; common. 
Garrett County, Crellin (1994). 

Aster laevis L. Smooth Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry forests; frequent. 

Garrett County, Oakland (1951). 
Aster spectabilis Ait. Seaside Purple Aster. 

Coastal Zone; in marshes and open wet situations; frequent. 

Wicomico County, near Vienna (1311a). 

Aster acuminatus Michx. Mountain Aster. 

Mountain Zone; in swamps and moist forests; infrequent. 
Garrett County, Finzel (960). 

Aster paniculatus Lam. Tall White Aster. 

Throughout the state; in moist and dry situations; common. 

Aster concinnus Willd. 
:\Iountain Zone. 


Aster ericoides L. White Heath Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton. Calico Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests; frequent. 
Baltimore County, Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Aster multiflorus Ait. Dense-flowered Aster. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Miller). 

Aster tenuifolius L. Perennial Salt Marsh Aster. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 

Aster subulatus Michx. Annual Salt Marsh Aster. 

Coastal Zone; in salt marshes; frequent. 
Worcester County, Herring Creek (643). 

Erigeron pulchellus Michx. Robin's Plantain. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in moist forests; frequent. 

Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) BSP. 
Coastal Zone. 

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Daisy Fleabane. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste situations; 

Leptilon canadense (L.) Britton. Fleabane, Horseweed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; common. 

Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees. Flat-top Aster. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; frequent. 

Doellingeria humilis (Willd.) Britton. 

Baltimore County, near Cockeysville (Robert K. Jliller). 

lonactis llnarlifolius (L.) Greene. Stiff Aster. 

Baltimore County, Catonsville (276). 

Baccharis halimifolla L. Groundsel Tree, Beach Ivy. 

Coastal Zone; along the shores of tidal estuaries and marshes; common. 

GIfola germanica (L.) Dumort. Cudweed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; infrequent. 

Pluchea foetlda (L.) B. S. P. Marsh Fleabane. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common in the southern 

Eastern Shore. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1101). 

Pluchea camphorata (L.) DC. 

Coastal Zone; in salt and brackish marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Greenbackville (1141). 

Antennaria neodioica Greene. Cat's-foot. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; common. 
Washington County, Round Top (768). 


Antennaria neglecta Greene. 

Baltimore County, Cockeysville (\V. Ralph Jones). 

Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Rich. Indian Tobacco. 

Throughout the state; in dry forests and open situations; common. 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Sweet Everlasting. 

Harford County, Pooles Island (M. A. Chrysler). 

Gnaphalium purpureum L. Purple Cudweed. 

Coastal Zone; in dry open situations; common. 
Prince George's County, Upper Marlborough (1541). 

Inula helenium L. Elecampane, Horseheal. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; waste grounds in the vicinity of Cumber- 
land. Introduced from Europe. 
Allegany County, Midlothian (823). 

Polymnia uvedalia L. Yellow Leaf-cup. 

Throughout the state; in moist forests and open situations; frequent. 
Allegany County, Cumberland (George M. Perdew). 

Polymnia canadensis L. Small-flowered Leaf-cup. 

Upper Midland District and Mountain Zone; in moist forests; frequent. 
Washington County, Round Top (751). 

Silphium trifoliatum L. Resin Weed. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in open situations; infrequent. 
Allegany County. Cumberland (1931); Baltimore County, Loch Raven 
(Robert K. Miller). 

Chrysogonum virginianum L. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) B. S. P. False Sunflower. 

Midland Zone; in moist and dry situations; infrequent. 
Cecil County, North East (420). 

Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk. 

Throughout the state; in open wet situations; common. 

Rudbeckia triloba L. Thin-leaved Cone-flower. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Joseph H. Painter). 

Rudbeckia hirta L. Black-eyed Susan. 

Throughout the state; in dry open situations; common. 

Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. Orange Cone-flower. 

Baltimore County, Timoniuni (Robert K. Miller). 

Rudbeckia laciniata L. Tall Cone-flower. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; common. 


Helianthus angustifolius L. Narrow-leaved Sunflower. 

Coastal Zone; in open moist situations, preferring sandy soil; infrequent. 
Worcester County, Ocean City (1229). 

Helianthus giganteus L. Tall Sunflower. 

Throughout the state; In moist open situations; frequent. 
Cecil County, Elkton (383). 

Helianthus divaricatus L. Woodland Sunflower. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in dry forests; common. 
Allegany County, Braddock Run (902). 

Helianthus mollis Lam. Hairy Sunflower. 

Prince George's County, Riverdale (.Joseph H. Painter). 

Helianthus dacapetalus L. Thin-leaved Sunflower. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; frequent. 
Allegany County, Braddock Run (913). 

Helianthus strumosus L. Pale-leaved Wood Sunflower. 

Baltimore County, Warren (Robert K. Miller). 

Verbesina occidentalls (L.) Walt. Crownbeard. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; common. 

Verbesina alternifolia (L.) Britton. Actinomeris. 

Midland and Mountain Zones; in open situations; infrequent, except in 
the vicinity of Cumberland, where it is common. 

Coreopsis verticillata L. Whorled Tickseed. 

Midland Zone; in dry forests; locally frequent. 
Montgomery County, Laytonsville (1730). 

Coreopsis tripteris L. Tall Tickseed. 

Montgomery County, Great Falls (Robert K. Miller). 

Bidens laevis (L.) B. S. P. Smooth Bur-marigold- 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; common. 

Bidens beckii Torr. Water Marigold. 

Coastal Zone. 

Bidens cernua L. Nodding Bur-marigold. 

Cecil County, Elkton (375). 

Bidens bipinnata L. Spanish Needles. 

Throughout the state; in dry and moist situations; common. 

Bidens trichosperma var. tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britton. 
Coastal Zone; in tidal marshes; common. 
Worcester County, Rehoboth (1154). 

Gallnsoga parviflora Cav. Galinsoga. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from South America. 


Helenium autumnale L. Sneezeweed. 

Throughout the state; in moist open situations; common. 

Achillaea millefolium L. Yarrow, Milfoil. 

Throughout the state; in open situations; common. 

Anthemis cotula L. May-weed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Common Daisy. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds and waste places; common. 
Introduced from Europe. 

Arnica acaulis (L.) B. S. P. Leopard's-bane. 

Baltimore County, Towson (Robert K. Miller). 

Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Fire-weed. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds, being particu- 
larly common in burns and slashes in forests. 

Mesadenia reniformis (Muhl.) Raf. Great Indian Plantain. 

Baltimore County, near Warren (Robert K. Miller). 

Mesadenia atripllcifolia (L.) Raf. Pale Indian Plantain. 

Throughout the state; in forests and open situations; common, except- 
ing in the sandy portions of the Coastal Zone. 

Senecio tomentosus Miclix. Wooly Ragwort. 

Coastal Zone; in forests and open situations; frequent in the southern 
counties of the Eastern Shore. 

Senecio balsamitae Muhl. Balsam Groundsel. 

Throughout the state; in dry situations; frequent. 
Garrett County, Oakland (.5G0). 

Senecio aureus L. Golden Ragwort. 

Rare in the Coastal Zone; common in the Midland and Mountain Zone_s; 

in moist forests. 
Garrett County, Oakland (.542). 

Senecio obovatus Muhl. Squaw Weed. 

Upper Midland District. 

Arctium minus Schk. Burdock. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; common. Introduced from 

Arctium lappa L. Great Burdock. 

Coastal Zone, naturalized from Europe. 

Carduus altlssimus L. Tall Thistle. 

Montgomery County, Cabin ,Tohn (Robert K. Miller). 


Carduus discolor. Field Thistle. 

Tliroughout the state; in cultivated and waste grounds; frequent. 

Carduus lanceolatus L. 

Coastal Zone, introduced from Asia. 

Centaurea cyanus L. Corn-flower, Corn Blue Bottle. 

Throughout the state; in cultivated grounds; locally common. Intro- 
duced from Europe. 
Charles County, Cox (1540). 




Agricultural Products 33a 

Agricultural Statistics 354 

Alder Zone 173 

Alexander, Wm. H 5 

Alleghany Plateau, Forests of 372 

Aquatic Vegetation 140 


Berry, E. W 20 

Besley, F. W 20, 361 

Bibliography 62,94 

Blodgett, Frederick H 19, 20, 221, 305 

Blue Ridge 231 

Vegetation of 232 

Forests of 370 

Blue Ridge Axis, Plants of 241 

Bogs of Mountain Zone 290 

Bog Pockets 238 

Buckwheat 337 

Burned Areas 193 


Canning Crops 340 

Acreage in 340 

Castle Haven Spit, Plant Growth on 142 

Catoctin, Vegetation near 235 

Cavetown, Vegetation near 250 

Chrysler, M. A 19, 20, 149 

Clark, William Bullock 5 

Clay Upland Forests Ill 

Clay Upland Swamps 112 

Clay Upland Vegetation 109 

Clearing and Cultivating 312 

Climatology 30 



Coastal Zone 46 

Characteristic Plants of 70 

Eastern Shore District of 46 

Ecological Plant Geography of 101 

Floristic Plant Geography of 76 

Forests of 365 

Soils of 59,326 

Western Shore District of 49 

Coniferous Upland Forest 118 

Conococheague Valley, Vegetation of 251 

Contents 7 

Corn 333 

Acreage of 357 

Annual Production of 334, 357 

Method of Harvesting 344 

Crop Possibilities 295 

Cultivated Ground 189 

Cumberland, Vegetation near 269 

Cumberland Hills, Vegetation of 268 

Cut-Over Areas 226 

Cypress Swamps 124,165 


Dairying 349 

Statistics of 358 

Deciduous Upland Forest 119 

Distichlis Association 179 

Dune Plants 142 


Eastern Shore District 101 

Ecological Plant Geography of 101 

Forests of 365 

Forest Products of 366 

Soils of 102 

Ecological Plant Geography 24 

Elk Ridge, Vegetation of 242 

Expansion 314 

Cjenekal index 501 



Fairview, Vegetation near 254 

Farms, Number of 355 

Acreage of 355 

Percentage Improved .... 355 

Equipment of 356 

Valuation of 356 

Farm Animals 350 

Farm Buildings 307 

Valuation of 30S 

Flood Plain Vegetation lOG, 122, 210 

Flora, Defined 24 

Floristic Plant Geography 24 

Discussed 67 

Forage Crops 344 

Forests 363 

Products of 363 

Future of 375 

Statistics of 376, 377 

Use of 373 

Forests of Alleghany Plateau 372 

Forests of Blue Ridge 370 

Forests of Eastern Shore 365 

Forests of Piedmont Plateau 370 

Forests of Southern Maryland 368 

Forests of Western Shore 152 

Forest Products 363 

Forest Products of Eastern Shore 360 

Frederick Valley, Vegetation of 271 

Fresh Marshes 132, 171 

Fruits 341 


Glades, Vegetation of 288 

Grains 333 

Statistics of 357 

Grapes 342 

Great Backbone Mountain, Plants of 233 

Gum-Pine Association 161 




Hagerstown Valley, Vegetation of 250, 272 

Halophytes 83, 183 

Halophytes, Anatomy of 175 

Halophytic Vegetation 129 

Hay 349 

Acreage of 357 

Annual Production of 348,357 

Humidity 41 


Influence of Soils in Agriculture 324 

Introduction 23 

Iva-Baccharis-Panicum Association 179 


Jones, W. Ralph 19 


Letter of Transmittal 7 

List of Illustrations 13 

Lloyds Creek Spit. Plant Orowth on 143 

Loam Vegetation 202 

Lowland Forests 161 

Lumber 377 


Maple Zone 173 

Maple-Gum Association ICO 

Marshes 43. 107, 129, 171 

Marsh Vegetation 129 

Meadow, Defined 102 

Melons 339 

Middletown Valley, Vegetation of 240 

Midland Zone .jO, 199, 328, 370 

Floristlc Plant Geography of 88 

Lower Midland District of 50 

Soils of 60, 328 

Upper Midland District of 51 

Milk, Annual Production of 350 



Mineralogy and Soils 54 

Mountain Zone iJS, 275, 331, 372 

Characteristic Plants of 73 

Bog Plants of 290 

Floristic Plant Geography of 89 

Ridge Vegetation of 282 

Slope Vegetation of 278 

Soils of 61, 331 

Swamp Vegetation of 289 

Valley Vegetation of 284 


Nationalities 321 

North Mountain, Vegetation of 253 

Roadside Plants of 257 

Shale Ridge Plants of 257 

Valley Plants of 255 

Ny mphaea Zone 172 


Oak-Gum Association 162 

Oak-Hickory Association 158 

Oats 337 

Acreage of 357 

Annual production of 357 


Parr's Ridge. Drainage of 226 

Hill Plants of 224 

Plants of Cut Over Areas 226 

Roadside Plants of 224 

Valley Plants of 224 

Vegetation of 271, 270 

Peaches 341 

Peas 339 

Peat Bogs 185 

Periodic Phenomena 31 

Phenology 33 

Piedmont Plateau, Forests of 370 



Pine Association 153 

Pine Barrens 85 

Characteristic Plants of 86 

Pine-Oalt Association 157 

Plant Geography 24 

Pleistocene Formations 46 

Point of Rocks, Vegetation near 236 

Potamogeton Zone 171 

Potenderia Zone 172 

Preface 19 

Probascos Landing, Plant growth near 139 


Rainfall 41 

Ravine Slope Vegetation 106, 121 

Reforestation 170 

Ridge Vegetation of Mountain Zone 282 

Ridgway, Charles S 19 

River Swamps 48, 107, 124, 162 

Rocky Slopes 209 

Rotation of Crops 351 

Round Top, Vegetation of 258 

Ruderal Vegetation 191 

Rye 337 

Acreage of 357 

Annual Production of 357 


Salt Marsh Plants 82 

Salt Marshes 48, 82, 131, 175 

Sandy Loam Upland Forests 114 

Sandy Loam Upland Swamps 116 

Scirpus Association 178 

Serpentine Barrens, Vegetation of 213 

Settlement of Maryland 309 

Shore Line Topography 53 

Shreve, Forrest IP, 20, 23, 65. 101, 199, 275, 295, 381 

Sideling Valley, Vegetation of 264 

Siloes 346 

Slope Vegetation of Mountain Zone 278 



Soil-Covered Slopes, Vegetation of 207 

Soils 54 

Chemical and Physical Featui-es of 58 

Soils of Eastern Shore 59 

Soils of Midland Zone 60 

Soils of Mountain Zone 61 

Soils of Western Shore 59,149 

Soil-Water 26 

Southern Maryland, Forests of 368 

Forest Products of 369 

Spartina Association 177, 178 

Statistics 355 

Strand Plants 82, 142, 186 

Strawberries 340 

Stream Swamps 4S, 127 

Succession 166 

Sugar Loaf Mountain, Vegetation near 237 

Susquehanna Gravel, Vegetation of 215 

Swamps 48. 124, 289 

Swamp Vegetation of Mountain Zone 289 

Sweet Corn 339 


Talbot Formation 103 

Talbot Terrace 46, 109 

Taliaferro, W. T. L 5 

Tan Bark 378 

Temperature 31 

Thurmont, Vegetation near 233 

Timber 376 

Tobacco 337 

Annual Production of 338 

Acreage of 359 

Tomatoes 339 

Tonoloway Ridge, Vegetation of 261 

Topland Vegetation 202, 212 

Topography 43 

Town Creek, Vegetation near 265 

Transition Areas 182 

Transportation 316 



Truck Crops 338 

Acreage of 359 

Typha Association ISO 

Typha Zone 173 


Upland Forests 118, 152 

Upland Swamps 4S, 102, 106, 124 

Upland Vegetation 109 

Upper Monocacy Valley 228 

Vegetation of 229 

Bottom Plants of 229 


Valley Vegetation of lloiintain Zone 284 

Vegetation, Defined 24 

Vegetation of Serpentine Barrens 213 

Vegetation of Susquehanna Gravel 215 

Veneer Stock 378 

Weeds 192 

Western Shore, Ecological Plant Geography of 149 

Roadside Vegetation of 189 

Ruderal Vegetation of 191 

Soils of 150 

Weeds of 192 

Wheat 335 

Acreage of 357 

Annual Production of 336, 357 

White Oak Soil 102 

Wicomico Terrace 46,118 

Williamsport, Vegetation near 252 

Wills Mountain, Vegetation of 269 

Wind 43 


Zekiah Swamp 163 

Zizania Zone 172 

Zones of Vegetation 69 


The number italicised refers to the 

stomatic list of Maryland plants. 

Abutilon abutilon, 230, 2D6. ^55. 
Acalypha graciliens, iSl. 
Acalypha virginica, 244, l/SI. 
Acanthaceae. liS2. 
Acer negundo. 240, 253, Ji5!i. 

nigrum, 88, 234, 256, 267, iSI,. 

pennsylvanicum, 73, 276, JjSJi. 

rubrum, 147, 169, 222, 227, 
239, 247, 265, iSi- 

saccharinum, 75, 89, 227, 2oG, 
269, 276, i5/,. 

saccharum. 169, 227, 258, 2G9, 

spicatum, 73, 88, 284, ioi. 
Aceraceae, iSlt- 

Acerates viridiflora, 239, i7i. 
Achillaea millefolium, 191, 192, 

252, 7,96. 
Achroanthes unifolia, 285, .'iSl. 
Acnlda canTiabina, 133, 138, 139, 

177, 179, 182, 1,S0. 
Aconitum unclnatum, 73, 88, l/Si. 
Acorus calamus, 138, ilS. 
Actaea alba, 74, 280, 288, W. 
Actinomeris, 495. 
Adam-and-Eve, 421. 
Adder's-mouth, Green, 421. 
Adder's tongue, 386, 416. 
Adiantum pedatum, 208, 233, 237, 

244, 259, 266, 280, SS9. 
Adlcea pumila, 165, 211, 242, 262. 

281, ilS. 
Adlumia fungosa, SS. /tS7. 
.\dopogon carolinianum, 112, 302, ^ 

dandelion, ^87. 
Aegopodium podagraria, ^6.'t. 
.'Vescbynomene virginica, 71, 78, 

173, V(7. 
Agastache nepetoides, 475. 

scrophularaefolia, 227, Ji7d. 
Agrimonia parvitlora, .J-iS. 

pumila, 263, US. 
Agrimony, Many-flowered, 443. 

Small-fruited, 443. 
.4.grosti3 alba, J/OO. 

altissima, iOO. 

hyemalis, iOO. 

Intermedia, 1,01. 

perennans, 206. IfiO. 
Agropyron repens, tfOff. 
Agrostemma githago, iSl. 

Ailanthus, 144. 250. 450. 

.\ilanthu3 glandulosa, ^50. 

.\izoaceae, iSl. 

A.iuga reptans, J7-). 

Albizzia julibrassin, 81. 

Alder, 173, 197, 250, 200, 424. 

hoary, 424. 
Aletris farinosa, 225, 249, 1,18. 
-Vlexanders, Heart-leaved, 463. 
236. Alismaceae, SOS. 

Alisma plantago-aquatica, 164, 224, 
262, Allium cernuum, 88, 253, 268, 4/6. 

vineale, 191, 192, ilS. 
.{.5.}. .\lnus incana, 73, 89, 291, J,2.',. 

maritima, 128, i?.}. 
rugosa, 113, 123, 126. 128, 136 
164, 173, 224, 227, 256, 258,' 
251, 289, 291, iSI,. 

Alsilie, 446. 
-Vlsine longifolia, i32. 
140, media, 205, 206. iS2. 

pubera, 206, iSS. 
uliginosa, iSS. 
-Mumroot, 441. 
Alyssum, Hoary, 439. 
Amaranthaceae, iso 
.Vmaranth, Prostrate, 430. 

Spiny, 430 
.\maranthus blitoides, iSO. 
"■'-• retroflexus, 191, 192, iSO. 

spinosus, 191, isO. 
280, Amaryllidaceae, W- 

.\mbrosia artemisiaefolia, 191, 192, 
"• triflda, 173, 174, 191, 253, 262, 

trifida var. integrifolia, i89. 
^ .Vmbrosiaceae, IiS3. 

.Vmelanchier canadensis, 209, 261, 

269, iU. 
.\mmania koehnei, i59. 
Ammodenia peploides, 82, 142, iS2. 
.\mmophiIa arenaria, 82, 142, 143, 

Anacardiaceae, i52. 
.\nagallis arvensis, 256, i6S. 
.\ndromeda, Privet. 467. 
Andropogon argyraeus, S96. 
furcatus, 285, 286, 596'. 
glomeratus, S97. 
scoparius, S96. 
virginicus, 144, 214. 217, S96. 



Anemone, Mountain, 435. 

Tall, 433. 
Anemone quinquefolia, ^35. 

trifolia. 73, 89, iSS. 

virginiaua, 74, 224, 2.50, 260, 263, 
268, 281, iSS. 
Angelica villosa, 217, 283, 285, ^62. 
Angelica, Pubescent, 462. 
Angiospermae, S9Jt. 
Anonaceae, iSli. 
Antennaria neglecta, 4H. 

neodioica, 205, i9S. 

piantaginifoiia, 115, 120, 209, 215, 
285, m- 
Antliemis cotula, 190, 230, 245, 251. i%. 
Antlioxantlium odoratum, 112, 212, .W.K 
Anychia canadensis,242, ^33. 

dicliotoma, 115, 206, iSS. 
Apios apios, U9. 
Aplectrum spicatum, iZl. 
Apocynaceae, ^70. 
Apocynum aDdrosaemifoIium, 121. 234, 

285, i70. 

cannilxnum, 144, 191, 230, 239, 240, 
Appaiacliian Tea. 485. 
Apple-of-Peru, 478. 
Afjuilegia canadensis, 205, 20S, 236, 253, 

260, 263, 268, 270, 280, /,3,}. 
Arabis canadensis, 237, 260, 282. 1,39. 

dentata, ^39. 

laevigata. iS9. 

lyrata, iS9. 
Araceae, ilS. 

Aralia nudicaulis, 207, 223, 235, 265, 
281, 283, 285, 1,82. 

racemosa, 283, 285. i61. 

spinosa, 71, 111, 114, 117. 160. 190, 


Araliaceae, J16I. 
Ai-butus, 222, 467. 
Arctium lappa. 191, Ji9C. 

minus, Ii96. 
.A.renaria serpyliifolia, JiSl. 
Argenmone mexicana, iST. 
Arisaema dracontiiim, 262, ilS. 

tripbyllum, 123, 164, 20.S, 223, 229, 
241, 279, il3. 
Aristida dichotoma, S99. 
Aristolochia serpentaria, 122, iS8. 
Aristolochiaceae, 428. 
Arnica acaulis, Ii96. 
Aronia arbutit'olia. Ill, 117, 124. 225, 

286, Wi- 
atropurpurea, 290, m. 
nigra, 289, Ui- 

Arrhenatherum elatius, iOJ. 
Arrow-grass, 395. 

Arrow-liead. 395. 

Lance-leaved, 396. 
Arundinaria tecta, 70, 80, iOi. 
Asarum canadense, 122, 205, 208, 237, 

241, 259, 270, 281, m. 
Asclcpiadaceae, i7l. 
Asclepias cornnti. 191, 471. 

decumbens, i71. 

exaitata, j71. 

incarnata, 164. 165, 173, 178, 183, 

lanceolata, 72, 76, 137, 1,71. 

obtusifolia, i71. 

puiclira, 133, 136, 137, 225, 242, 


purpurascens, ^71. 

quadrifolia. 208, 253, 260, 265, 2S1, 
283, 285, J,71. 

rubra, 471. 

variegata, i71. 

syriaca, 471. 

tuberosa. 115, .',71. 

verticiliata. 471. 
.\scyrum hypericoides. 239. i.'iS. 

stans. 71, 78, 115, 456 
Ash, Blaci!, 289, 469. 

green, 107, 125, 127, 210, 469. 

mountain, 276, 283, 288, 289, 444. 

red. 469. 

wiiite, 123, 160, 201, 207, 210, 241, 
Asimina triloba, 75, 160, 234, 268, J,3J,. 
Asparagus, 417. 

Asparagus officinalis, 143, 144, 187, ilS. 
Asplenium acrostichoides, 339. 

angustitolium, 388. 

bradleyi, S89. 

fiiix-toemina. 121. 266. 280, 3S9. 

montanum, 73, 3S8. 

pinnatifidum, 241, 263, SS8. 

platyneuron, 190, 209, 233, 237, 
241, 244, 259, 263, 266, 3SS. 

ruta-murarla, 88, 244, 245, 250, 
263, S8S. 

trichomanes, 210, 241, 244, 245, 
253, 263, 388. 
.\stor. Arrow-leaved, 492. 

calico, 493. 

common blue wood, 492. 

crooked-stem, 492. 

dense-flowered, 493. 

flat-top. 493. 

late purple, 492. 

mountain, 492. 

New England, 492. 

red stallied, 492. 

salt marsb, 493. 

seaside purple, 492. 

smooth, 492. 



stiff, 493. 
tall white. 492. 
wavy-leaved, 492. 
white heath, 493. 
white-topped, 491. 
white wood, 492. 
Aster acuminatus. 73, 284, 290, 1,92. 
concinnus. 2S5. Ji9Z. 
cordifolius, 121. 206, 280, 1,92 
divaricatus, 206, 259, 263, 280. 288, 

ericoides, 115, 158, 190, 214, 28G, 

laevis, 285, J,92. 
lateriflorus, 1,9S. 
mnltiflorus. iBS. 
novae-angliae. Jt9S. 
paniculatus, 115, 206, 1,92. 
patens, 115, 1,92. 
prenanthoides, ^92. 
punieeus, 121, 123, 206, 211. .',92. 
sagittifolius, 282, 285, 286, i92. 
schreberi, 1,92. 
spectabilis, 72, i9S. 
subulatus. 85, 131, i9S. 
tenuifolius, 85, 131, 139, 179, 182. 

undulatus. 112, 1,92. 
Astragalus carolinianiis. 74, 260. .HH. 
Atriplex hastata, 84, 131, 179, 182, 187, 

rosea, iSO. 
Avens. rough, 443. 

white, 443. 
Azalea, flame, 276, 466. 

white, 466. 

wild, 466. 
Az.Tlea. flame, 276, 466. 

nudiflora. Ill, 114, 123, 158, 185, 
193, 217, 266, i6e. 

viscosa, 113, 291, 1,66. 

viscosa var. glauca, 124, /,«;. 


Baccharis halimifolia, 81, 83. 85. Ill, 

132, 140, 143. 144, 179, 183, i93. 
Balm, Basil. 476. 

Field. 477. 
Balsaminaceae. ^5^. 
Baneberry, White, 434. 
Baptisia australis. /,4.5. 

tinctoria, 112, 115, 158, 190. 193, 
217, 222, 226. 234, 244, 261, 280, 
Bnrbarea barbarae, 1/38. 

praecox, 438. 
Bartonia virginica, 117, ilO. 

124, 100, 163, 
196, 201. 203, 
235, 258. 272, 

Basswood, 455. 

Batrachium hedcraceum. l/Sii. 

Bayberry, 422. 

Beach Ivy, 493. 

Bean, Tailing Wild, 449. 

Beard Grass, 396, 400. 

Beard-tongue, 479. 

Smooth, 479. 
Bedstraw, Coast, 484. 

Fragrant, 484. 

Hairy. 484. 

Purple, 484. 

Shining, 484. 

Yellow, 483. 
Bee Balm, 477. 
Beeeh, 110, 118. 

167, 169, 170, 189, 
204, 207, 222, 232, 
279, 287, 424. 
Beech-Drops, ISO, 482. 
Bellflower. Tall, 487. 
Bellwort, 416. 
Benzoin benzoin, 123. 160. 237, 241, 

266, 289, i36. 
Berberidaceae. i36. 
Bergamot. Wild, 476. 
Bermuda-grass, 401. 
Berteroa incana, iS9. 
Betony, 481. 
Betula lenta, 74, 235, 1,2^. 

lutea, 93, 42!,. 

nigra, i2i. 
Betulaceae, 1,23. 
Bicuculia canadensis. 270, 281, 1,S7. 

cucullaria, 74, 229, 241, 273, 4S7. 

eximia, 73, 89, 269, 273, iS7. 
Bidens beckli, 183. 191. IjSK. 

'bipinnata, 228, 230. 251, ^9.5. 

cernua, i95. 

laevis, 139, 172, 1,9S. 

trichosperma var. tenuiloba. 133, 
136, 139. i95. 
Bignonia crucigera, 72, SO, 126, 1,32. 
Bignoniaceae, ^82. 
Bindweed, 472. 

Black, 429. 
Birch, Kiver. 116, 128, 160, 163, 197, 
201, 210, 240, 244, 258, 424. 

Sweet, 160, 208, 232. 237, 241, 278, 
282, 284, 424. 

Yellow, 287, 288, 289, 424. 
Bishop's Cap. 441. 
Bishop^weed, Mock, 464. 
Bitter-cress, Pennsylvania, 438. 
Bittersweet, 453. 
Bitter Weed, 491. 



BlackbGiTy. Low Running. 442. 

Mountain. 442. 

Sand, 442. 

Swamp, 442. 
Blacli-eyed Susan. 404. 
BlacU Haw, 110, 233, 4So. 
Bladder Ketmia, 456. 
Bladder Nut, 211, 264, 45.'!. 
Bladderwort, Fibrous, 4S2. 

Greater. 481. 

Hidden-fruited, 481. 

Horned, 481. 

Humped, 482. 

Rush, 481. 

Swollen, 481. 
Blazing-star, 416. 

Scaly, 400. 
Bleeding-heart. Wild. 43". 
Bloodroot. 43r. 
Blueberry, Dwarf, 468. 

High-bush, 467. 
Blue-curls, 475. 
Blue-grass, 403. 
Blue-hearts, 480. 
Bluets, 483. 

Clustered, 483. 
Blue-weed, 265. 474. 
Boehmeria cylindrica. 126, 128, 164. 

211, 1,28. 
Boneset, 490. 

Climbing, 490. 

Upland, 490. 
Boraginaceae, JflS. 
Botrychium dissectum, SSIJ. 

matricariaefolium, SS6. 

ternatum, 164, S86. 

Tirginianum, 123, 206, 233, 242, 
257. 259. 280, S86. 
Bouteloua curtipendula, iOl. 
Box Elder. 163. 210. 237. 240. 241, 244, 

Brachyelytruni erectum. 200. 208, 280, 

Bradburya virsiniana. 71. 115, -HS. 
Brasenia purpurea, 141, 171, iSS. 
Brassica arvensis. 102, iSS. 

nigra, .J38. 
Brome-grass, 404. 
Bromus brizaeformis, W. 
ciliatus, iOi. 

hordeaceus, W. 
racemosus, iOl/. 
secalinus, W. 
Brooklime, American, 480. 
Broom. Scotch, 191, 445. 
Broussonetia papyritera, ^27. 
Buchnera americana, iSO. 

Buckthorn. Alder. 454. 
Bugbane, American, 434. 

False, 435. 
Bugle. 475. 
Buglo Weed. 477. 
Bulrush, 415. 
Bunch-berry, 464. 
Bunch-flower, 416. 
Bupleurum rotundifoUum, l/G}. 
Burdock, 496. 
Bur-cucumber, 486. 
Bur-grass, 399. 
Bur-marigold, Nodding. 495. 

Smooth. 405. 
Burnet, American Great, 443. 

Salad, 443. 
Burning Bush, 211, 453. 
Bur-reed, 394. 
Bursa bursa-pastoris iS9. 
Butter-and-eggs, 479. 
Buttercup. Bulbous, 436. 

Marsh. 436. 

Meadow, 436. 

Swamp. 436. 

Tall, 436. 
Butterfly Weed, 471. 

Ducumlient, 471. 
Butternut, 208, 210, 223, 232. 241, 251, 

278, 287, 421. 
Button-bush, 163. 483. 
Button-wood. 122, 123, 157. 100. 167, 

173, 187, 211. 237, 241, 276, 441. 
Button-snakeroot, Large, 490. 
Button-weed, Larger, 483. 

Rough, 483. 

Cactaccae, //59. 

Caesalpinaceae. ^4.1. 

Cakile edentula. 82, 142, 186, i^S. 

Calamagrostis cinnoides, 211, iOl. 

Calamint, 477. 

Calico-bush, 467. 

Callitrichaceae, J/ii^. 

Callitriche austini, i52. 

heterophylla, 114, 141, 235. iSi- 

palustris, JjSi. 
Caltha flabellitolia, 290. /,.;.',. 

palustris, 74, 281, 288. 290, 291, 
Camelina sativa, iS9. 
Campanula americana, 75, 224, 259, 
200, 268. 280, jsr. 

aparinoides, 239, .JS7. 

rotundifolia, ise. 
Campanulaceae, .JSS. 



Campion, Bladder, 431. 

Starry, 431. 

Western White, 431. 

White. 431. 
Camptosorus rhizophyllus. 73, 242, 2C 

268, SSS. 
Canary Grass, 399. 

Reed, 399. 
Cancer-root, 482. 
Cane, Small, 404. 
Capnoides flavulum, 270, iST. 

sempervirens, 74, 21U, 284. .}.J7. 
Capparidaceae, Ji39. 
Caprifoliaceae, iSlf. 

Capriola dactylon, 186. 187, 102, JW. 
Cardamine pennsylvanica. iSS. 

puipurea, 211, iSS. 

rotundifolia, iSS. 
Cardinal Flower. 487. 
Carduus altissimus, iOG. 

discolor, iDI. 

lanceolatus, 191, ^97. 
Carex alboluteseens. 133, iU. 

albursina, j^ll. 

amphibola, ilO. 

atlantica, 291, iU. 

baileyi, 291, 409. 

bullata, 211, i09. 

caroliniana. 112. 113. !,W. 

cephalophora. .',12. 

comosa, 113, ^09. 

conjuncta, V^. 

costellata, 208, iio. 

crinita, 133, ilO. 

cristatella, il2. 

folliculata, 123, 185, 289, 1,09. 

frankii, Ji09. 

granularis, .',10. 

grisea, 1,10. 

hirta, 113, 211, J,tn. 

hystricina. 288, !,09. 

intumescens, 123. 1,09. 

laxiculmis, 123, ill. 

laxiflora, ill. 

laxifior.a var, blanda. .',11. 

laxiflora var. divaricata, )//. 

laxiflora var. varians, ill. 

loptalea, ill. 

hipulitormis, 126, .',09. 

lupulina. 113, 211, i09. 

lurida, 133, 139, i09. 

niuhlenbergii, il2. 

nigro-marginata, 20"i, ////. 

pedlcellata. ill. 

pennsylvanica, 20.5, 200, f,lJ. 

platyphylla, 92, 220. 230, 281, ',/ 

prasina, 128, ilO. 

retroflexa, il2. 

rosea, il3. 

ro.sea var. radiata. 211, us. 

scoparia, its. 

silicea. 82, il3. 

squarrosa, i09, 

stipata, itt. 

strieta, 208, 211, ilO. 

styloflexa, ill. 

tenera, 84, ill. 

tenuis, ilO. 

torta. ilO. 

tribuloidcs, ill. 

triceps, iio. 

varia, ill. 

varia var. colorata. ;;/. 

vestita, 71, 112, i09. 

virescens, ilO. 

vulpinoidea. 211, m. 

xanthocarpa. iis. 
Carpet-weed, 431. 
Carpinus caroliniana. 100. 227 

237, 239, 262, i23. 
Carrot, Wild, 462. 
Caryophyllaceae, .}.?/. 
Cassia chamaecrista, 112, 113, 120. 
192, 226. ii5. 

marylandica, 4.;.;. 

nictitans, 112, 137, 190, 193, 
229, 244. as. 
Castalia odorata, 141, 172. j.H. 
Castanea dentata, l.i9. 246 ■>o." 
276. 4»i. 

pumila, 75, 217. /,2.;. 
Castilleja coecinea, 285, ^5/. 
Catbrier, 418. 
Catchfly, Forked. 431. 

Night-flowering, 431. 

Sleepy, 431. 
Cat-gut, 446. 
Catnip, 473. 
Cafs-foot. 493. 
Cat-tail, 394. 
Caulophyllum thalictroidos. 74 

Ceanothus amerieanus, 7.1 112 

Cedar, Red, 114. 144. 15.1. 158. 
162. 187, 188. 189, 201, 202, 205, 
227, 232, 252, 267. 393. 

White, 107, 125. 127. 12S, 392. 
Celandine, 437. 
Celastraceae. i53. 

Celastrus scandens, 242. 259. i.',S. 
CeUis crassifolia, 75, 262, iS'. 

occidentalis, 73, 236, iS7. 
Cenchrus tribuloides, 186. 192. 193, 
Centaurea cyanus, i9~. 
Centaury. Branching, 470. 



Centella asiatica, 72, 80, 13T, lifi.',. 
Cephalanthus occidentalis, 1-:i. 1-<'>. 

128, 164, 173, 242, iSS- 
Ccrastium arvense, 214, Jt32. 

arvense var. oblougifolium, 214. f??. 
longipedunculatum, iS2. 
Ceratophyllaceae, iSS. 
Ceratophyllum demersum, 141, iS3. 
Cercis canadensis, 92, 160, 230. 237. 

255, 260, 268, «5. 
Chearophyllum procumbens. 88. ^B.l. 
Chain-fern, Virginia. 388. 
Chamaecyparis thyoides, 70, 77, 392. 
Cliamaodapline calyculata. 185. iOO. 
Cliamaelirium luteum. 283, ilCt. 
Cliamaenerion angustitolium. 103, Ii60. 
C'harloeli:. 438. 
CheilanWies lanosa, 74, SS9. 
Chelidonium majus, 74, 241. 270, l/ST. 
Clielone glabra, 123, 211, 235. 281. 280, 

Clienopodiaceae. .'/M. 
Chenopodium album, 192, 245, iSO. 
anthelminticum, i30. 
raurale. ^30. 
Clicrry. Wild Black, ] 22. 205. 243, 278. 
288. 444. 

Wild Red, 444. 
Chervil, 463. 

Chestnut, 101, 105, 106, 111, 118, 119. 
121, 158, 161, 162. 168, 170, 171, 196, 
197, 201, 202, 203, 204, 207, 212. 216, 
222, 223, 224, 230. 235, 243, 251, 271, 
272, 273, 276, 278, 282, 284, 424. 
Chfcfeweed, Common. 432. 
Field, 432. 
B'orked, 433. 
Great, 432. 
Nodding, 432. 
Chicory, 265, 487. 

Chimaphila maculata, 81, 112. 115, 158, 
207, 209, 244, ^65. 

umbellata, 81, 112, 115, 158. 206, 

Chinquapin, 190, 197, 224, 225, 

227, 238, 256, 273, 425. 
Chionanthus virginica, 75, 01, 235, 

Choke^berry, Black, 225, 444. 

Red, 444. 
Chondrilla juncea, 187, 191, 192, 

(^hoilpetalae. J2i. 
Christmas-green, 390. 
Chrosperma muscaetoxicum, .}/G. 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, 190, 

301, 1,96. 
Chrysogonum virginianum. 75, i9i. 


Chrysopogon avenaceus, 285. 397. 
Cbrysopsis graminifolia, 72, 81, Ji90. 

mariana. 75. 110. 158. 191. 217. 1,90. 
Cbrysosplenium americanum, 123, 211, 

289, W- 
Cichoriaceae. <S7. 
Cicuta bulbifera, 74, i6',. 

maculata. 128, 139, 165, i63, 
Ciohorium intybus. 230. 251. I,i<7. 
Cimicifuga americana. 73, 89, 282, iS',. 

racemosa, 92. 206. 224, 226, 233, 
235, 244, 250, 260. 266, 280, 282, 


China arundinaoea. J,00. 
Cinquefoil, Rough, 443. 
Circaea alpina, 288, 297. }«;. 

lutetiana, 242, 259, 280, 1,G1. 
Cistaceae, J,5~f. 
Citronella, 478. 

Cladium mariscoides. 71, 135, iOS. 
Clammy-weed, 439. 

Claytonia. virginica, 205, 229, 270, .',31. 
Cleavers, 484. 
Clematis viorna. 260, .',33. 

virginiana. 251, iS5. 
Cleome spinosa. .',89. 

Clethra alnilolia. 72. 76. 77. 90. 91, 92. 
113, 114. 123, 125, 128, 160. 164, 193, 
217, 1,65. 
Clethraceae, i65. 
Cliff-brake, 3S9. 
Clinopodium calamintba. f,77. 

nepeta, 191, ;,rr. 

vulgare, ^77. 
Clintonia horealis. 200. /,;s. 

umbellulata, 73, 89, flS. 
Clitoria mariana, iJ,S. 
Clotbur. smooth, 489. 

Spiny, 489. 
Clover, Bush. 447. 

Hop, 440. 

Low Hop. 446. 

Japan. 448. 

Rabbit-foot, 446. 

Red, 446. 

Wihite, 446. 

Yellow, 446. 
Club-moss. Bog. 390. 

Shining. 390. 
Club-rush, 407. 
Cockle, Corn, 431. 
Cocklebur, 489. 
Cockspur Grass, 397. 
Cohosh, Blue, 436. 
Collinsonia canadensis. 121. 207. 208. 

280, 478. 
Columbine, Wild. 434. 
Comandra umbellata. 180, 287, ^38. 



Comfrey, 474. 
rwild. 474. 
Commelina hiitella, 71. 7S, lillf 

nudiflora. 191, m. 
Commelinaceae, lil!i. 
Compositap, iS9. 
Comptonia peregrina, 226, 249, ' 

Cone-flower, Orange, 494. 
Tall, 494. 
Thin-leaved, 494. 
Conopholls americana. 75, 260, 
Convallariaceae, ilS. 
Convolvulaceae, ^72. 
Convolvulus arvensis, Iit2. 
Coptis ti-ifolia. 73. 89, 1,3!,. 
Coral-Berry. 486. 
Corallorhiza corallorhiza, 207, ^ 
multiflora, 180, 248, 421. 
wisteriana, li21. 
Coral-root, Early. 421. 
Large, 421. 
Wisters, 421. 
Coreopsis tripteris, ^95. 

verticillata, 1.58, 193, !,9i. 
Cornaeeae, ^6.}. 
Com Cockle, 431. 
■ Cornel. Dwarf, 404. 
Corn-flower, 496. 
Corn Salad, Beaked, 486. 
European. 486. 
Goose-foot, 486. 
Corn Speedwell. 480. 
Cornus alternifolia, 279, -i6J. 
amonum, 126, 128, jJ65. 
canadensis, 73, 89, Ifili- 
candidisslmia, 284, ^65. 
florida, 75, 113, 118, 160, : 
258, 206, m- 
Coronilla, 446. 
Coronilla varia, .}'/(;. 
Corydalis. Pale, 437. 

Pink, 437. 
Corylus americana, 122, 160, 28 

rostrata, 88, 266, 1,2!,. 
Cotton-grass, 408. 
Couch Grass. 404. 
Cowibane, 462. 
CowJhei'b, 432. 
Cow Parsnip, 462. 
Cow-wheat, 481. 
Cracca spicata. 71. SO, h'fi- 

virginiana. 115, 120. 158, 
286, W. 
Cranberry, 468. 
Crane's-bill, Carolina, 449. 
Long-stalked, 449. 
Wild. 449. 

Crassulaceae, !,:,0. 
Crataegus brownii. I,!,;,. 
coccinca. 246, 1,1,1,. 
crus-galli. 246, l,!,!,. 
oxyacantha, 246, 1,1,],. 
punctata, 282, 1,1,1,. 
tenuifolia. ///,,(. 
uniflora. 114, 284, .}.}.}. 
Cress, Field, 437. 
Purple, 438. 
Yellow, 438. 
Cross-vine, 482. 
Crosswort, 468. 
Crotalaria. sagittalis. ',>,',. 
Crotonopsis. 451.